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© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 44
KS4 Biology
Movement
In and Out of Cells
© Boardworks Ltd 20042 of 44
Osmosis
Experiments: diffusion and osmosis
Movement In and Out of Cells
Diffusion and life pr...
© Boardworks Ltd 20043 of 44
Why does the colour of
concentrated fruit drink change
when it is added to water?
Why can you...
© Boardworks Ltd 20044 of 44
These processes are all examples of diffusion.
Smelling cooked food or perfume and diluting j...
© Boardworks Ltd 20045 of 44
The molecules in every substance are always moving.
Moving molecules
In which state are molec...
© Boardworks Ltd 20046 of 44
When smelling body spray where is the smell strongest
and where is the smell weakest?
Diffusi...
© Boardworks Ltd 20047 of 44
Where will the molecules be after diffusion?
Diffusion can be represented on a simple diagram...
© Boardworks Ltd 20048 of 44
Diffusion animation 1
© Boardworks Ltd 20049 of 44
Diffusion animation 2
© Boardworks Ltd 200410 of 44
Diffusion animation 3
© Boardworks Ltd 200411 of 44
Osmosis
Experiments: diffusion and osmosis
Movement In and Out of Cells
Diffusion and life p...
© Boardworks Ltd 200412 of 44
Why is diffusion so important?
Diffusion occurs in the organ systems that control your
breat...
© Boardworks Ltd 200413 of 44
Diffusion is the movement of gas or dissolved molecules.
What gas and dissolved
molecules do...
© Boardworks Ltd 200414 of 44
Breathing involves the exchange of
gases in the lungs, a process which
occurs by diffusion.
...
© Boardworks Ltd 200415 of 44
Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli, the tiny air sacs
at the end of the bronchioles.
Di...
© Boardworks Ltd 200416 of 44
Inhaling increases the concentration of oxygen molecules
in an alveolus.
At this point, how ...
© Boardworks Ltd 200417 of 44
How is the concentration of oxygen in the blood increased?
Oxygen molecules diffuse across t...
© Boardworks Ltd 200418 of 44
Deoxygenated blood from the body is low in oxygen
but has high levels of carbon dioxide.
How...
© Boardworks Ltd 200419 of 44
How is the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood
reduced?
Carbon dioxide molecules di...
© Boardworks Ltd 200420 of 44
Gas exchange animation
© Boardworks Ltd 200421 of 44
Diffusion and digestion
Digestion breaks large food
molecules into smaller molecules
that ca...
© Boardworks Ltd 200422 of 44
Inside the small intestine
© Boardworks Ltd 200423 of 44
Cross-section of a villus
Each villus separates the digested food in the small intestine
fro...
© Boardworks Ltd 200424 of 44
Diffusion from the small intestine
Each villus has a surface layer that is one cell thick.
H...
© Boardworks Ltd 200425 of 44
Diffusion from the small intestine
Dissolved food molecules diffuse from the small intestine...
© Boardworks Ltd 200426 of 44
Diffusion in and out of cells
Oxygen and dissolved food molecules are transported to
the bod...
© Boardworks Ltd 200427 of 44
Diffusion in and out of cells
How do oxygen and dissolved food molecules pass
from the blood...
© Boardworks Ltd 200428 of 44
Diffusion in and out of cells
The cells use the food and oxygen for respiration.
Carbon diox...
© Boardworks Ltd 200429 of 44
Osmosis
Experiments: diffusion and osmosis
Movement In and Out of Cells
Diffusion and life p...
© Boardworks Ltd 200430 of 44
What is active transport?
Movement of substances in and out of cells by diffusion
involves m...
© Boardworks Ltd 200431 of 44
Active transport and plants
Plants need mineral elements from the soil for healthy
growth. M...
© Boardworks Ltd 200432 of 44
Active transport and plants
Minerals enter a root cell by active transport.
The plant uses e...
© Boardworks Ltd 200433 of 44
Osmosis
Experiments: diffusion and osmosis
Movement In and Out of Cells
Diffusion and life p...
© Boardworks Ltd 200434 of 44
What is osmosis?
Osmosis is a special type of diffusion.
Diffusion involves gas or dissolved...
