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Pscyh & Motivation

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    Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on instructor resource slides from Wiley.
    Description: This lecture concludes and review the motivation and emotion unit.
    Wednesday 13 November, 2013, 12:30-14:30, 12B2
    7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G
    Centre for Applied Psychology
    Faculty of Health
    University of Canberra
    Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia
    ph: +61 2 6201 2536
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  • Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 1.1 illustrates the function and utility of a good theory.
  • “Reactance is a motivational reaction to offers, persons, rules, or regulations that threaten or eliminate specific behavioral freedoms. Reactance occurs when a person feels that someone or something is taking away his or her choices or limiting the range of alternatives.
    Reactance can occur when someone is heavily pressured to accept a certain view or attitude. Reactance can cause the person to adopt or strengthen a view or attitude that is contrary to what was intended, and also increases resistance to persuasion. People using reverse psychology are playing on at least an informal awareness of reactance, attempting to influence someone to choose the opposite of what they request.” (Wikipedia (Reactance (psychology)), 2013/11/13)
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  • What does the future have in store for you?
    How able are to copewith what the future has in store for you?
  • “Of the four sources of self-efficacy, personal behaviour history is the most influential (Bandura, 1986).” (Reeve, 2009, p. 235)
    Modeling influence depends on perceived similarity of actor and personal experience.
    Personal behaviour history and vicarious experience are generally the stronger sources of efficacy information (Reeve, 2009, p. 237)
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  • Two practical points about self-efficacy:
    Self-efficacy beliefs can be acquired and changed
    The level of self-efficacy predicts ways of coping that can be called “competence functioning” or “personal empowerment”
    Thus, self-efficacy expectations provide the cognitive-motivational foundation underlying personal empowerment.
    An example is the self-defense and emotion-management 5-week training program (Ozer & Bandura, 1990). Other contexts include children's literacy, IT or public speaking skills, therapists, sales people etc.
    (Reeve, 2009, p. 241)
  • Basically, what happens during encounters with failure?
  • Also consider biological, psychoevolutionary, cognitive, developmental, psychoanalytical, social, sociological, cultural, and anthropological.
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  • Transpersonal experiences may be defined as "experiences in which the sense of identity or self extends beyond (trans) the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche or cosmos".[1]
    Issues considered in transpersonal psychology include spiritual self-development, self beyond the ego, peak experiences, mystical experiences, systemic trance and other sublime and/or unusually expanded experiences of living.
    - from Wikipedia article on Transpersonal psychology
  • Along with existentialism and gestalt psychology, holism asserts that …
    Any event that affects one system affects the whole person
  • Along with existentialism and gestalt psychology, holism asserts that …
    Any event that affects one system affects the whole person
  • “Through openness, one leaves behind timidity and defensive appraisals and moves towards greater mindfulness, the courage to create, and realistic appraisals. Through autonomy, one leaves behind a dependence on others and moves toward self-realisatization. (Reeve, 2009, p. 421)
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  • Psychconclusionandreview 111114224306-phpapp01

    1. 1. Motivation & Emotion Conclusion and review Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2013 Image source 1
    2. 2. Outline – Conclusion and review 1. Review of key content (Ch 1 - 15) 2. Conclusion (Reeve, Ch 16) 3. Feedback 2
    3. 3. Review of key content Reading: Reeve (2009) Chs 1-15 3
    4. 4. Case study scenario 1: Teenager struggling at school Mikaela, your neighbour drops by looking like she is at the end of her tether :(. Her teenage daughter is doing poorly in school and is considering dropping out. Your neighbour's face turns serious as she seeks your advice, “What can I do? How can I motivate my daughter?”. It has come down to this – a knock on the door and the distressed face of a concerned parent. What can you recommend? Based on Reeve (2009, p. 447) 4
    5. 5. Motivation is about explaining why  Why do we do what we do?  Why are we afraid or resistant? Empirically supported theories can help diagnose, predict, and intervene. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 449) 5
