English language arts_2_2010[1]


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English language arts_2_2010[1]

  1. 1. 2010Saskatchewan CurriculumEnglishLanguageArts 2
  2. 2. English Language Arts 2ISBN 978-1-926841-07-61. Language arts (Elementary school) - Saskatchewan - Curricula. 2. Competency-based education - Saskatchewan.Saskatchewan. Ministry of Education. Curriculum and E-Learning. Humanities Unit.All rights are reserved by the original copyright owners.
  3. 3. Table of ContentsAcknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Core Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Broad Areas of Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Lifelong Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Sense of Self, Community, and Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Engaged Citizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Cross-curricular Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Developing Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Developing Identity and Interdependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Developing Literacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Developing Social Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4K-12 Aim and Goals of English Language Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5An Effective English Language Arts Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Provides Meaningful Contexts and Questions for Deeper Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Focuses on Grade-specific Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Focuses on Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Uses Critical and Powerful Learning Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Includes a Range of Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Encourages Inquiry, Social Responsibility, and Self-reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Outcomes and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Assessment and Evaluation of Student Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Connections with Other Areas of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47Feedback Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49English Language Arts 2 iii
  4. 4. AcknowledgementsThe Ministry of Education wishes to acknowledge the professional contributions and advice given by ElementaryLevel teachers and consultants in the following First Nations tribal council and Saskatchewan school divisions: • Holy Trinity Roman Catholic School Division • Battleford Tribal Council • Prairie South School Division • Saskatchewan Rivers School Division • South East Cornerstone School Division • Sun West School Division.The Ministry of Education also wishes to thank many others who contributed to the development of thiscurriculum including: • University faculties members • Other educators and reviewers.The curriculum is based on the Western and Northern Canadian Protocol (WNCP) The Common CurriculumFramework for English Language Arts (Kindergarten to Grade 12) (1998).English Language Arts 2 v
  5. 5. IntroductionEnglish language arts (ELA) is a Required Area of Study inSaskatchewan’s Core Curriculum. The purpose of this curriculum is tooutline the provincial requirements for Grade 2 English Language Arts.Time AllotmentThe Saskatchewan Ministry of Education has established a provincialpolicy for the amount of time that must be allocated to languagearts instruction at each grade level. The required minutes for Englishlanguage arts allotted to Grade 2 is 560 minutes per week.Curriculum ContentThis curriculum provides the intended learning outcomes that grade 2students are expected to achieve in English language arts by the endof the year. Indicators are included to provide the breadth and depthof what students should know, understand, and be able to do in orderto achieve the outcomes.The learning experiences planned for students will support studentachievement of the provincial Goals of Education through attending tothe Broad Areas of Learning for Saskatchewan and the Cross-curricularCompetencies described on the following pages.The English language arts curriculum provides: • direction for supporting student achievement of the Broad Areas of Learning and the Cross-curricular Competencies • the K-12 aim and goals for English language arts in Saskatchewan • the characteristics of an effective English language arts program • Grade 2 English Language Arts outcomes and indicators • sample assessment and evaluation criteria for determining student growth and achievement in relation to the outcomes in English language arts • connections with other areas of study.Additional support resources will appear online.English Language Arts 2 1
  6. 6. Core Curriculum Core Curriculum is intended to provide all Saskatchewan students with an education that will serve them well regardless of their choices after leaving school. Through its components and initiatives, Core Curriculum supports student achievement of the Goals of Education for Saskatchewan. For current information regarding Core Curriculum, please refer to Core Curriculum: Principles, Time Allocations, and Credit Policy on the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education website. For additional information related to the various components and initiatives of Core Curriculum, please refer to the Ministry website at www.education.gov.sk.ca/policy for policy and foundation documents including the following: • Understanding the Common Essential Learnings: A Handbook for Teachers (1988) • Objectives for the Common Essential Learnings (CELs) (1998) • Renewed Objectives for the Common Essential Learnings of Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) and Personal and Social Development (PSD) (2008) • The Adaptive Dimension in Core Curriculum (1992) • Policy and Procedures for Locally-developed Courses of Study (2004) • Connections: Policy and Guidelines for School Libraries in Saskatchewan (2008) • Diverse Voices: Selecting Equitable Resources for Indian and Métis Education (2005) • Gender Equity: Policies and Guidelines for Implementation (1991) • Instructional Approaches: A Framework for Professional Practice (1991) • Multicultural Education and Heritage Language Education Policies (1994) • Classroom Curriculum Connections: A Teacher’s Handbook for Personal-Professional Growth (2001).2 English Language Arts 2
  7. 7. Broad Areas of LearningThere are three Broad Areas of Learning that reflect Saskatchewan’sGoals of Education. K-12 English language arts contributes to the Goalsof Education through helping students achieve knowledge, skills, andattitudes related to the following:Lifelong Learners Related to the following Goals of Education:Students who are engaged in constructing and applying English • Basic Skillslanguage arts knowledge naturally build a positive disposition towards • Lifelong Learninglearning. Throughout their study of English language arts, students • Positive Lifestylegain understandings, skills, and strategies to become more competentand confident language users.Sense of Self, Community, and Place Related to the following Goals of Education:To learn English language arts, students need not only to use theEnglish language but also to interact with each other. Through the • Understanding and Relating toEnglish language arts, students learn about themselves, others, and Othersthe world around them. They use language to define who they are and • Self-concept Development • Spiritual Developmentto explore who they might become. They use language to interact andto respond effectively with others and to build community.Engaged Citizens Related to the following Goals ofIn the English language arts, students learn how language can Education:empower them to make a difference in their personal, peer, family, • Career and Consumer Decisionsand community lives. Language gives them a sense of agency and an • Membership in Societyability to make a difference in their community and the world in which • Growing with Changethey live.Cross-curricular CompetenciesThe Cross-curricular Competencies are four interrelated areascontaining understandings, values, skills, and processes whichare considered important for learning in all areas of study. Thesecompetencies reflect the Common Essential Learnings and areintended to be addressed in each area of study at each grade level.Developing ThinkingLearners construct knowledge to make sense of the world around K-12 Goals for Developing Thinking:them. They develop understanding by building on what is already • thinking and learningknown. This key competency concerns the ability to make sense of contextuallyinformation, experiences, and ideas through thinking contextually, • thinking and learning creativelycritically, and creatively. English language arts is inquiry-based, and • thinking and learning criticallystudents use their language and thinking skills to explore a range oftopics, issues, and themes.English Language Arts 2 3