© Boardworks Ltd 200435 of 44
What happens during osmosis?
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a
region of hig...
© Boardworks Ltd 200436 of 44
Osmosis experiment
A bag made from a semipermeable membrane is tied
to a glass tube and fill...
© Boardworks Ltd 200437 of 44
strong sugar
solution
weak sugar
solution
Osmosis experiment
Water molecules diffuse across ...
© Boardworks Ltd 200438 of 44
Osmosis animation 1
© Boardworks Ltd 200439 of 44
Osmosis animation 2
© Boardworks Ltd 200440 of 44
Osmosis
Experiments: diffusion and osmosis
Movement In and Out of Cells
Diffusion and life p...
© Boardworks Ltd 200441 of 44
Experiment to demonstrate diffusion
© Boardworks Ltd 200442 of 44
Experiment to investigate osmosis
© Boardworks Ltd 200443 of 44
Osmosis
Experiments: diffusion and osmosis
Movement In and Out of Cells
Diffusion and life p...
© Boardworks Ltd 200444 of 44
Multiple-choice quiz
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Ks4 movement in and out of cells

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Ks4 movement in and out of cells

  1. 1. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 44 KS4 Biology Movement In and Out of Cells
  2. 2. © Boardworks Ltd 20042 of 44 Osmosis Experiments: diffusion and osmosis Movement In and Out of Cells Diffusion and life processes Active transport Contents What is diffusion? Multiple-choice quiz
  3. 3. © Boardworks Ltd 20043 of 44 Why does the colour of concentrated fruit drink change when it is added to water? Why can you smell cooked food from a distance? Smells and liquids spreading out Why can you smell perfume or aftershave when someone walks past you?
  4. 4. © Boardworks Ltd 20044 of 44 These processes are all examples of diffusion. Smelling cooked food or perfume and diluting juice in water all involve things moving around and spreading out. Smells and liquids spreading out Diffusion involves the movement of molecules. What type of molecules are moving in these examples?
  5. 5. © Boardworks Ltd 20045 of 44 The molecules in every substance are always moving. Moving molecules In which state are molecules able to spread out? water (liquid) water vapour (gas) Diffusion involves the movement of gas and dissolved molecules. Why don’t solid molecules diffuse? ice (solid)
  6. 6. © Boardworks Ltd 20046 of 44 When smelling body spray where is the smell strongest and where is the smell weakest? Diffusion and changing concentrations Smell is strongest at source. Diffusion means the smell spreads out and gets weaker further away from the source. How does the concentration of smell molecules change during diffusion? Smell molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. This is called a concentration gradient.
  7. 7. © Boardworks Ltd 20047 of 44 Where will the molecules be after diffusion? Diffusion can be represented on a simple diagram. Changing concentrations before diffusion Diffusion is the movement of gas or dissolved molecules from higher to lower concentration. Molecules diffuse down a concentration gradient. What does this mean? after diffusion What has happened to the concentration of the molecules?
  8. 8. © Boardworks Ltd 20048 of 44 Diffusion animation 1
  9. 9. © Boardworks Ltd 20049 of 44 Diffusion animation 2
  10. 10. © Boardworks Ltd 200410 of 44 Diffusion animation 3
  11. 11. © Boardworks Ltd 200411 of 44 Osmosis Experiments: diffusion and osmosis Movement In and Out of Cells Diffusion and life processes Active transport Contents What is diffusion? Multiple-choice quiz
  12. 12. © Boardworks Ltd 200412 of 44 Why is diffusion so important? Diffusion occurs in the organ systems that control your breathing, circulation, digestion and other life processes. Diffusion explains why you can smell smelly smells and what happens when you dilute a concentrated fruit drink. More importantly, diffusion is an essential process that is going on inside your body right now and keeping you alive!
  13. 13. © Boardworks Ltd 200413 of 44 Diffusion is the movement of gas or dissolved molecules. What gas and dissolved molecules do body cells need? Your body’s survival depends on oxygen and dissolved food molecules getting into your cells. Diffusion and life processes How do these vital substances cross boundaries within the body to get to where they are needed? Oxygen and dissolved food molecules must diffuse into and out of the blood for transportation around the body. Where does diffusion take place within the body?