    6. 6. What is motivation? "motivation" derives from the Latin verb movere (to move) Image source:, CC-by-A 2.0 6
    7. 7. Motivation = Energy + Direction Processes that give behaviour energy and direction. Energy: Behaviour is relatively strong, intense and persistent  Direction: Behaviour is aimed toward achieving a particular purpose or goal  7
    8. 8. Explaining motivation: Why we do what we do Reasons for behaviour Motivation theories Why we do what we do Why we want what we want explain Motivational states How motives intensify, change, and fade Based on Reeve (2009, p. 449) 8
    9. 9. Predicting motivation: Identifying antecedents Which antecedent conditions energise and direct behaviour? Environmental Interpersonal Intrapsychic Motivation & emotion Physiological Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 449-450) 9
    10. 10. Four motivational sources The four processes capable of giving behavior strength and purpose - its energy and direction Needs Cognitions Internal motives The subject matter of motivation concerns those processes that give behavior its energy and direction. Emotions External events Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.2, pp. 8-9) 10
    11. 11. Framework to understand the study of motivation Antecedent Conditions Motive Status Urge to Approach vs. Avoid Needs Cognitions Energising & Directing Sense of “Wanting to” • • • • Behaviour Engagement Physiology Self-Report Emotions Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.5, p. 22) 11
    12. 12. Using motivational theories to solve practical problems Practical Problem e.g., • Student dropout • Mediocre performance Given What I know About Human Motivation & Emotion Proposed Solution/ Intervention, if any • Theories • Empirical findings • Practical experience • Do I have a strong reason to believe that my proposed intervention will produce positive benefits? • Do no harm Based on Reeve (2009, p. 22) 12
    13. 13. Abbreviated list of the mini-theories Achievement motivation theory (Atkinson, 1964) Attributional theory of achievement motivation (Weiner, 1972) Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) Effectance motivation (White, 1959; Harter, 1978a) Expectancy x value theory (Vroom, 1964) Goal-setting theory (Locke, 1968) Intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1975) Learned helplessness theory (Seligman, 1975) Reactance theory (Brehm, 1966) Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977) Self-schemas (Markus, 1977) Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 35-38) 13
    14. 14. The motivated & emotional brain “The brain is not only a thinking brain, it is also the center of motivation and emotion.” Brain Thinking brain Cognitive & Intellectual Functions “What task it is doing” Motivated brain “Whether you want to do it” Emotional brain Image source: Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 49-50) “What your mood is while doing it” 14
    15. 15. Brain & physiological sources of motivation and emotion  Brain structures (e.g., for approach and avoid – left and right pre-frontal cortex respectively)  Hormones (e.g., for ghrelin/leptin for hunger/satiation, oxytocin for bonding)  Neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine for reward) Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 3) 15
    16. 16. The world in which brain lives Based on Reeve (2009), Ch 3 Motivation cannot be separated from the social context in which it is embedded • Environmental events act as the natural stimulators of the brain’s basic motivational process. We are not always consciously aware of the motivational basis of our behaviour • A person is not consciously aware of why he or she committed the social or antisocial act. 16
    17. 17. Need: Any condition within an organism that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. When needs are nurtured and satisfied, well-being is maintained and enhanced. If neglected or frustrated, the need’s thwarting will produce damage that disrupts biological or psychological well-being. Motivational states therefore provide the impetus to act before damage occurs to psychological and bodily well-being. Based on Reeve (2009) 17
    18. 18. Need structure: Types of needs Needs Physiological Needs Psychological Needs (Chapter 4) (Chapter 6) • • • Thirst Hunger Sex Inherent within the workings of biological systems • • • Autonomy Competence Relatedness Based on Reeve (2009) Social Needs (Chapter 7) • • • • Achievement Affiliation Intimacy Power Internalised or learned from our emotional and socialisation histories 18
    19. 19. Failures to self-regulate physiological needs People fail at self-regulation for three primary reasons 1 2 3 People routinely underestimate how powerful a motivational force biological urges can be when they are not currently experiencing them. People can lack standards, or they have inconsistent, conflicting, unrealistic, or inappropriate standards. People fail to monitor what they are doing as they become distracted, preoccupied, overwhelmed, or intoxicated. 19