  8. 8. Developing Identity and InterdependenceK-12 Goals for Developing Identity The ability to act autonomously in an interdependent world requiresand Interdependence: an awareness of the natural environment, of social and cultural • understanding, valuing, and expectations, and of the possibilities for individual and group caring for oneself accomplishments. It assumes the possession of a positive self- • understanding, valuing, and concept and the ability to live in harmony with others and with the caring for others natural and constructed worlds. Achieving this competency requires • understanding and valuing understanding, valuing, and caring for oneself and for others, and social, economic, and understanding and valuing social and environmental interdependence environmental interdependence and sustainability. English language arts requires students to explore and sustainability ideas and issues of identity, community, social responsibility, diversity, and sustainability. Students study texts and ideas about personal and philosophical; social, historical, and cultural; imaginative and literary; communicative; and environmental and technological topics. Developing LiteraciesK-12 Goals for Developing Literacies: Literacies provide many ways, including the use of various language • constructing knowledge related systems and media, to interpret the world and express understanding to various literacies of it. Literacies involve the evolution of interrelated skills, strategies, • exploring and interpreting the and knowledge that facilitate an individual’s ability to participate fully world through various literacies and equitably in a variety of roles and contexts – school, home, and • expressing understanding and local and global communities. To achieve this competency requires communicating meaning using developing skills, strategies, and knowledge related to various various literacies literacies in order to explore and interpret the world and communicate meaning. English language arts requires students to use different literacies, including language literacy, effectively and contextually to represent ideas and understanding in multiple, flexible ways. Developing Social ResponsibilityK-12 Goals for Developing Social Social responsibility is how people positively contribute to theirResponsibility: physical, social, and cultural environments. It requires the ability to • using moral reasoning participate with others in accomplishing goals. This competency • engaging in communitarian is achieved through using moral reasoning processes, engaging in thinking and dialogue communitarian thinking and dialogue, and taking action. Socially • taking action responsible learners contribute to their physical, social, and cultural environments. In English language arts, students explore their social responsibility and work toward common goals to improve the lives of others and the natural and constructed worlds.4 English Language Arts 2
  9. 9. K-12 Aim and Goals of English LanguageArtsThe K-12 aim of the Saskatchewan English language arts curricula isto help students understand and appreciate language, and to use itconfidently and competently in a variety of situations for learning,communication, work, life, and personal satisfaction.The K-12 goals are broad statements identifying what students areexpected to know and be able to do upon completion of study in aparticular subject (e.g., English language arts). The K-12 goals of theSaskatchewan English language arts curricula are to:Comprehend and Respond (CR) – Students will develop their abilitiesto view, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety ofcontemporary and traditional grade-level-appropriate texts in a varietyof forms (oral, print, and other media) from First Nations, Métis, andother cultures for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest,and enjoyment.Compose and Create (CC) – Students will develop their abilities tospeak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore andpresent thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for avariety of purposes and audiences.Assess and Reflect (AR) – Students will develop their abilities to assessand reflect on their own language skills, discuss the skills of effectiveviewers, listeners, readers, representers, speakers, and writers, and setgoals for future improvement.Figure 1. K-12 Aim and Goals of English Language Arts Social Studies Physical Health Education Identity and Education Thinking Interdependence Comprehend and Respond Sense of Self, Community, and Place Compose Language Arts Arts Lifelong Engaged and Create Learners Citizens Education Assess and Re ect Social Literacies Responsibility Mathematics ScienceEnglish Language Arts 2 5
  10. 10. An Effective English Language Arts Program An English language arts program is effective when it is purposeful, dynamic, fulfilling, and authentic. This curriculum invites and challenges educators to think about education, schooling, and English language arts as it might be rather than the way educators might know it to be. How can schooling and English language arts be more purposeful, dynamic, fulfilling, and authentic? How can it help students become competent, confident users of the English language and, at the same time, become knowledgeable about themselves, their community, and the world as a whole in a deep and meaningful way? How can it help them find fulfillment, be socially responsible, and act in ways that will make their community and world better places? How can it help students become effective self-directed, self-regulated, strategic, and collaborative learners to meet the demands of personal, social, work, and global life in the 21st century? “When a learner makes connections and learning takes place, it is because of focused teaching ....” (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006, p. 34). Focused teaching requires: • a detailed map of what is expected that students will know and be able to do, clearly stated in outcomes and associated indicators • a set of powerful and aligned assessment and evaluation tools tied to the outcomes • a detailed knowledge of how best to teach to these learning outcomes in the classroom, including explicit teaching strategies and methods and classroom routines. (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006, pp. 36-37) This curriculum is designed to be the starting point for instructional planning. It includes the philosophical underpinnings of the area of study and provides the knowledge (i.e., factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive, or a combination of these) that students are expected to know, understand, and be able to do at the end of Grade 2. A careful analysis of the outcomes supports teachers in determining the types of evidence that they might look for to assess whether students have achieved these outcomes. This knowledge supports teachers in designing and/or choosing assessment and evaluation tools to monitor and report on student learning in English language arts. It is the starting point that will allow English language arts teachers “to develop and deepen students’ understanding of important ideas and a process in the discipline[s] equipping them to transfer their learning in meaningful and effective ways, and cultivating lifelong habits of mind” (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007, p. 13). An effective English language arts program is rooted in research-based practice that specifies what is and is not effective in teaching English language arts (see next page).6 English Language Arts 2
