Cities, social cohesion and the environment

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Cities, social cohesion and the environment

  1. 1. EF5: Cities, social cohesion and the environment PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN IDEAS
  2. 2. KEY THEMES <ul><li>This paper focuses on the link among: </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing the main theories and approaches, and the further research needed. </li></ul>Cities Social cohesion Environment
  3. 3. 1. Link cities-social cohesion- environment <ul><li>Cities are places with nature elements and interactions (green areas, pollution, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>The production of urban environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal power relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion and exclusion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Link cities-social cohesion- environment (II) <ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socio-environmental inequalities exist in urban areas, and several factors like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May condition the access to environmental goods. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Revision of first theories (XIX and XX century) and new ones <ul><li>Antecedents to Urban Sustainability: from Engels (English industrial slums) to the Chicago School (social ecology). </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Justice (EJ) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Political Ecology (UPE) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Revision of first theories (XIX and XX century) and new ones (II) <ul><li>a. Antecedents to Urban Sustainability: </li></ul><ul><li>Study of the complex interaction between urban and environmental processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative consequences of the urbanisation of nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The discovery of bacteria link between: </li></ul>Social exclusion and social inequality urban environmental and sanitary conditions
  7. 7. 2. Revision of first theories (XIX and XX century) and new ones (III) <ul><li>Nature/ecology needs to be taken seriously when designing cities and organising urbanisation . </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Revision of first theories (XIX and XX century) and new ones (IV) <ul><li>b. Urban sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to the efficient and effective use of natural resources, ecological technologies, ... To get sustainable cities. But isolated ones Impossible in a global world. </li></ul><ul><li>In this perspective, social justice and equality is ignored. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Revision of first theories (XIX and XX century) and new ones (V) <ul><li>c. Environmental justice </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses on the relationship between: </li></ul><ul><li>With emphasis on the patterns of sociospatial environment inequality </li></ul>Social inclusion and exclusion urban socio-environmental conditions and socio-political practices
  10. 10. 2. Revision of first theories (XIX and XX century) and new ones (VI) <ul><li>d. Urban Political Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with the p olitical-economic processes, which produce socio-economic inequalities. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitute environmental injustice cannot be ignored. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Revision of first theories (XIX and XX century) and new ones (VII) <ul><li>Environmental justice key for </li></ul><ul><li>+ understanding </li></ul><ul><li> environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Political Ecology justice and exclusion </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Further areas of research <ul><li>Socio-ecological circulation of urban metabolisms </li></ul><ul><li>In cities: </li></ul><ul><li>= Urban metabolism </li></ul>Humans Non humans Energy Infrastructures
  13. 13. 2. Further areas of research (II) <ul><li>Empirical research has started to explore the relations, power inequalities and injustices in the metabolism of cities, but further research is needed to: </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the changing power relations and inequalities in the socio-ecological metabolisms of past, present and future cities. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2. Further areas of research (III) <ul><li>b. Neo-liberal urban environments </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-liberal States in Europe neo-liberalisation of environmental management. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to further explore the link: </li></ul>Neo-liberalisation Environmental justice
  15. 15. 2. Further areas of research (IV) <ul><li>c. Urban socio-ecological movements and the struggles for justice </li></ul><ul><li>People from disadvantaged communities join to struggle for environmental justice/inclusion/equality. </li></ul><ul><li>Research needed about urban socio-ecological movements: how and why they change; how they interconnect; how the understandings of gender/environment relations are projected,... </li></ul>
  16. 16. 2. Further areas of research (V) <ul><li>d. Urban socio-ecological imaginaries: the discourses of urban natures </li></ul><ul><li>The discourses and its practices are essential to understand urban environmental injustice and inequality. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is a dynamic concept, with different meanings, which condition the political responses. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 2. Further areas of research (VI) <ul><li>Further research needed in: </li></ul><ul><li>Relations between discourse, post-political management and environmental justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical research of the visions of alternative discourses </li></ul>
  18. 18. 2. Further areas of research (VII) <ul><li>This research can bring new life into political, ecological and environmental justice and can encourafe a critical and political rethinking of the city/natures we want to be living now and in the future. </li></ul>

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