    20. 20. Psychological need Inherent source of motivation that generates the desire to interact with the environment so as to advance personal growth, social development, and psychological wellbeing.  “when people find themselves in environments that support and nurture their psychological needs, then positive emotions, optimal experience, and healthy development follow.” (Reeve, p. 142)  Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 142-143) 20
    21. 21. Self-determination theory Three psychological needs Autonomy Competence Based on Reeve (2009, p. 145) Relatedness 21
    22. 22. Four essential ways of supporting autonomy Based on Reeve (2009, p. 149) 1. Nurture inner motivational resources 2. Rely on informational language 3. Promote explanatory rationales 4. Acknowledge & accept negative feedback 22
    23. 23. Involving competence Key environmental conditions Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 155-159) 1. Optimal challenge and flow • Flow: a state of concentration that involves a holistic absorption in an activity 2. Interdependency between challenge and feedback • Setting the stage for challenge • Performance feedback 3. Structure • Information about the pathways to desired outcomes • Support and guidance for pursing these pathways 4. Failure tolerance • Considerable error making is essential for optimising learning. • Failure produces opportunities for learning. 23
    24. 24. Relatedness Involving relatedness: Interaction with others • Emotionally positive interactions and interaction partners Supporting relatedness: Perception of a social bond • Intimate and high-quality relationships that involve caring, liking, accepting, and valuing Communal & exchange relationships • In communal relationships, people care for the needs of the other, and both feel an obligation to support the other’s welfare Internalisation • Relationships that provide a rich supply of relatedness need satisfaction and clear and convincing rationale for the other’s prescriptions and proscriptions Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 162-165) 24
    25. 25. What makes for a good day? Based on Reeve (2009 pp. 167-168) Daily Autonomy Psychological Nutriments for Good Days Daily Competence Daily Relatedness Psychological Nutriments necessary for Good Days, Positive Well-Being, and Vitality 25
    26. 26. Social needs Definition: An acquired psychological process that grows out of one’s socialisation history that activates emotional responses to a particular needrelevant incentive. Examples: Achievement ● Affiliation ● Intimacy ● Power ● Based on Reeve (2009, p. 173) 26
    27. 27. Primary need-activating incentive Incentive that activates each social need’s emotional and behaviour potential Social need Incentive that activates each need Achievement Doing something well to show personal competence Affiliation Opportunity to please others and gain their approval Intimacy Warm, secure relationship Power Based on Having Reeve (2009, Table 7.2, p. 175) impact on others 27
    28. 28. Achievement goals - Develop one’s competence Mastery Goals - Improve the self - Overcome difficulties with effort and persistence Two Main Achievement Goals Performance Goals Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 183-184) - Make progress - Prove one’s competence - Display high ability - Outperform others - Succeed with little apparent effort 28
    29. 29. Benefits of adopting mastery goals Preference for a challenging task one can learn from Adoption of a mastery goal (rather than a performance goal) Based on Reeve (2009) Use conceptually based learning strategies Experience greater intrinsic than extrinsic motivation More likely to ask for information & help Work harder Persist longer Perform better 29
    30. 30. Avoidance motivation & well-being Fear of failure Performanceavoidanc e goals Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 187-189) LOW *Self-esteem *Personal control *Vitality *Life satisfaction *Psychological wellbeing 30
    31. 31. Affiliation and intimacy Profile of high intimacy motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Table 7.7, p. 192) 31
    32. 32. Conditions that involve & satisfy the affiliation and intimacy needs Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 193-195) Affiliation need ‘Deficiency-oriented motive’ Intimacy need ‘Growth-oriented motive’ Needinvolving condition Deprivation from social interaction: Social isolation and fear Interpersonal caring, warmth, and love Needsatisfying condition Social acceptance, approval, and reassurance Relatedness within a warm, close, reciprocal & enduring relationships 32
    33. 33. Power The need to impact on others Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 196-198) Conditions that involve and satisfy the need for power • Leadership • Aggressiveness • Influential occupations • Prestige possessions Power and goal pursuit • Power increases approach tendencies. • People high in the need for power more easily acquire the goals they seek. 33