  11. 11. Table 1. What ELA Is Versus What ELA Is Not What ELA Is What ELA Is Not Appreciating children as active learners and accepting Seeing children as passive vessels to be filled and them as competent co-learners who can socially and believing that learning is received from outside culturally construct knowledge with adults sources and is to be recapitulated Helping children actively seek to understand the Telling children what knowledge they need to know world around them and to learn about life and but not having them use it or apply it language Using visual, multimedia, oral, and written Using only print resources with a fictional emphasis communication competently, appropriately, and for a limited range of purposes (usually isolated to a effectively for a range of purposes school task) Recognizing the central role of language in Letting printed books, isolated activities, and communicating, thinking, and learning worksheets drive the program Setting meaningful and relevant contexts for teaching Giving isolated language activities and using and learning including connections to students’ unrelated texts experiences, knowledge, and personal and cultural identity Helping students know what and why they are Having only teacher awareness of the outcomes and learning and doing something (i.e., outcomes, not sharing them with students indicators, and exemplars) Teaching and learning for “deep understanding” Asking and answering solely teacher-directed (including using questions for deeper understanding questions as a focus) Making meaning of ideas or information received Answering knowledge/comprehension questions, (when viewing, listening, and reading) individually, after reading print texts Creating meaning for themselves and others Using only limited forms of communicating, usually (when speaking, writing, and using other forms of writing representing) Using a variety of strategies (e.g., Before, During, and Following only teacher-directed skills and strategies After) depending upon the task and spending time on isolated skill and drill Engaging in inquiry learning Doing a project or, if time permits, a series of activities to bring closure Reflecting on own learning and literacy Assuming that the responsibility for learning and literacy lies with the teacherThrough a “deep” understanding of this curriculum (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006) and knowing when to useeffective instructional, assessment, and classroom-management strategies based on sound research (Marzano,2007), English language arts teachers can help all students become competent and confident language users.English Language Arts 2 7
  12. 12. An Effective English Language Arts Program: • provides meaningful contexts that address “big ideas” and questions for deeper understanding • focuses on grade-specific outcomes to achieve the K-12 aim and goals of the program • focuses on language and helps students understand how it works • teaches students through powerful cognitive and communication strategies • includes a range of texts (oral, print, and other media) • encourages student inquiry, social responsibility, and self- reflection Provides Meaningful Contexts and Questions for Deeper Understanding An effective ELA program provides meaningful contexts for students to learn about language. The English language arts program is designed for students to develop their language skills and strategies and become competent and confident users of all six language arts strands through many opportunities to view, listen, read, represent, speak, and write in meaningful contexts. If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and the world. The following contexts provide a focus for language learning and give students an opportunity to explore “big ideas” (i.e., overarching understandings) that have enduring values beyond the classroom: • A personal and philosophical context gives students opportunities to explore their identity and their self-concept. Fostering the learning spirit inside each student comes from the heart and mind connection that is revealed through each student’s reflection on personal feelings, self-image, influential life forces, ideas, belief systems, values, and ways of knowing. Who am I, what is my place, and where am I going? What does the future hold for me?8 English Language Arts 2
  13. 13. • A social, cultural, and historical context gives students opportunities to explore relationships with others, community, culture, customs, multiple ways of knowing, national and international events and issues, and the history of humanity. What are my rights and responsibilities in communities, cultures, and economies? How and who am I in relation to communities, cultures, and economies? How am I defined by these relationships? • An imaginative and literary context gives students opportunities to use their intuition and imagination to explore alternative worlds and possibilities; different types of classical and contemporary genres including fantasy, science fiction, and humour; and particular authors. How do I use my imagination and intuition and that of others to understand and relate to people, the community, the world, and society in a positive way? How do I foster imaginative ideas of self and others? How do I use intuitive hunches to support creative problem solving or inquiry? • A communicative context gives students opportunities to explore different methods, forms, and issues related to language, communication, and the mass media. How do I make sense of and communicate with the world? How do I support communication with differing audiences? How do I know if communication is effective? • An environmental and technological context gives students opportunities to explore the natural and constructed worlds including the land, the sky, animals, the sea, space, technologies, and environmental and technological issues. How do I describe, analyze, and shape the world around me? How does that natural and technological world affect and shape me?Each English language arts unit of study can be related to and How we envision literacy makes adeveloped under one or more of these broader contexts. Each context difference. If we see it as meaningis to be explored at each grade. Each context provides opportunities making and not meaning makingfor integration with topics of study in other subject areas. plus inquiry, we fail to envision all that literacy might be. If weTeachers in Grade 2 should plan a minimum of five units for the year, see literacy as language and notbasing at least one unit on each of the five contexts. Table 4 gives an language plus other sign systems, weoverview of possible unit themes and topics, and questions for deeper also fail to envision all that literacyunderstanding for each context. might be.In addition to considering the five contexts, Elementary Level English (Harste, 2000, p.1)language arts teachers need to think about the types of units to plan.Language arts units, designed around the themes and topics withineach context, can ensure that the outcomes for the language strandsare achieved in meaningful ways. Minimal guidelines are provided foreach type of unit.English Language Arts 2 9
  14. 14. Table 2. Types of Units Type of Unit Number of Units per Year Multi-genre Thematic 3 (minimum) Multi-genre Inquiry and/or Interdisciplinary 1 (minimum) Author or Genre Study 1 (maximum) A multi-genre thematic unit is built around a theme or topic from one of the contexts and includes a range of prose fiction and non- fiction, poetry, plays, and other texts. This is the most common type of English language arts unit because it allows teachers to vary activities within a broad theme or topic to suit the differing ability levels of students while supporting their achievement of outcomes for their respective grade. A minimum of three multi-genre thematic units is recommended.Through the inquiry or research A multi-genre inquiry and/or interdisciplinary unit is usually builtprocess, students satisfy their natural around a theme or topic that is related to an important question(s) forcuriosity and develop skills and inquiry and research. The emphasis in an inquiry unit is on “finding out”strategies for lifelong learning. the answers to a question or questions that the students have about the theme or topic and then using the inquiry process to guide their(Western Canadian Protocol for activities in the unit. When the unit is interdisciplinary, it considersCollaboration in Basic Education, and addresses outcomes from English language arts and other area(s)1998, p. 33) of study. A minimum of one inquiry/interdisciplinary unit per year is recommended. Any multi-genre thematic or author/genre study unit can become an inquiry unit. An author or genre study unit focuses on the works of a specific author or illustrator or on a specific genre (e.g., poetry). Because of the limited texts used in an author or genre study, a maximum of one per year is recommended. Planning Units of Study in an Effective English Language Arts Program Table 3. Essential Aspects of Units Units of Study Essential Aspects Units provide meaningful • Questions for deeper understanding that contexts and foci for students address the ideas and issues students to explore the topics and need to think about throughout the unit. texts that are important to • Strategies to explore and express young people everywhere. students’ thoughts, ideas, feelings, and Units in English language arts experiences as well as to inquire and to allow students not only to learn to use the English language and learn how language works in its conventions. Oral, written, and other meaningful situations but also texts explore the issues and provide to develop the disposition opportunities to apply viewing, listening, for learning for life, a sense of reading, representing, speaking, and self and connection to others, writing knowledge and skills. and, as engaged citizens, a • Individual as well as co-operative projects capacity to make a difference invite inquiry and bring closure and in the community. personal agency to student explorations.10 English Language Arts 2