  14. 14. © Boardworks Ltd 200414 of 44 Breathing involves the exchange of gases in the lungs, a process which occurs by diffusion. What is the vital gas that you breathe in? Diffusion and breathing The lungs have a huge surface area to maximize the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with each breath. Where in the lungs does gas exchange take place? oxygen carbon dioxide What is the waste gas that you breathe out?
  15. 15. © Boardworks Ltd 200415 of 44 Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli, the tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Diffusion and breathing What are these blood vessels around each alveolus called?
  16. 16. © Boardworks Ltd 200416 of 44 Inhaling increases the concentration of oxygen molecules in an alveolus. At this point, how does this compare with the concentration of oxygen in deoxygenated blood in the capillary? Diffusion and breathing – oxygen deoxygenated blood from the body oxygenated blood to the body When you inhale, the concentration of oxygen inside each alveolus is higher than in deoxygenated blood. oxygen into alveoli
  17. 17. © Boardworks Ltd 200417 of 44 How is the concentration of oxygen in the blood increased? Oxygen molecules diffuse across the lining of the alveolus into the blood in the capillary, moving from higher to lower concentration. Diffusion and breathing – oxygen oxygenated blood to the body deoxygenated blood from the body oxygen into alveoli diffusion When you inhale, the concentration of oxygen inside each alveolus is higher than in deoxygenated blood.
  18. 18. © Boardworks Ltd 200418 of 44 Deoxygenated blood from the body is low in oxygen but has high levels of carbon dioxide. How does this compare with concentration of carbon dioxide in the alveolus? Diffusion and breathing – carbon dioxide deoxygenated blood from the body oxygenated blood to the body The concentration of carbon dioxide in deoxygenated blood is higher than in deoxygenated blood.
  19. 19. © Boardworks Ltd 200419 of 44 How is the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood reduced? Carbon dioxide molecules diffuse from the blood in the capillary into the alveolus, moving from higher to lower concentration. Diffusion and breathing – carbon dioxide deoxygenated blood from the body oxygenated blood to the body The concentration of carbon dioxide in deoxygenated blood is higher than in deoxygenated blood. carbon dioxide out of alveoli diffusion
  20. 20. © Boardworks Ltd 200420 of 44 Gas exchange animation
  21. 21. © Boardworks Ltd 200421 of 44 Diffusion and digestion Digestion breaks large food molecules into smaller molecules that can be used by the body. Dissolved food molecules then need to be transported from the small intestine into the bloodstream. Where in the small intestine does this diffusion take place? Carbohydrates, proteins and fat are made up of large molecules that cannot be used directly by the body.
  22. 22. © Boardworks Ltd 200422 of 44 Inside the small intestine
  23. 23. © Boardworks Ltd 200423 of 44 Cross-section of a villus Each villus separates the digested food in the small intestine from a network of capillaries.
  24. 24. © Boardworks Ltd 200424 of 44 Diffusion from the small intestine Each villus has a surface layer that is one cell thick. How does the concentration of dissolved food molecules in the small intestine compare with the blood entering a villus? The concentration of dissolved food molecules is higher in the small intestine than in the blood entering the villus. wall of small intestine blood entering villus blood leaving villus inside the small intestine
  25. 25. © Boardworks Ltd 200425 of 44 Diffusion from the small intestine Dissolved food molecules diffuse from the small intestine into the blood, moving from higher to lower concentration. How is the concentration of dissolved food molecules in the blood increased? The concentration of dissolved food molecules is higher in the small intestine than in the blood entering the villus. wall of small intestine blood entering villus blood leaving villus inside the small intestine diffusion
  26. 26. © Boardworks Ltd 200426 of 44 Diffusion in and out of cells Oxygen and dissolved food molecules are transported to the body’s cells in the bloodstream. How does the concentration of these useful substances in the blood compare with the concentration inside the cells? The concentration of oxygen and dissolved food molecules is higher in the blood arriving at the cells than inside the cells.