    34. 34. Motivation to exercise personal control: Initial assumptions and understandings  People desire control over their environment so as to be able to make:  positive outcomes ↑ likely outcomes ↓ likely Exercising personal control is predicated upon a person's belief that s/he has the power to influence results favourably. The strength with which people try to exercise personal control can be traced to their expectancies of being able to do so.  negative   Based on Reeve (2009, p. 231) 34
    35. 35. Two kinds of expectancies Expectancy: A subjective prediction of how likely it is that an event will occur. Efficacy expectations “Can I do it?” Expectation of being able to enact the behaviours needed to cope effectively with the situation at hand. e.g., Can I do 20 mins on a treadmill, 3 x week for 12 months? Outcome expectations “Will what I do work?” Expectation that one's behaviour will produce positive outcomes (or prevent negative outcomes). e.g., Would I lose 5 kgs as a result? Motivation to exercise personal control Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 231-232) 35
    36. 36. Self-efficacy One’s judgment of how well one will cope with a situation (given the skills one possesses and the circumstances one faces). Capacity to improvise ways to translate personal abilities into effective performance. The opposite of self-efficacy is self-doubt. Self-efficacy predicts the motivational balance between wanting to give it a try vs. anxiety, doubt and avoidance. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 233-235) 36
    37. 37. Sources & effects of self-efficacy Sources of self-efficacy Personal behaviour history Effects of self-efficacy Extent of self-efficacy Choice (Approach vs. avoid) Vicarious experience (Modeling) Effort and persistence Verbal persuasion (Pep talk) Thinking and decision making Physiological activity Emotional reactions (Stress, anxiety) Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 9.3, pp. 235-240) Image source: 37
    38. 38. Empowerment Empowerment involves possessing the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that allow people to exert control over their lives. Self-efficacy beliefs Knowledge Skills Empowerment Based on Reeve (2009, p. 241) 38
    39. 39. Mastery versus helplessness Mastery motivational orientation Helpless motivational orientation • A hardy, resistant portrayal of the self during encounters of failure • Failure feedback can be helpful and constructive information. • A fragile view of the self during encounters of failure • Failure feedback is a sign of personal inadequacy. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 243-244) 39
    40. 40. Explanatory style: Relatively stable, cognitively-based personality orientation Attributions vary in their locus, stability and controllability Optimistic explanatory style • Explains bad events with attributions that are unstable and controllable • Related to the self-serving bias of an illusion of control which contributes to enhancing self-esteem and promoting an optimistic view of the future Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 253-255) Pessimistic explanatory style • Explains bad events with attributions that are stable and uncontrollable • Associated with academic failure, social distress, impaired job performance, physical illness, and depression 40
    41. 41. Six dimensions of psychological well-being 1. Self-acceptance 2. Positive relations with others 3. Autonomy 4. Environmental mastery 5. Purpose in life 6. Personal growth Based on Reeve (2009, Table 10. 1, p. 265) which is based on Ryff (1991) 41
    42. 42. The self Four topics taking center stage Defining or creating the self Relating the self to society Discovering & developing personal potential Managing or regulating the self Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 264-266) 42
    43. 43. Self-concept (cognitive structure) Set of beliefs an individual uses to conceptualise his or her self e.g., “I am....” (self-descriptions) Cluster of domain-specific self-schemas a reflection of the invariance people have discovered in their own social behaviour. (the way the self has been differentiated and articulated in memory) Based on Reeve (2009, p. 268) 43
    44. 44. Motivational properties of self-schemas Consistent self Self-schemas direct behaviour to confirm the self-view and to prevent episodes that generate feedback that might disconfirm that self-view. Possible self Self-schemas generate motivation to move the present self toward a desired future self. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 269-272) 44
    45. 45. Benefits of well-developed self-schema Process information about the self with relative ease. Quickly retrieve selfrelated behavioural evidence from the domain. Benefits of well-developed self-schema Confidently predict his own future behaviour in the domain. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 268-270) Resist counter-schematic information about him/herself. 45
