A project report on advertising effectiveness of cold drinks


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A project report on advertising effectiveness of cold drinks

  1. 1. A project report on advertising effectiveness of cold drinks — Document Transcript1. Projectsformba.blogspot.com A PROJECT REPORT ON―STUDY OF ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS OF COLD-DRINKS IN BHOPAL‖ SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIALFULFILLMENT OF MASTER OF BUSINESSADMINISTRATION SUBMITTED TO:GUIDED BY:SUBMITTED BY: MILLENNIUM INSTITUTE OF TECH. &SCIENCE BARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL YEAR2010Projectsformba.blogspot.com 12. Projectsformba.blogspot.com A PROJECT REPORT ON―STUDY OF ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS OF COLD-DRINKS IN BHOPAL‖ SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIALFULFILLMENT OF MASTER OF BUSINESSADMINISTRATION SUBMITTED BY Under the Guidance Of:FROM MILLENNIUM INSTITUTE OF TECH. & SCIENCEBARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL YEAR2010Projectsformba.blogspot.com 23. Projectsformba.blogspot.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt givesme immense pleasure to present this project report on entitled―STUDY OFADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS OF COLD-DRINKS IN BHOPAL‖ in partialfulfillment of post-graduate courseM.B.A.I take this opportunity to place on record my grateful thanksand gratitude to allthose who gave me valuable advice and inputs formy study. My study could nothave been completed if I had not beenable to get the reference materials from thecompany.I would befailing in my duty if I do not express my deep sense of gratitudetoMiss. SHAZIA QURESHI without her guidance it wouldn‘t have
  2. 2. been possiblefor me to complete this projectwork.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 34. Projectsformba.blogspot.com DECLARATIONI,………………… Student of M.B.A. IV Sem fromMILLENNIUMINSTITUTE OF TECH. & SCIENCE, BHOPAL,Bhopal, declare that theproject work entitled ―STUDY OFADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS OF COLD-DRINKS INBHOPAL‖ was carried by me in the partial fulfillment of MBAprogramunder the University of Bhopal.This project was undertakenas a part of academic curriculum according to theUniversity rulesand norms and it has not commercial interest and motive. It ismyoriginal work. It is not submitted to any other organization forany other purpose.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 45. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PREFACEThe research provides anopportunity to a student to demonstrate application ofhis/herknowledge. Skill and competencies required during the technicalsession.Research also helps the student to devote his /her skill toanalyze the problem tosuggest alternative solution, to evaluate themand to provide feasiblerecommendations on the provideddata.Although I have tried my level best to prepare this report anerror free report everyeffort has been made to offer the mostauthenticate position with accuracy.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 56. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CERTIFICATEThis is to certify thatthe AMRENDRA SINGH has completed project on Entitled―STUDY OF ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS OF COLD-DRINKS INBHOPAL‖hich is based on data collected byresearcher.This report is completed under my supervision. It is onlyfor academic purpose andis a bonafide work done byresearch.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 6
  3. 3. 7. Projectsformba.blogspot.com INDEX 1. Introduction ofadvertising effectiveness 2. Introduction of advertising campaign 3.Research methodology A. Research design B. Data collection C.Sampling design D. Sampling technique E. Sampling size F. Area ofstudy 4. Market profile 5. Data analysis and interpretation 6. Finding7. Conclusion 8. Limitation 9. Suggestion 10.Bibliography11.QuestionnairesProjectsformba.blogspot.com 78. Projectsformba.blogspot.com .INTRODUCTIONProjectsformba.blogspot.com 89. Projectsformba.blogspot.comINTRODUCTION OFADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESSThe objectives of all businessare to makes profits and a merchandising concerncan do that byincreasing its sales at remunerative prices. This is possible, iftheproduct is widely polished to be audience the final consumers,channel membersand industrial users and through convincingarguments it is persuaded to buy it.Publicity makes a thing or an ideaknown to people. It is a general term indicatingefforts at massappeal. As personal stimulation of demand for a product serviceorbusiness unit by planting commercially significant news about it ina publishedmedium or obtaining favourable presentation of it uponvideo television or stagethat is not paid for by the sponsor. On theother hand, advertising denotes a specific attempt to popularizeaspecific product or service at a certain cost. It is a method ofpublicity. It alwaysintentional openly sponsored by the sponsor andinvolves certain cost and hence ispaid for. It is a common form ofnon- personal communication about anorganisation and or itsproducts idea service etc. that is transmitted to a targetaudiencesthrough a mass medium. In common parlance the term publicityandadvertising are used synonymously.Projectsformba.blogspot.com9