  27. 27. © Boardworks Ltd 200427 of 44 Diffusion in and out of cells How do oxygen and dissolved food molecules pass from the blood into the cells? Oxygen and dissolved food molecules diffuse into the body cells, moving from higher to lower concentration. The concentration of oxygen and dissolved food molecules is higher in the blood arriving at the cells than inside the cells. What process involving these useful substances takes place inside the cell? diffusion
  28. 28. © Boardworks Ltd 200428 of 44 Diffusion in and out of cells The cells use the food and oxygen for respiration. Carbon dioxide is the waste product of respiration and will poison a cell if it is not removed. How is it removed? Carbon dioxide molecules diffuse from the cells into the bloodstream, moving from higher to lower concentration. How is this waste carbon dioxide removed from the body? diffusion
  29. 29. © Boardworks Ltd 200429 of 44 Osmosis Experiments: diffusion and osmosis Movement In and Out of Cells Diffusion and life processes Active transport Contents What is diffusion? Multiple-choice quiz
  30. 30. © Boardworks Ltd 200430 of 44 What is active transport? Movement of substances in and out of cells by diffusion involves molecules moving down a concentration gradient from high to low concentration. Sometimes substances move into cells from low to high concentration. This is called active transport. Active transport needs energy to make it happen. How do molecules move along the concentration gradient during active transport? high concentration low concentration diffusion active transport
  31. 31. © Boardworks Ltd 200431 of 44 Active transport and plants Plants need mineral elements from the soil for healthy growth. Minerals enter a plant though its roots. The concentration of minerals in the soil is lower than that inside a root hair cell, so how do minerals enter the root cell? soil mineral element root hair cell
  32. 32. © Boardworks Ltd 200432 of 44 Active transport and plants Minerals enter a root cell by active transport. The plant uses energy to move minerals up the concentration gradient from the soil into its root cells. Why is it important for plants to use energy in this way? soil mineral element root hair cell active transport
  33. 33. © Boardworks Ltd 200433 of 44 Osmosis Experiments: diffusion and osmosis Movement In and Out of Cells Diffusion and life processes Active transport Contents What is diffusion? Multiple-choice quiz
  34. 34. © Boardworks Ltd 200434 of 44 What is osmosis? Osmosis is a special type of diffusion. Diffusion involves gas or dissolved molecules, but osmosis only involves the movement of water molecules. Osmosis occurs across a semipermeable membrane which has tiny holes in it. These holes are small enough for water molecules to pass water molecule through but larger molecules cannot pass through.
  35. 35. © Boardworks Ltd 200435 of 44 What happens during osmosis? Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration across a semipermeable membrane. Osmosis is a type of diffusion, so what do you think happens to water molecules during this process? water molecule semipermeable membrane osmosis
  36. 36. © Boardworks Ltd 200436 of 44 Osmosis experiment A bag made from a semipermeable membrane is tied to a glass tube and filled with a strong sugar solution. What happens to the water molecules in the weak solution? What happens to the liquid inside the semipermeable bag? This bag is placed in a weak sugar solution. strong sugar solution weak sugar solution
  37. 37. © Boardworks Ltd 200437 of 44 strong sugar solution weak sugar solution Osmosis experiment Water molecules diffuse across the membrane from the weak sugar solution into the strong sugar solution. This continues until the concentration is the same on both The volume of liquid in the semipermeable bag increases. The liquid rises up the glass tube and then stops. Why does this happen? sides of the membrane.
  38. 38. © Boardworks Ltd 200438 of 44 Osmosis animation 1
  39. 39. © Boardworks Ltd 200439 of 44 Osmosis animation 2
  40. 40. © Boardworks Ltd 200440 of 44 Osmosis Experiments: diffusion and osmosis Movement In and Out of Cells Diffusion and life processes Active transport Contents What is diffusion? Multiple-choice quiz
  41. 41. © Boardworks Ltd 200441 of 44 Experiment to demonstrate diffusion
  42. 42. © Boardworks Ltd 200442 of 44 Experiment to investigate osmosis
  43. 43. © Boardworks Ltd 200443 of 44 Osmosis Experiments: diffusion and osmosis Movement In and Out of Cells Diffusion and life processes Active transport Contents What is diffusion? Multiple-choice quiz
  44. 44. © Boardworks Ltd 200444 of 44 Multiple-choice quiz

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