    46. 46. Possible selves Representations of attributes, characteristics, and abilities that the self does not yet possess. Mostly social in origin, as the individual observes the selves modeled by others. The possible self’s motivational role is to link the present self with ways to become the possible (ideal) self. An important piece of the puzzle in understanding how the self develops Portraying the self as a dynamic entity with a past, present, and future. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 273-275) 46
    47. 47. Cognitive dissonance Cognitive dissonance A state of tension that occurs whenever an individual simultaneously holds two cognitions (ideas, attitudes, beliefs, opinions) that are psychologically inconsistent with one another. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 275-276) Assumptions Most people are motivated to justify their own actions, beliefs, and feelings. People are not rational beings; instead, people are rationalising beings. 47
    48. 48. Definition of emotion “Emotions are … short-lived, feeling-arousal-purposiveexpressive phenomena that helps us adapt to the opportunities and challenges we face during important life events.” Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 301) 48
    49. 49. What is an emotion? Bodily arousal Feelings • Physiological activation • Bodily preparation for action • Motor responses • Subjective experience • Phenomenological awareness • Cognition Emotion Sense of purpose • Goal-directed motivational state • Functional aspect Social-expressive Significant life event • Social communication • Facial expression • Vocal expression Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 11.1 Four components of emotion, p. 300) 49
    50. 50. Relationship between motivation & emotion Emotion as motivation Emotions are one type of motive which energises and directs behaviour. Emotion as readout Emotions serve as an ongoing “readout” to indicate how well or how poorly personal adaptation is going. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 301-303) 50
    51. 51. What causes an emotion? Significant situational event Cognitive processes Feelings Sense of purpose Bodily arousal Biological processes Social-expressive Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 11.3, Causes of the emotion experience, p. 303) 51
    52. 52. How many emotions are there? Basic emotions (Families/clusters of emotions) Basic emotions Fear Anger Disgust Sadness Negative emotion themes • Response to threat and harm • Potential of threatening and harmful events causes fear. • In fighting off or rejecting them we experience anger and disgust. • After they occur, there is sadness Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 312-317) Joy Interest Positive emotion themes • Motive involvement (Interest) • Satisfaction (Joy) 52
    53. 53. What good are the emotions? Utility of emotion Coping functions Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 317-320) Social functions 53
    54. 54. Coping functions of emotion Based on Reeve (2009, Table 11.1 Functional view of emotional behaviour, pp. 318, from Plutchik (1980, p. 289)) 54
    55. 55. Social functions of emotion 1. Communicate our feelings to others. 2. Influence how others interact with us. 3. Invite & facilitate social interaction. 4. Create, maintain, & dissolve relationships. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 319-320) 55
    56. 56. Individual differences in happiness, arousal, & control Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 368-369) Why do different people have different motivational and emotional states even in the same situation? 56
    57. 57. Personality & happiness Extraversion Neuroticism Happiness Unhappiness Happiness set point Unhappiness set point Based on Reeve (2009, p. 370) 57
    58. 58. Natural happiness and synthetic happiness Natural happiness: Occurs when you get what you want.  Synthetic happiness: Occurs when you accept that you didn't get what you want.   Synthetic happiness is as real as natural happiness  e.g., in dating, you look to get what you want, in marriage, you find a way to like what you’ve got. 58
    59. 59. Sensation seeking Defined as “the seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal, and financial risks for the sake of such experiences”. (Zuckerman, 1994) Based on Reeve (2009, p. 379) 59
    60. 60. Sensation seeking  Sensation seeking determines how a person reacts to a situation or event.  Sensation seeking determines the situations and activities a person chooses. 60
    61. 61. Affect intensity Figure 13.5 Daily Mood Reports Graphed Over 80 Consecutive Days Affect-stable individuals Affect-intense individuals Based on Reeve (2009, p. 382)