  4. 4. 10. Projectsformba.blogspot.comWHAT IS ADVERTISING? Theword advertising is derived from the Latin word viz, "advertero""ad"meaning towards and "verto" meeting towards and "verto"meaning. "I turn"literally specific thing". Simply stated advertising isthe art "says green." Advertising is a generalterm for and all forms ofpublicity, from the cry of the street boy sellingnewspapers to themost celebrate attention attracts device. The object always is tobringto public notice some articles or service, to create a demand tostimulatebuying and in general to bring logethel the man withsomething to sell and the manwho has means or desires to buy".Advertising has been defined by different experts. Some of thequoteddefinition are : American marketing association has definedadvertising as "any paid formof non personal presentation andpromotion of ideas, goods or services by anidentified sponsor. Themedium used are print broad cast and direct. Stanton deserves that"Advertising consists of all the activities involved inpresenting to agroup a non- personal, oral or visual openly, sponsoredmessageregarding a product, service, or idea. This message called anadvertisement isdisseminated through one or more media and is paidfor by the identified sponsor.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1011. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Advertising is any paid form ofnon – personal paid of presentation of ideasgoods or services by anidentified sponsor. Advertising is a "non- personal paid message ofcommercial significanceabout a product, service or company madeto a market by an identified sponsor. In developing an advertisingprogramme, one must always start byidentifying the market needsand buyer motives and must make five majordecisions commonlyreferred as 5M (mission, money message, media andmeasurement)of advertising.Basic Features of Advertising On the basis of variousdefinitions it has certain basic features such as :1. It is a mass non-personal communication.2. It is a matter of record.3. It persuades
  5. 5. buyers to purchase the goods advertised.4. It is a mass paidcommunication.5. The communication media is diverse such as print(newspapers and magazines)6. It is also called printed salesmanshipbecause information is spread by means of the written and printedwork and pictures so that people may be induced to act uponit.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1112. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISINGFor many firms advertising is the dominant element of thepromotional mix –particulars for those manufacturers who produceconvenience goods such asdetergent, non – prescription drugs,cosmetics, soft drinks and grocery products.Advertising is also usedextensively by maters of automobiles, home appliances,etc, tointroduce new product and new product features its uses itsattributes, ptavailability etc. Advertising can also help to convincepotential buyers that a firms productor service is superior tocompetitors product in make in quality, in price etc. it cancreatebrand image and reduce the likelihood of brand switching evenwhencompetitors lower their prices or offer some attractiveincentives. Advertising is particularly effective in certain otherspheres too such as :i) When consumer awareness of products orservice is at a minimum.ii) When sales are increasing for all terms inan industry.iii) When a product is new and incorporatestechnological advance not strong and.iv) When primary buyingmotive exists.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1213. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIt performance the followingfunctions :i) Promotion of salesii) Introduction of new productawareness.iii) Mass production facilitationiv) Carry out researchv)Education of people.TYPES OF ADVERTISING Broadly speaking,advertising may be classified into two categories viz.,product andinstitutional advertising.a) Product Advertising The main purpose of
  6. 6. such advertising is to inform and stimulate the marketabout theadvertisers products of services and to sell these. Thus typeofadvertising usually promote specific, trended products in such amanner as to makethe brands seam more desirable. It is used bybusiness government organizationand private non-businessorganizations to promote the uses features, images andbenefits oftheir services and products. Product advertising is sub-dividedintodirect action and indirect action advertising, Direct actionproduct advertisingwages the buyer to take action at once, ice heseeks a quick response to theadvertisement which may be to orderthe product by mail, or mailing a coupon, orhe may promptlypurchase in a retail store in response to prince reductionduringclearance sale.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1314. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Product advertising is sub-dividedinto direct & indirect action advertising &product advertising aims atinforming persons about what a products is what itdoes, how it isused and where it can be purchased. On the other handselectiveadvertising is made to meet the selective demand for aparticular brand or type isproduct.b) Institutional Advertising : It isdesigned to create a proper attitude towards the sellers to buildcompanyimage or goodwill rather than to sell specific product orservice. Its purpose is tocreate a frame of mind and to implantfeeling favourable to the advertiserscompany. Its assignment is tomake friends for the institution or organization. It is sub-divided intothree categories : patronage, public, relations andpublic serviceinstitutional advertising.i) In patronage institutional advertising themanufacturer tells his prospects and customer about himself hispolicies and lives personnel. The appeals to the patronage motivationof buyers. If successful, he convince buyers that his operationentitles him to the money spent by them.ii) Public relationsinstitutional advertising is used to create a favourable image of the
  7. 7. firm among employees, stock-holders or the general public.iii)Public service institutional advertising wages public support.c) OtherTypes :Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1415. Projectsformba.blogspot.com The other types are as follows : i)Consumer advertising ii) Comparative advertising iii) Reminderadvertising iv) Reinforcement advertisingADVERTISINGOBJECTIVES The long term objectives of advertising are broad andgeneral, and concernthe contribution advertising should make to theachievement of overall companyobjectives. Most companies regardadvert singly main objective as hat of provingsupport to personalselling and other forms of promotion. But advertising is ahighlyversatile communications tools and may therefore by used forachievingvarious short and long term objectives. Among theseobjectives are the following :1. To do the entire selling job (as inmail order marketing).2. To introduce a new product (by buildingbrand awareness among potential buyers).3. To force middlemen tohandle the product (pull strategy).4. To build brand preference 9bymaking it more difficult for middleman to sell substitutes).5. Toremind users to buy the product (retentivestrategy).Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1516. Projectsformba.blogspot.com6. To publicize some change inmarketing strategy (e.g., a price change, a new model or animprovement in the product).7. To provide rationalization (i.e.Socially acceptable excuses).8. To combat or neutralize competitorsadvertising.9. To improve the moral of dealers and/or sales people(by showing that the company is doing its share of promotion).10.To acquaint buyers and prospects with the new uses of the product(to extend the PLC).BENEFITS The functions of advertisement, andthat purpose its ethics, may bediscussion below :1. It leads tocheaper prices. "No advertiser could live in the highly competitive
  8. 8. arena of modern business if his methods of selling were more costlythan those of his rivals."2. It acquaints the public with the features ofthe goods and advantages which buyers will enjoy.3. It increasesdemand for commodities and this results in increased production.Advertising : a) Creates and stimulates demand opens and expandsthe markets; b) Creates goodwill which loads to an increase in salesvolume;Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1617. Projectsformba.blogspot.com c) Reduces marketing costs,particularly product selling costs. d) Satisfied consumer demands byplacing in the market what he needs.4. It reduces distributionexpenses in as much as it plays the part of thousands of salesman at ahome. Information on a mass scale relieves the necessity ofexpenditure on sales promotion staff, and quicker and widerdistribution leads to diminishing of the distribution costs.5. It ensuresthe consumers better quality of goods. A good name is the breath ofthe life to an advertiser.6. By paying the way for large scaleproduction and increased industrialization, advertising contributes itsquota to the profit of the companies the prosperity of the shareholderthe uplifts of the wage earners and the solution of he unemploymentproblem.7. It raises the standard of living of the general public byimpelling it to use to articles of modern types which may add to hismaterial well being. "Modern advertising has made the luxuries ofyesterday the necessities of today ..................... It is a positivecreative force in business. It makes two blades of grass grow in thebusiness world where one grew before.8. It establishes the goodwillof the concern for the test articles produced by it and in course oftime they sell like not cakes consumer search for satisfaction of theirneeds when they purchase goods what they want from its beauty,superiority, economy, comfort, approval, popularity, power, safety,convenience, sexual gratification and so on. ThemanufacturesProjectsformba.blogspot.com 17