  15. 15. An effective English language arts program also providesopportunities to explore “big ideas” (e.g., extinction versus the topic ofdinosaurs) and to consider questions for deeper understanding.Questions for deeper understanding are used to initiate and guide aunit and give students direction for developing deep understandingsabout a topic or issue under study. It is essential to develop questionsthat are evoked by student interests and have potential for richand deep learning. The process of constructing questions can helpstudents to grasp the important disciplinary or transdisciplinary ideasthat are situated at the core of a particular curricular focus or context.These broad questions will lead to more specific questions that canprovide a framework, purpose, and direction for the learning activitiesin a lesson, or series of lessons, and help students connect what theyare learning to their experiences and life beyond school.Effective questions for deeper understanding in English languagearts are the key to initiating and guiding students’ investigations and Effective Questions for Deeper Understanding:critical thinking, problem solving, and reflection on students’ ownlearning. Questions such as the following are examples of questions • Cause genuine and relevantthat will move grade 2 students toward deeper understanding: inquiry into the key ideas and core content • What makes a community? • Provide for thoughtful, lively • How are other communities the same/different from your discussion, sustained inquiry, and community? How were communities the same/different in the new understanding as well as past? more questions • Require students to consider • Why do all the different kinds of people make a community alternatives, weigh evidence, interesting? support their ideas, and justify • How can we contribute to our community in a positive way? What their answers special community events are celebrated in communities in our • Stimulate vital, ongoing rethinking of ideas, assumptions, province and country? or prior lessons • How can we build a strong community that includes everyone? • Spark meaningful connectionsEffective questioning is essential for teaching and student learning with prior learning, personal experiences, and ways of knowingand should be an integral part of planning in English language arts. • Naturally recur, creatingQuestioning should also be used to encourage students to reflect on opportunities for transfer to othertheir own learning. The following chart identifies the five contexts situations and subjects.for English language arts and suggests some possible questions fordeeper understanding and some possible unit topics or themes for (Adapted from Wiggins & McTighe, 2005, p. 110)each context.English Language Arts 2 11
  16. 16. Table 4. Questions for Deeper Understanding and Some Supporting Resources: Grade Two English Language Arts Contexts Sample Questions for Deeper Possible Unit Topics and Themes UnderstandingPersonal and Philosophical What type of friend shall we be? How Getting to Know You (Personal Focus) shall we treat our friends? How can we be (Cornerstones 2, a-i)Children need to believe in their better friends? My Family and Friends (Personal Focus)own self-worth and to feel that they (Cornerstones 2, b-i)have control over the things that How do we feel when we do something Just Watch Me! (Collections 2, Fluenthappen to them. Children need to for the first time? How are others’ feelings Purple, 2)look inward and focus on self-image the same or different from mine?and self-esteem. They need to How do I know if an experience or Other:reflect on self and life, and on their situation is right for me? Is safe? Is Getting to Know Youbeliefs and values and those of their healthy? My Family and Friendssociety.Social, Cultural, and Historical What makes a community? Getting There (Social Studies Focus) (Cornerstones 2, a-ii)Children need to look outward What places, building/homes, people/ My Country, My World (Social Studiesand examine their relationships workers, neighbours, events, and Focus) (Cornerstones 2, a-iii)with others, their community, and languages do we find in our community? People! Places! (Collections 2, Fluentthe world. Children also need to How are other communities the same/ Blue, 1)consider the social and historical different from our community? How were All Join In (Collections 2, Fluent Blue, 4)context. They need to explore their communities the same/different in the Let the Feast Begin (Collections 2, Fluentconnections in families, schools, past? Purple, 1)groups, and communities and tounderstand the diverse needs and Why do all the different types of people make a community interesting? Other:wants of others. Children need to The Spirit of Helping and Givingshow concern for other people in How can we contribute to our community My Community/My Neighbourhoodtheir relationships, groups, and in a positive way? What special Traditions and Celebrationscommunities. community events are celebrated in communities in our province and country? How can we build a strong community that includes everyone?Imaginative and Literary What tales have repeated patterns Animal Tales (Genre Study)Children need to consider imaginary (e.g., three), and why do they use these (Cornerstones 2, a-iv)worlds and possibilities as well as a patterns? Celebrating Reading (Genre Study) (Cornerstones 2, b-iv)range of literary genres and authors. What can we learn from traditional tales? Tales Near and Far (Collections 2, Fluent How is a “true” tale different from a folk Blue, 5) tale? If the tale continues, what do you Round and Round (Collections 2, Early think would happen next? How could we Green, 5) tell a tale to teach someone something Just Watch Me! (Collections 2, Fluent we have learned? Purple, 5) What is your idea of a good story? If you were to write the author or illustrator, Other: what would you tell him or her about the If I Were … tale? Why would this be important? Fables12 English Language Arts 2
  17. 17. English Language Arts Contexts Sample Questions for Deeper Possible Unit Topics and Themes Understanding Communicative In what ways and why do people keep in Keep in Touch (Collections 2, Fluent Blue, 2) touch with one another? How can people Children need to consider the role listen to and show empathy with others? Other: of communication in their lives and Playing with Words the technologies and strategies What do we see and hear in the mass Advertisements for Children that help people become effective media? How do they affect us? Others? TV Ads for Children communicators. Children need the What commercials do you like/dislike on skills to interact effectively with television? Why? others. How do common features such as price, places to buy, reasons to buy, and exaggeration work in commercials? Are commercials effective? How do they affect you? Others? What is your technological footprint? What is your online presence? What sites do you go to and why? Environmental and Technological From where does the wind come? How Wind and Water (Science Focus) can we explain the wind? In what ways (Cornerstones 2, b-ii) Children need to explore the does the wind help people? Frighten Feel the Power (Collections 2, Fluent elements of the natural and people? Destroy things? Purple, 3) constructed worlds and the Amazing Animals (Collections 2, Fluent role of technology and related Why is water important to people, Blue, 3) developments in their society. animals, plants? What is the role of Children need to explore the needs technology in water conservation? Other: and characteristics of living things; What do we know/want/need to Animal Growth and Changes properties of objects and materials; know about animals? Why are some Air and Water the five senses; and daily seasonal animals pets and others wild? How do Liquids and Solids changes. humans and animals coexist? How have Position and Motion technological advances had an impact on animals’ habitats? What impact do we have on animals’ habitat? How can we describe and represent where things are?English Language Arts 2 13