    62. 62. Control Perceived control The extent to which an individual believes that s/he possesses the capacity needed to produce positive outcomes. Based on Reeve (2009, p. 384) Desire for control The extent to which individuals are motivated to establish control over the events in their lives. 62
    63. 63. Contemporary psychodynamic perspective 1. The unconscious Much of mental life is unconscious. 2. Psychodynamics Mental processes operate in parallel with one another. 3. Ego development Healthy development involves moving from an immature socially dependent personality to one that is more mature and interdependent with others. → Ego effectance 4. Object relations theory Mental representations of self and other form in childhood that guide the person’s later social motivations and relationships. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 395-396) 63
    64. 64. Evolution of paradigms in psychology st 1 force: Psychoanalytic nd 2 force: Behaviourism rd 3 force: Humanistic th 4 force: Transpersonal 64
    65. 65. Holism     Human motives are integrated wholes (rather than a sum of parts). Personal growth is the ultimate motivational force. Stresses “top-down” master motives such as the self and its strivings toward fulfillment Focuses on discovering human potential and encouraging its development Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 419-421) 65
    66. 66. Positive psychology  Focuses on proactive building of personal strengths and competencies  Seeks to make people stronger and more productive, and to actualise the human potential in all of us  Uses scientific methods to identify evidence-based methods Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 419-421) 66
    67. 67. Self-actualisation The desire for self-fulfillment, the tendency to actualise one's potential. The desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. Motivation and personality (Maslow, 1954) Two fundamental directions that characterise self-actualisation as a process Autonomy Greater mindfulness Courage to create Realistic appraisals Openness Selfrealisation Based on Reeve (2009, p. 421) 67
    68. 68. Behaviours that encourage self-actualisation       Make growth choices (progression vs. regression or growth vs. fear) Be honest (when in doubt) Situationally position yourself for peak experiences Give up defensiveness Let the self emerge (listen to impulse voices rather than introjected voices) Be open to experience (identify defences and have the courage to give them up) Based on Reeve (2009, Table 15.1, pp. 424-425) and Maslow (pp. 44-49 68
    69. 69. Actualising tendency “The organism has one basic tendency and striving – to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing self.” (Rogers, 1951) Actualising tendency • Innate, a continual presence that quietly guides the individual toward genetically determined potentials • Motivates the individual to want to undertake new and challenging experiences Organismic valuation process • Innate capability for judging whether a specific experience promotes or reverses growth • Provides the interpretive information needed for deciding whether the new undertaking is growth-promoting or not Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 425-430) 69
    70. 70. Fully functioning individual Emergence Acceptance Expression Onset of innate desire, impulse, or motive Desire, impulse, or motive is accepted “as is” into consciousness Unedited communication of desire, impulse, or motive Figure 15.3 Fully functioning as the emergence, acceptance, and expression of a motive Based on Reeve (2009, p. 431) 70
    71. 71. Organismic valuing process This process may include any of the following principles:  Authenticity  Autonomy  Internal locus of evaluation  Unconditional positive self-regard  Process living  Relatedness  Openness to inner and outer experience Based on ChangingMinds - 71
    72. 72. Autonomy causality orientation     Relies on internal guides (e.g., needs, interests) Pays closer attention to one’ s own needs and feelings Relates to intrinsic motivation and identified regulation Correlates with positive functioning (e.g., self-actualisation, ego development, openness to experience etc.) Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 431-434) 72
    73. 73. Control causality orientation    Relies on external guides (e.g., social cues) Pays closer attention to behavioural incentives & social expectations Relates to extrinsic regulation and introjected regulation Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 431-434) 73
    74. 74. How relationships support the actualising tendency Quality of interpersonal relationships Warmth Genuineness Empathy Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 436-439) Interpersonal acceptance Confirmation of the other person’s capacity for selfdetermination 74
    75. 75. Positive psychology & growth • Looks at people’s mental health and the quality of their lives to ask, Positive “What could be?” psychology • Seeks to build people’s strengths and competencies Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 440-441) 75
