Chapter 16 Transformations in Europe


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Chapter 16 Transformations in Europe

  1. 1. AP World History Chapter 16 TRANSFORMATIONS IN EUROPE 1
  2. 2. I. Culture and Ideas  Martin Luther insisted that the only way     to salvation was through religious faith The Protestant Reformation began with rejection of the pope’s authority. The printing press promoted Luther’s ideas John Calvin preached that salvation was granted by predestination Calvinism simplified religious rituals 2
  3. 3.  In response the Catholic Church reformed the education of the clergy at the Council of Nicaea  Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits  To enforce religious orthodoxy, King Philip II of Spain used the Inquisition to punish heretics  Bitter “wars of religion” resulted from the challenged to the church 3
  4. 4.  English Reformation led by Henry VIII was different because  He challenged the pope’s authority in England  He wanted an annulment from his Catholic wife  He seized land of monasteries/churches  He gave seized land to his supporters  He had parliament make him head of the Church of England 4
  5. 5.  Europeans mostly believed natural disasters were the cause of super-natural forces  They had two belief systems:  Folklore including magic  Christian and Judaic teachings  Devil the source of evil and witchcraft  Scientific Revolution – reintroduced ancient Greek writing and Roman science – universe could be explained by natural causes 5
  6. 6.  Nicholas Copernicus – heliocentric universe  Isaac Newton – mathematical laws governed the universe  Galileo Galilei – discovered spots on sun and mountains on the moon  Galileo’s new science viewed with suspicion by religious and intellectual leaders- Galileo condemned  Church did embrace the Gregorian calendar based on the new astronomy 6
  7. 7.  “Enlightened” thinkers often persecuted  Enlightenment in Europe was a blending of intellectual schools of thought from many diverse areas with the idea of improving the human condition 7
  8. 8. II. Social and Economic Life  Wealthy urban class = Bourgeoisie who thrived on manufacturing, finance & trade  European merchants relied on family and ethnic networks – just like Islamic world  Partnerships between merchants and governments led to development of jointstock companies and stock exchanges 8
  9. 9.  Dutch East &West Indies Company  Established a monopoly on products from India  Form as a joint-stock company(selling shares to individuals to share the risk and profits)  Overseas cargo trade risk reduced because many investors spread out the financial burden  Allowing trade of stocks in the market in Amsterdam  English build a larger navy, able to overcome the Dutch trade monopolies 9
  10. 10.  Most European peasants were free but their standards of living declined between 1500 – 1750  New crops of potatoes and corn from new world helped the rural poor from starving  High consumption of wood for heating, cooking, construction, shipbuilding and industrial uses = deforestation  Deserving poor = permanent residents while undeserving poor = migrants, peddlers, beggars, and criminals 10
  11. 11.  Women’s status and work closely tied to husband/family  European marriage patterns reflected a freer choice of one’s marriage partner  Women not a greater part of the cultural movements – barred from schools, guilds and professions. 11
  12. 12. III. Political Innovations  The Holy Roman Empire ruled by Habsburgs  Peace of Augsburg – HRE Charles V allowed German princes to choose Catholicism or Lutheranism  Charles V failed to unify all of Europe, but Spain, France and England limited the power of the church and nobility in their states. 12
  13. 13.  The English Civil War started when Charles I refused to grant rights to Parliament and tried to arrest his critics  Results of English Civil War - Charles I executed replaced by Oliver Cromwell  Glorious Revolution established a constitution and a bill of rights with William and Mary who agreed to limit the power of the crown 13
  14. 14.  Royal Absolutism in France – gigantic palace Versailles symbolized the triumph over the rights of the nobility  Edict of Nantes –revoked in 1685 by Louis XIV eliminating religious freedom for French Protestants  Increase revenue through efficient tax collection and promoting economic growth  Louis made the French nobility to attend his court at Versailles 14
  15. 15.  The wars and devastation of the early modern era in Europe resulted in better European armies, weapons and maneuvers  Pay for large war expenses by making alliances with the rising commercial elites and protecting markets overseas  Netherlands revolted against Spain due to Spanish sales tax/Catholic orthodoxy 15
  16. 16.  Balance of power - forming alliances with other European states to ensure that no one state became too powerful  John Locke – English political philosopher asserted that if the monarch abused his or her power, the people had a duty to rebel 16