  18. 18. Focuses on Grade-specific Outcomes An effective English language arts program focuses on grade-specific curriculum outcomes. Student learning outcomes describe what students will learn in a particular discipline over a specific time frame (e.g., Grade 2). Outcomes specify the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that students are expected to know, understand, and be able to demonstrate. Critical Characteristics of Outcomes and Indicators Outcomes: • focus on what students will learn rather than what teachers will teach • specify the skills, strategies, abilities, understandings, and knowledge students are expected to be able to demonstrate • are observable, assessable, and attainable • are grade and subject specific • are supported by indicators which provide the breadth and depth of expectations • are written using action-based verbs • identify the most important understandings and abilities to be developed in the specific grade level • guide course, unit, and lesson planning. Indicators: • are a representative list of what students need to know and/or be able to do in order to achieve an outcome • represent the breadth and depth of the outcomes. Note: Additional and/or alternative indicators may be developed, but they must be reflective of and consistent with the breadth and depth that is defined by the given indicators.14 English Language Arts 2
  19. 19. English Language Arts Goals and Outcomes OverviewEach of the three goals for English language arts has a set of outcomes for the specific grade level. The followingare the outcomes for Grade 2 ELA. Comprehend and Respond (CR). Students will develop their abilities to view, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of contemporary and traditional grade-level-appropriate texts in a variety of forms (oral, print, and other media) from First Nations, Métis, and other cultures for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest, and enjoyment.CR2.1 Comprehend and respond to a variety of grade-level texts (including contemporary and traditional visual,oral, written, and multimedia) that address: • identity (e.g., Just Watch Me) • community (e.g., People and Places) • social responsibility (e.g., Friendship) and make connections to prior learning and experiences.CR2.2 View and explain (with support from the text) the key literal and inferential ideas (messages), importantdetails, and how elements (such as colour, layout, medium, and special fonts) enhance meaning in grade-appropriate visual and multimedia texts.CR2.3 Listen and retell (with support from the text) the key literal and inferential ideas (messages) and importantdetails heard in small- and large-group activities, and follow oral directions and demonstrations.CR2.4 Read and demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate literary and informational texts read silentlyand orally by relating and retelling key events and ideas in sequence with specific details and discussing how,why, and what if questions. Compose and Create (CC). Students will develop their abilities to speak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore and present thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences.CC2.1 Compose and create a range of visual, multimedia, oral, and written texts that explore: • identity (e.g., My Family and Friends) • community (e.g., Our Community) • social responsibility (e.g., TV Ads for Children) and make connections to own life.CC2.2 Use a variety of ways to represent understanding and to communicate ideas, procedures, stories, andfeelings in a clear manner with essential details.CC2.3 Speak clearly and audibly in an appropriate sequence for a familiar audience and a specific purpose whenrecounting stories and experiences, giving directions, offering an opinion and providing reasons, and explaininginformation and directions.CC2.4 Write stories, poems, friendly letters, reports, and observations using appropriate and relevant details inclear and complete sentences and paragraphs of at least six sentences.English Language Arts 2 15
  20. 20. Assess and Reflect (AR). Students will develop their abilities to assess and reflect on their own language skills, discuss the skills of effective viewers, listeners, readers, representers, speakers, and writers, and set goals for future improvement.AR2.1 Reflect on and assess their viewing, listening, reading, speaking, writing, and other representingexperiences and strategies by participating in discussions and relating work to a set of criteria (e.g., “What did Ilearn?”).AR2.2 Set personal goals as a result of group discussions (e.g., “What did I do well?”, “How could I be a betterviewer, listener, reader, representer, speaker, and writer?”).16 English Language Arts 2
  21. 21. Focuses on LanguageLanguage and language study are at the centre of the Elementary Good language and literacy skills layLevel English language arts program. The study of the English the foundation for social, academic,language arts (viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, economic, personal, and nationaland writing) and of the elements and conventions associated with success.each language cueing system (i.e., pragmatic, textual, syntactic, (Jamieson & Tremblay, 2005, p. 1)semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other) enablesstudents to understand and appreciate language and to use it in avariety of situations for communication, for learning, and for personalsatisfaction.An effective English language arts program that develops students’facility with language provides students with opportunities to: • learn to use language in a variety of meaningful ways, considering and determining their audience, purpose, and situation • learn about language as a necessary tool for thinking and communicating effectively, considering the cues and conventions of language • learn through language by applying their knowledge of language in their viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing experiences.Language study is an integral part of an English language artsprogram. Students in each grade are expected to understand theconcepts related to the language cues and conventions. As studentsview, listen, read, represent, speak, and write, they are expectedto apply the concepts as students construct and communicatemeaning in their English language arts program and in their dailycommunication.English Language Arts 2 17
  22. 22. Table 5. Key Language Cues and Conventions for Grade 2 Language Cue or Convention Comprehend and Respond Compose and Create When viewing, listening, or reading, When speaking, writing, or using grade 2 students: other forms of representing, grade 2 students:Pragmatic Identify and state reasons for viewing, Consider what and why something listening, and reading. needs to be communicated.Pragmatics is the study of how peoplechoose what and how to communicatefrom a range of possibilities available inthe language and how the receiver willbe affected by these choices.Textual Recognize and use different text forms Consider, with guidance, whatIdeas and information are organized in (e.g., story, poem, recipe, explanation, would be the best form (e.g., story,oral, written, and other formats. Textual play), features (e.g., paragraphs, verses, dramatization, letter) to use; presentcues and conventions include the form dialogue), and elements (e.g., title, ideas in a logical sequence; develop author, character, problem). ideas by adding details.or structure and elements of a text.Syntactic Recognize and comprehend simple, Use and write complete sentences (in compound, and complex sentences speech, 7.3; in writing, 7 words) withSyntax is the predictable structure of and their related punctuation adequate detail; recognize the verba sentence and the ways words arecombined to form phrases, clauses, and including quotation marks; use and the subject; use simple connecting knowledge of sentence structure to words (e.g., and, so, but, then); usesentences. Syntax includes classes of determine meaning of a sentence a variety of sentence types (e.g.,words (e.g., verbs) and their functions (e.g., the subject and verb are inverted statements, questions, exclamations);(e.g., subjects). in a question); use punctuation to use adjectives and adverbs for help understand what they read description; use negative correctly; use (e.g., question mark, exclamation, capitals at the start of sentences and apostrophe). with names, months, and places; use question mark and comma correctly.Semantic/Lexical/Morphological Recognize basic sight vocabulary (e.g., Use words explored in class; choose 250 basic words); use context clues; and use descriptive words to enhanceThe lexicon of a language includes use knowledge of simple prefixes (e.g., communication (including verbs,all the words or vocabulary of that un-) and suffixes (e.g., -ed, -ing, -es, -s, nouns, and adjectives with prompting);language that are used or understood -er, -est) and recognize the same words notice unusual or special use of wordsby a particular person or groups. in different forms (e.g., plays, played, (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);Words can also be studied for their playing); use individual words to substitute one word for another inmeaningful parts or morphemes. predict meaning of compound words; a meaningful way (e.g., building recognize word play. for house); use predominately conventional spelling; spell common high-frequency words in daily writing; begin to use resources (e.g., personal dictionary, word wall) to confirm spelling; spell correctly their village, town, or city name, days of the week, and words such as stop, shop, drop, saw, see, ….18 English Language Arts 2
  23. 23. Language Cue or Convention Comprehend and Respond Compose and Create When viewing, listening, or reading, When speaking, writing, or using grade 2 students: other forms of representing, grade 2 students: Phonological/Graphophonic Use phonics to decode individual Use phonics to spell more difficult words; segment all sounds of a word words (e.g., words ending in “ing”; Graphophonics is the study of the (including sound clusters such as “sk,” words with more than one syllable); relationship between the symbols and “ch,” “sh”) into individual sounds; delete use long and short vowel patterns; use sounds of a language and includes beginning or ending sounds and tell “es” to form plural of certain words; letter or sound relationships and the remaining word; decode individual understand that the same sound may patterns. words and sounds heard in multi- be represented by different spellings syllabic words; recognize features of (e.g., find, phone). words including possessives, double vowels, multi-syllabic words; recognize long vowel sounds, contractions, “y” as a vowel sound, consonant clusters, consonant digraphs, double vowels. Other Cues and Conventions Interpret and respond appropriately Use gestures, volume, and tone of to non-verbal cues including facial voice to communicate ideas and Other cues and conventions are also expression and gestures; use and needs; speak and read aloud in clear found in communication acts and interpret conventions of texts (e.g., voice with appropriate volume, pace, include such elements as graphics, pictures, graphics, diagrams, bold and expression; print legibly and space layout, colour, sound, movement, font type); recognize and use discernable letters, numbers, words, and sentences choices, and handwriting. features such as labels, headings, appropriately using an efficient pencil sounds, colours. grip.English Language Arts 2 19
  24. 24. Uses Critical and Powerful Learning StrategiesAn effective ELA program teaches students how to use critical and powerful learning strategies. In order toachieve the English language arts outcomes, students need to learn and use a range of language skills andstrategies. Effective language arts teachers employ a range of instructional approaches to help students movefrom teacher-supported and guided lessons to independent learning that requires varied instructional methodsand strategies to help students learn these language skills and strategies. Teachers model and discuss keyprocedural and metacognitive strategies for language learning and thinking. Students need to learn how toselect and to use strategies before, during, and after viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, andwriting.If students are to be successful in English language arts, they need to learn and use thinking and learning skillsand strategies on their own. In order to help students gain control over a repertoire of key skills and strategies,the skills and strategies need to be explicitly taught and practised using a model such as the following: • Introduce and explain the purpose of the skill or strategy. • Demonstrate and model its use. • Provide guided practice for students to apply the skill or strategy with feedback. • Allow students to apply the skill or strategy independently and in teams. • Reflect regularly on the appropriate uses of the skills or strategies and their effectiveness. • Assess the students’ ability to transfer the repertoire of skills or strategies with less and less teacher prompting over time. (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007, pp. 97-98)Table 6. Important Cognitive Strategies for Comprehending and Responding (CR) Goal Phase Strategy Before Activating and building upon prior knowledge and experience Previewing text Setting a purpose Anticipating the author’s or creator’s intention During Making connections to personal knowledge and experience Using the cueing systems to construct meaning from the text Making, confirming, and adjusting predictions and inferences Constructing mental images Interpreting visuals (e.g., illustrations, graphics, tables) Identifying key ideas and supporting ideas Self-questioning, self-monitoring, and self-correcting Drawing conclusions Adjusting rate or strategy to purpose or difficulty of text After Recalling, paraphrasing, summarizing, and synthesizing Interpreting (identifying new knowledge and insights) Evaluating author’s/creator’s message(s) Evaluating author’s/creator’s craft and technique Responding personally, giving support from text View, listen, read again, speak, write, and use other forms of representing to deepen understanding and pleasure20 English Language Arts 2
  25. 25. Table 6. (Continued) Important Cognitive Strategies for Comprehending and Responding (CR) Goal Additional Viewing: Strategies for • Think Aloud (Davey, 1983) Comprehending • View, Pause, Predict, and Think Aloud and Responding • Collaborative Viewing Guide (Wood, 1994) • Directed Viewing-Thinking Activity (DVTA) • Picture Walk (Richards & Anderson, 2003) • Viewing Guides Listening: • TQLR (Tune In, Questions, Listen, and Review) (SRA, 2000) • ACTION (Attention, Concentrate, Think, Interpret, Organize, and Note) (Sebranek & Kemper, 1995) • Listen-Think-Pair-Share (McTighe & Lyman, 1992) • Listen-Draw-Pair-Share (McConnell, 1992) • DLTA (Directed Listening-Thinking Activity) (Stauffer, 1975) • LAPS (Listen, Ask, Picture, and Summarize) Strategy (Matchullis & Mueller, 1996) • Listening Guides Reading: • Modelled Reading • Shared Reading • Guided Reading • Paired Reading • KWL, K-W-L Plus (Carr & Ogle, 1987) • Preview/Connect/Predict (Robb, 2006) • List/Group/Categorize (Robb, 2006) • B-D-A (Before, During, and After) Strategy (Laverick, 2002) • Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) (Stauffer, 1975) • Reciprocal Reading (Palincsar & Brown, 1986) • ReQuest (Manzo, 1969; Vacca & Vacca, 1999) • QtA (Question the Author) (Beck, McKeown, Hamilton, & Kucan, 1997) • QARs (Question Answer Relationships) (Raphael, 1986) • Mapping It Out (Hoyt, 2000) • Justifying My Opinions (Hoyt, 2000) • Open-mind Portraits (Tompkins, 2004) • Coding the Text (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000) • Think Alouds (Davey, 1983) • Reading Guides • Discussion Circles • Grand Conversations (Eeds & Wells, 1989) • Literature Circles (Daniels, 1994) • Reader’s WorkshopEnglish Language Arts 2 21