    76. 76. Conclusion Reading: Reeve (2009) Ch 16 (pp. 447-464) 76
    77. 77. Outline – Conclusion   Case study scenario Understanding & applying motivation     Explaining motivation: Why we do what we do Predicting motivation: Identifying antecedents Applying motivation: Solving problems Motivating self & others    Motivating self Motivating others Feedback on how the effort to motivate self and others  Designing motivational interventions    Four case studies Four success stories Wisdom gained from a scientific study of motivation and emotion Based on Reeve (2009, p. 447) 77
    78. 78. Case study scenario 1: Teenager struggling at school Mikaela, your neighbour drops by looking like she is at the end of her tether :(. Her teenage daughter is doing poorly in school and is considering dropping out. Your neighbour's face turns serious as she seeks your advice, “What can I do? How can I motivate my daughter?”. It has come down to this – a knock on the door and the distressed face of a concerned parent. What can you recommend? Based on Reeve (2009, p. 447) 78
    79. 79. Motivational intervention: Three objectives  Causes? Diagnose why the person is experiencing motivational problems (Explaining)  Sources? Identify the key sources of the person’s motivation (Predicting)  Strategies? Apply knowledge about motivation to solve the problem (Applying) Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 456-457) 79
    80. 80. Understanding & applying motivation Three objectives EXPLAIN (Causes) PREDICT (Sources) APPLY (Strategies) Why people do what they do How conditions will affect motivation and emotion Motivational principles to solve practical problems Based on Reeve (2009, p. 448) 80
    81. 81. Case study scenario 1: Teenager struggling at school Three objectives EXPLAIN (Causes) Extrinsic motivation? Lack of goals? Quality of relationships? Lack of meaning? Based on Reeve (2009, p. 448) PREDICT (Sources) APPLY (Strategies) Ask what is working? (build on strengths/ interests) Ask her about emotions? Help build skills? (competence) Help her identify goals? 81
    82. 82. Applying motivation: Solving problems Two questions: How do I motivate myself?  How do I motivate others?  Solving motivational problems Accentuate what is working Fix what isn't working • Amplifying strengths • Repairing weaknesses • Improving functioning • Overcoming pathology Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 450-451) 82
    83. 83. Motivating self and others Resource for motivating self Life-long development of inner motivational resources Environmental conditions Motive status Situational events • Cognitions • Emotions • Needs Outcomes • Performance • Engagement • Approach • Well-being Resource for motivating others Quality of interpersonal relationships Figure 16.1 Framework to think about motivating self and motivating others Based on Reeve (2009, p. 453) 83
    84. 84. Motivating self Nurturing resources for motivating self: Life-long development of productive inner motivational resources Growing approach-oriented needs, cognitions, and emotions Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 451-453) Experiencing strong, resilient, and productive motivational states 84
    85. 85. Motivating others Who is motivating the person? The person (self) Motivator Outside force Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 453-455) 85
    86. 86. Motivating others Is the social context supporting the person’s personal causation and inner motivational resources? Supports? Interpersonal relationship the person’s motivation Undermines? Primary goal Enhancing the other’s capacity for personal causation (NOT producing compliance or a predetermined pattern of desired behaviour) Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 453-455) 86
    87. 87. Feedback on how the effort to motivate self and others is going Feedback mechanism Emotions • Interest • Enjoyment • Optimism vs. • Apathy • Anger • Pessimism Based on Reeve (2009, p. 455) Overt behaviours Intense effort ● Long persistence ● Short latency to begin ● High probability of occurrence ● Well-being Changes in vitality and well-being ● 87
    88. 88. Designing motivational interventions Four success stories: 1. Attaining personal goals 2. Motivating students 3. Suppressing the urge to smoke 4. Autonomy-supportive parenting Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 456-464) 88
    89. 89. Success stories: Attaining personal goals      Students listed goals to attain in a semester Rated extent to which goals reflect personal interests and values Self-management plans identified sources of distraction and counter-behaviours 62% of goals completed – sig. higher for selfconcordant goals with implementation plans Take-home message: Self-concordant goals + implementation plans → success Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 459-460) 89