  9. 9. 18. Projectsformba.blogspot.com therefore tries to improve thisgoodwill and reputation by knowing the buyer behaviour. To sum upit may be said that advertising aims at committing the producers,educating the consumer, supplementing the salesman converting theproducer and the dealer to eliminate the competitor, but above all itis a link between the produce and the consumer.WHY & WHEN TOADVERTISE Advertising as a tool to marketing not only reachesthose who buy , but alsothose whose opinions or authority is countedfor example a manufacturer of marbletiles and building boardsadvertises not only to people who intend to build housesbut also toarchitect and engineers. While the manufacturers ofpharmaceuticalsproducts advertise to doctors as well as to thegeneral public. At time it isnecessary for a manufacturer or a concernto advertise things which it does not sellbut which when soldstimulates the sales of its own product. There are concernslikeelectric heaters, iron etc. because the use of these increases thedemand fortheir products. Advertising should be used only when itpromises to bring good result moreeconomically and efficiently ascompared to other means of selling. There aregoods for which muchtime and efforts are required in creating a demand bysendingsalesman to prospective buyers than by simply advertising them. Intheearly days of the cash register in America it was sold by speciallytrained salesmanwho called on the prospective users and had thedifficult task of convincing themProjectsformba.blogspot.com 1819. Projectsformba.blogspot.comthat they could no longer carry onwith the old methods, and that they urgentlyneeded a cash register.In our country certain publishers have found it less costly tosell theirbooks by sending salesman from house to house amongprospectivebuyers than to advertise them. In these two examples thecost of creating demandwould be too high if attempted byadvertising alone under such circumstancesadvertising is used to
  10. 10. make the salesman acceptable to the people they call upon toincreasethe confidence of the public in the house. Naturals when there aregoodprofits competitors will be attracted and they should be kickedout as and whensufficient capital is available by advertising on alarge scale. Immediate result maynot justify the increasedexpenditure but it will no doubt secure future sales.DESIGNINGADVERTISING CAMPAIGN: An advertising is an organized seriesof advertising messages. It has beendefined as "a planned, co-ordinate series of promotional efforts built around acentral themeand designed to reach a specified goals." In other words, it isanorderly planned effort consisting of related but self – containedand independentadvertisements. The campaign may appear in onemore media . it has single themeor keynote idea and a singleobjective or goal. Thus, "a unified theme of contentprovidespsychological continuity throughout the campaign while visual andoralsimilarity provide physical continuity. In short run, all campaignwant pre-determined psychological reaction in the long run,practically all campaigns havesales goal.The series of advertisementsused in the campaign must be integrated with thesales promotionalefforts and with the activities of the salesforce.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1920. Projectsformba.blogspot.comCampaign vary in length some mayrun only for a few days, other for weeks, yetother for a season or theentire year. Usually a range of 3 to 6 months includesmanycampaigns. Many factors influences campaign length such ascompetitorsadvertising media, policies, seasonal falls curves of theproduct involved, the sizeof the advertising funds, campaignobjectives and the nature of the advertisersmarketingprogramme.OBJECTIVES OF CAMPAIGN The advertisingcampaign, especially those connected with the consumersaims atachieving these objectives : i) To announce a new product or
  11. 11. improve product. ii) To hold consumers patronage against intensifiedcampaign use. iii) To inform consumers about a new product use. iv)To teach consumers how to use product. v) To promote a contest or apremium offer. vi) To establish a new trade regional, and vii) Tohelp solve a coca regional problem.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2021. Projectsformba.blogspot.com The institutional advertisingcampaign on the other hand, have these objectives. i) To create acorporate personality or image. ii) To build a company prestige. iii)To keep the company name before the public. iv) To emphasizecompany services and facilities. v) To enable company salesman tosee top executive consistently when making sales calls, and vi) Toincrease friendliness and goodwill towards the company. Developingthe campaign programmes. The advertising campaigns arepreparedby the advertising agencies, which work an behalf of their clientswhomanufacture product or service enterprises, which have servicesto sell. The wordcampaign is used because advertising agenciesapproach their task with a sumBlanca of military fanfare in whichone frequently hears words like target audiencelogistics, zero in andtactics and strategy etc. The account executive co-ordinates the workin a campaign. The creation ofan advertising campaign starts with anexploration of consumers habits andpsychology in relation to theproduct. This requires the services of statisticaltrained in surveytechniques and of others trained in social psychology.Statisticiansselect samples for survey which are done by trained interviewerswhovisits individuals, included in the sample and ask question tofind out about theirtaste and habits.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2122. Projectsformba.blogspot.com This enquiry often leads to achange in a familiar product. For instancebathing soap may come inseveral new colours or cigarette in a new packet ortalcum powder inanother size. Such interviews are often quite essential to find out the