  26. 26. Table 7. Important Cognitive Strategies for Composing and Creating (CC) Goal Phase Strategy Before Considering the task or prompt or finding a topic Activating prior knowledge and considering experiences Considering purpose and audience Considering and generating specific ideas and information that might be included Collecting and focusing ideas and information Planning and organizing ideas for drafting During Creating draft(s) and experimenting with possible product(s) Using language and its conventions to construct message Experimenting with communication features and techniques Conferring with others Reflecting, clarifying, self-monitoring, self-correcting, and using “fix-up” strategies After Revising for content and meaning (adding, deleting, substituting, and rethinking) Revising for organization (reordering) Revising for sentence structure and flow Revising for word choice, spelling, and usage Proofreading for mechanics and appearance (including punctuation and capitalization) Conferring with peers, teacher, and others Polishing, practising, and deciding how work will be shared Sharing, reflecting, and considering feedback Additional Strategies for Speaking: Composing and Creating • Talking Circles • Think, Pair, Share/Square (McTighe & Lyman, 1992) • Instructional Conversations (Goldenberg, 1993) • TAPS (Total Group, Alone, Partner, and Small Group) (Gregory & Chapman, 2002) • Grouptalk (Whipple, 1975; Moffett & Wagner, 1992) Writing: • Modelled Writing • Shared Writing/Language Experience (Van Allen, 1976) • Interactive Writing • Guided Writing • Pattern Writing • Discuss/Brainstorm/Web • KWL • Think-Pair-Share-Write (Robb, 2006) • Asking the 5Ws and H (who, what, where, when, why, and how) • Writing Frames Other Forms of Representing: • Discuss/Brainstorm/Web • Asking the 5Ws + H • Representing Task Sheet • Talking Drawings (Wood, 1994) • Sketch to Stretch (Harste, Short, & Burke, 1988) • Read/View/Listen, Talk, Act, Draw, Write (Cox, 1999)22 English Language Arts 2
  27. 27. Includes a Range of TextsIn order for students to achieve the outcomes stated in this curriculum,students need to have access to a wide range of high-quality learningresources in visual, oral, print, multimedia, and electronic formats. Thelists of learning resources that support this curriculum identify coreand additional learning resources to support the English languagearts program and student achievement of the learning outcomesdesignated for this grade level. Resources that have been evaluatedfor curriculum fit are listed on the Ministry of Education website. Aneffective English language arts program: • provides learning resources that help students achieve the curriculum outcomes • balances a variety of texts including print, non-print, human, electronic, and virtual resources • offers resources that are current, relevant, credible, and representative of many viewpoints that reflect the perspectives, cultures, and ways of knowing of First Nations, Métis, and other cultures • presents the cultural, literary, and artistic heritages of societies, past and present • responds to students’ interests and supports independent reading and inquiry • fosters opportunities for inquiry learning.Grade 2 students should have access to picture books, pattern books,chapter books, non-fiction, children’s classics, poetry, folk tales, andtraditional narratives. Refer to the ministry website for a listing ofvarious grade-appropriate texts that grade 2 students might explore.Encourages Inquiry, Social Responsibility, andSelf-reflectionAn effective English language arts program provides opportunitiesfor student inquiry, encourages social responsibility, and invites self-reflection.Inquiry learning provides students with opportunities to build Inquiry is a philosophical stanceknowledge, abilities, and inquiring habits of mind that lead to deeper rather than a set of strategies, activities, or a particular teachingunderstanding of their world and human experience. The inquiry method. As such, inquiry promotesprocess focuses on the development of compelling questions, intentional and thoughtful learningformulated by teachers and students, to motivate and guide inquiries for teachers and children.into topics, problems, and issues related to curriculum content andoutcomes. (Mills & Donnelly, 2001, p. xviii)Inquiry is more than a simple instructional strategy. It is a philosophicalapproach to teaching and learning, grounded in constructivistEnglish Language Arts 2 23
  28. 28. research and methods, which engages students in investigations that lead to disciplinary and transdisciplinary understanding. Inquiry builds on students’ inherent sense of curiosity and wonder, drawing on their diverse backgrounds, interests, and experiences. The process provides opportunities for students to become active participants in a collaborative search for meaning and understanding. Students who are engaged in inquiry: • construct deep knowledge and deep understanding rather than passively receiving information • are directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge • encounter alternative perspectives and differing ideas that transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings • transfer new knowledge and skills to new circumstances • take ownership and responsibility for their ongoing learning and mastery of curriculum content and skills. (Adapted from Kuhlthau, Maniotes, & Caspari, 2007) Inquiry learning is not a step-by-step process but rather a cyclical process, with parts of the process being revisited and rethought as a result of students’ discoveries, insights, and co-construction of new knowledge. Figure 2 represents this cyclical inquiry process. Figure 2. Constructing Understanding Through Inquiry Curriculum Outcomes What are the things we wonder about and want to know more about? What questions do we have about the deeper mysteries or aspects of life? Interpret Collaborate Conclude Analyze Plan Investigate Re ect and Re ect and Revise How are we going to proceed? Revise Explore Create Observe Synthesize Acknowledge Sources Document Processes Resources What have we discovered and how will we show our deeper understanding? How are we going to use what we have discovered (e.g., apply, act, implement)?24 English Language Arts 2
  29. 29. Inquiry prompts and motivates students to investigate topics withinmeaningful contexts. The inquiry process is not linear or lock-stepbut is flexible and recursive. As they become more comfortable withthe process, experienced inquirers will move back and forth amongvarious phases as new questions arise.Well-formulated inquiry questions are broad in scope and rich inpossibilities. Such questions encourage students to explore, observe,gather information, plan, analyze, interpret, synthesize, problem solve,take risks, create, conclude, document, reflect on learning, and developnew questions for further inquiry.Teachers and students can begin their inquiry at one or morecurriculum entry points; however, the process may evolve intotransdisciplinary integrated learning opportunities, as reflective of theholistic nature of our lives and interdependent global environment.An important part of any inquiry process is students’ reflection ontheir learning and the documentation needed to assess the learningand make it visible to students. Student documentation of the inquiryprocess in English language arts may take the form of reflectivejournals, notes, drafts, three-dimensional models, works of art,photographs, and video footage.Social responsibility encourages students to extend their learningbeyond the classroom into the local, national, and internationalcommunity. It invites students to consider how individuals or groupscan shape the future in a positive way or address an issue, question,challenge, or problem that is important. Each unit at each grade levelin English language arts offers opportunities to challenge studentsto consider what particular local, national, or global issues, questions,challenges, or problems are important and to consider what studentsmight do to make their community or the world a better place.Social responsibility challenges students to address the important orcompelling questions for deeper understanding posed in a unit. In anyEnglish language arts unit, teachers and students can plan and create aproject to support efficacy.Social responsibility can help students: • Become complex thinkers by encouraging them to synthesize their learning and apply it to their community, country, and/or international world. • Become more aware of the interconnectedness of all things and the reciprocal relationships between themselves and their local and international community. • Become more independent by using the language skills and strategies that students are learning in ELA beyond the classroom.English Language Arts 2 25