    90. 90. Success stories: Attaining personal goals Self-concordant goals Goals: What people want to accomplish Self-concordance: Why people pursue these particular goals Clear implementation intentions High levels of goal progress, accomplishment, and positive affect How people plan to reach the goals Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 457-464) 90
    91. 91. Success stories: Motivating students     Poor school attendance and performance Intervention: Activities to bolster personal causation (perceived autonomy) in regard to schoolwork Personal causation → Achievement motivation → Achievement Long-term effects Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 460-462) 91
    92. 92. Success stories: Suppressing the urge to smoke   Nicotine → Dopamine (reinforcement) → More Nicotine use Intervention: Nicotine blocker → Low dopamine release (less reinforcements) → decreased urge to smoke Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 462-463) 92
    93. 93. Success stories: Autonomy-supportive parenting     Jennifer, 10, danced since 4, but now wants to do team sports with her friends Parents supported Jennifer's strivings and autonomy (avoiding amotivation/learned helplessness and aggressive reactance) Jennifer later requested to return to dance Parents motivated daughter by providing a relationship that supported and affirmed daughter's capacity for self-determination and autonomous self-regulation Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 460-462) 93
    94. 94. Nuggets of wisdom In tutorials, we will collect and organise your “nuggets of wisdom” (short statements about your greatest insights from the unit).  e.g., ● What has been your most significant learning about motivation and emotion? ● What is the take-home message from your book chapter? 94
    95. 95. Wisdom gained from a scientific study of motivation & emotion 1. Human nature can be discovered using scientific methods 2. What we don't know about motivation and emotion exceeds what we do know 3. The brain is as much about motivation and emotion as it is about cognition and thinking 4.We routinely underestimate how powerful a motivational force biological urges can be when we are currently not experiencing them  Based on Reeve (2009, p. 464) 95
    96. 96. Wisdom gained from a scientific study of motivation & emotion 5. The quality of one's motivation matters as much as does its quantity 6. To flourish, motivation needs supportive conditions, especially supportive relationships 7. We share many of the same needs, while other needs are acquired through experience 8. We do not do our best when we “try to do our best”; rather, we do our best when pursue a difficult, specific goal  Based on Reeve (2009, p. 464) 96
    97. 97. Wisdom gained from a scientific study of motivation and emotion 9. The cognitive pillars of motivated action are “I can do it” and “It will work.” 10. Boosting self-esteem is a poor motivational strategy. 11. All emotions are good. 12. Emotions are biological, cognitive, and social reactions to important events in our life.  Based on Reeve (2009, p. 464) 97
    98. 98. Wisdom gained from a scientific study of motivation and emotion 13. Happiness lies in our genes and in what we choose to strive for. 14. We are not always consciously aware of the motivational basis of our behaviour. 15. Encouraging growth is more productive than is trying to cure weakness. 16. There is nothing so practical as a good theory.  Based on Reeve (2009, p. 464) 98
    99. 99. Feedback 99
    100. 100. Learning outcomes Integrate theories and current research towards explaining the role of motivation and emotions in human behaviour. 100
    101. 101. Generic skills Communication  Working independently and with others  Professionalism and social responsibility   101
    102. 102. Review and feedback What worked for you?  What didn't work so well for you?  How could this unit be improved?  Put honest views in the Unit Satisfaction Survey  Also feel free to contact me directly with your feedback about any aspect of the unit.  102
    103. 103. Ideas and suggestions (2013) 1. * 103
    104. 104. Ideas and suggestions (2011) Quizzes preferred to exam  Quiz autonomy good  Book chapter preferred to essay – more real life/advanced skills, with choice of topic and social expectation  Online platform allowed collaboration and feedback  Multimedia preferred to group presentation  Screenr functionality – no timer shows & if messed up had to re-record  Could people have a choice of presentation format  Extra workshops for book chapter & multimedia – e.g., mid-semester 2/3 might turn up - or tutorials in a lab  Not everyone has internet connection or has limits  Lecture notes – simplifed non-image? - download size  All assessment towards end-of-semester e.g., have a draft 104 
    105. 105. References  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 105 Note: Image credits are in the slide notes which are downloadable from Slideshare
    106. 106. Open Office Impress This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.   106