  30. 30. • Become more motivated by choosing individual or group projects related to each unit. • Become contributors to their community and the world beyond that community. • Become more collaborative and respectful as they work with others to address the questions, issues, and problems considered in the unit. • Become agents of change. • Become socially responsible. Student self-reflection helps students take ownership of their own learning and become more self-directed and self-confident. The Assess and Reflect K-12 goal in English language arts expects students to consider what they know and have learned, the progress and achievements made, and the goals they need to set to improve. Using tools such as learning logs and diaries, discussion, questionnaires, reflective writing, and portfolios, students can reflect on their learning both as a team and as individuals. Through self-reflection, students can determine their current and future learning needs and set goals for growth. Using Bloom’s taxonomy of questioning, teachers can help students become self-reflective and self-directed: • What did I do? (Remember/Knowledge) • What knowledge, skills, and strategies did I use to complete the task? (Understand/Comprehension) • What steps did I take to achieve this? (Application) • What challenges or problems did I encounter, and how did I address these? (Analysis) • What are my strengths, and what would I like to learn more about, or what skills and strategies do I want to develop? (Evaluation) • How can I use this new knowledge and these new skills and strategies? (Create)26 English Language Arts 2
  31. 31. Outcomes and IndicatorsFocus: Exploring the Connections among Oral Discourse, Written Communication, andOther Forms of Representing Comprehend and Respond (CR). Students will develop their abilities to view, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of contemporary and traditional grade-level-appropriate texts in a variety of forms (oral, print, and other media) from First Nations, Métis, and other cultures for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest, and enjoyment.Outcomes IndicatorsCR2.1 Comprehend and a. View, listen to, read, and respond to a variety of texts includingrespond to a variety of First Nations and Métis resources that present differentgrade-level texts (including viewpoints and perspectives on issues and topics related tocontemporary and traditional identity, community, and social responsibility and relate to ownvisual, oral, written, and experiences.multimedia) that address: b. Discuss the experiences and traditions of various communities • identity (e.g., Just Watch and cultures portrayed in texts including First Nations and Métis Me) resources. • community (e.g., People and c. Connect situations portrayed in texts (including First Nations and Places) Métis texts) to personal experiences and prior learning. • social responsibility (e.g., d. Identify similarities and differences between what is known and Friendship) and make what is presented in texts. connections to prior learning and experiences.CR2.2 View and explain (with a. View and demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriatesupport from the text) the key visual and multimedia texts including multimedia clips, signs,literal and inferential ideas illustrations, diagrams, photographs, graphs, simple charts, and(messages), important details, posters.and how elements (such as b. Select and use task-relevant before, during, and after strategies tocolour, layout, medium, and construct meaning when viewing.special fonts) enhance meaning c. Understand and apply the appropriate cues and conventionsin grade-appropriate visual and (pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological,multimedia texts. graphophonic, and other) to construct and confirm meaning when viewing. d. Obtain information from different media (e.g., multimedia clips, websites, video clips, magazine photographs). e. Show courtesy and respect while viewing (e.g., presentations by individuals from various cultures including First Nations and Métis). f. View and interpret, with teacher support, the purpose of a message (e.g., to sell a product, to express feelings, to inform). g. Distinguish between fact (observable) and fantasy (imagined).English Language Arts 2 27
  32. 32. Outcomes IndicatorsCR2.2 continued h. Identify the intent and appeal of particular television advertisements aimed at children. i. Distinguish between a commercial and a program on television. j. Explain how elements such as colour, sound, music, physical movement, and arrangement enhance visual and multimedia texts and products including First Nations and Métis texts, visual art works, and performances such as music, dance, and drama.CR2.3 Listen and retell (with a. Listen and demonstrate comprehension by retelling key pointssupport from the text) the key (who, what, where, when, and why) in grade-appropriateliteral and inferential ideas literary and informational texts including First Nations and Métis(messages) and important resources.details heard in small- and b. Select and use task-relevant before, during, and after strategies tolarge-group activities, and construct meaning when listening.follow oral directions and c. Understand and apply the appropriate cues and conventionsdemonstrations. (pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other) to construct and confirm meaning when listening. d. Listen to and follow independently a series of related directions or instructions related to class activities. e. Paraphrase information that has been shared by others (e.g., a visitor such as a grandparent, an Elder, or a Knowledge Keeper). f. Ask for clarification and explanation of oral stories and information (including stories and information from contemporary and traditional First Nations and Métis resources). g. Follow and retell the important steps in demonstrations. h. Listen courteously during discussions and while working in pairs and small groups to share ideas, obtain information, solve problems, and ask and respond to relevant questions. i. Recall several ideas about a topic presented or discussed in class.28 English Language Arts 2
  33. 33. Outcomes IndicatorsCR2.4 Read and demonstrate a. Read and understand a variety of grade-level-appropriate narrativecomprehension of grade- and informational texts including legends, traditional stories andappropriate literary and folktales, poetry, environmental print, and predictable booksinformational texts read including First Nations and Métis resources.silently and orally by relating b. Select and use task-relevant before, during, and after strategies toand retelling key events and construct meaning when reading.ideas in sequence with specificdetails and discussing how, c. Understand and apply the appropriate cues and conventionswhy, and what if questions. (pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other) to construct and confirm meaning when reading. d. Read and retell (with support from the text) the key events and elements of a story (including setting, characters, character traits, problem and solution, and sequence of events). e. Read and retell the key ideas and elements (including main idea, supporting details, diagrams, headings, table of contents, glossary) of informational texts including First Nations and Métis resources. f. Read aloud with fluency, expression, and comprehension any familiar text that is appropriate for grade 2. g. Follow written instructions. h. Read appropriate fiction and non-fiction texts at a reasonable rate (70-100 wcpm orally; 95-145 silently) with fluent pacing on practiced texts. i. Read familiar poem aloud with expression and attention to flow. j. Read most texts silently. Compose and Create (CC). Students will develop their abilities to speak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore and present thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences.Outcomes IndicatorsCC2.1 Compose and create a a. Use words, symbols, and other forms, including appropriaterange of visual, multimedia, technology, to express understanding of topics, themes, and issuesoral, and written texts that and make connections to own life.explore: b. Create spoken, written, and other representations that include: • identity (e.g., My Family and • a specific message Friends) • community (e.g., Our • several related ideas which are logically organized and Community) developed • social responsibility (e.g., TV • ideas and information which are clear and complete Ads for Children) and make • appropriate use of language and conventions including connections to own life. conventional print.English Language Arts 2 29