  12. 12. appeal of advertisingmessage for a product that would be mosteffective with consumers. David Ogilvy describes a consumerssurvey to find out the most meaningfulbenefit in which women areinterested when they buy a face cream. The largestpreference asgiven to "Cleans deep into pores" followed in order of importancebyprevent dryness, "is a complete beauty treatment, recommendedby skin doctors"makes skin look younger contains estrogenichormones, pasteurized for purity,prevent skin form aging, smoothour wrinkles ogilvy concludes, form this votingcome one of HelenaRubinsteins most successful face creams. We christened itdeepcleanser, thus, building the winning form into name of the product.After getting the data the account executive puts together theessentialelements of his clients brief, interprets the research findingsand draws up what hecalls the "advertising strategy".STAGE INADVERTISING CAMPAIGN Several steps are required todeveloped an advertising campaign the numberof stages and exactorder in which they are carried out may vary according toanorganisations resources, the nature of its product and the types ofaudiences to bereached. The major stages/step are :1. Identifying andanalyzing the advertising.2. Defining advertisingobjects.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2223. Projectsformba.blogspot.com3. Creating the advertisingplatform.4. Determining the advertising appropriation.5. Selectionmedia plan.6. Creating the advertising message.7. Evaluating theeffectiveness of advertising.8. Organizing of advertising campaign.1.Identifying & Analyzing the Advertising target : Under this step it isto decided as to whom is the firm trying to reach withthe message.The advertising target is the group of people towardswhichadvertisements are aimed at four this purpose completeinformation about themarket target i.e. the location and geographicallocation of the people, thedistribution of age, income, sex,
  13. 13. educational level, and consumers attitudesregarding purchase anduse both of the advertising product and competingproducts is neededwith better knowledge of market target, effectiveadvertisingcampaign can be developed on the other hand, if theadvertising target is notproperly identified and analyzed thecampaign is does likely to be effective.2. Determining theadvertising objectives : The objectives of advertisement must bespecifically and clearly defined inmeasurable terms such as "tocommunicate specific qualities about a particularsproduct to gain acertain degree of penetration in a definite audience of agivenProjectsformba.blogspot.com 2324. Projectsformba.blogspot.comsize during a given period of time",increase sales by a certain percentage orincrease the firms marketshares." The goals of advertising may be to : i) Create a favourablecompany image by acquainting the public with the services offeredavailable to the employees and its achievements. ii) Createconsumers or distributor awareness by encouraging requestsproviding information about the types of products sold; providinginformation about the benefits to be gained from use of thecompanys products or services; and indicating how product (orservices) can be used; iii) Encourage immediate sales byencouraging potential purchasers through special sales contests,getting recommendation of professional people about companysproducts etc. iv) It secures action by the reader through associatingideas, repetition of the same name in different contexts, immediateaction appeal.3. Creating the Advertising platform : An advertisingplatform consists of the basic issues or selling points thatanadvertiser wishes to include in the advertising campaign. A singleadvertisement inan advertising campaign may contain one or moreissues in the platform. Amotorcycle producers advertising platformshould contain issues which are ofimportance to consumers filling
  14. 14. and such issues also be those which thecompetitive product do notposses.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2425. Projectsformba.blogspot.com4. Determining the AdvertisingAppropriation: The advertising appropriation is the total amount ofmoney which marketerallocates. For advertising for a specific timeperiod. Determining the campaignbudget involves estimating nowmuch it will cost to achieve the campaignsobjectives. If thecampaign objectives are profit relating and stated quantitatively,thenthe amount of the campaign budget is determined by estimating theproposedcampaigns effectiveness in attaining them. If campaignsobject is to build aparticular type of company image, then there islittle basis for predicting either thecampaigns effectiveness ordetermining the budget required.5. Selecting the Media : Mediaselection is an important since it costs time space and moneyvariousfactors influence this selection, the most fundamental beingthe nature of the targetmarket segment, the type of the product andthe cost involved. The distinctivecharacteristics of various media arealso important. Therefore management shouldfocus its attention onmedia compatibility with advertising objectives. Media Form1. PressAdvertising or Printi) Newspapers City, Small town, Sundays, Daily,weekly, Fortnightly, quarterlies, financial and annuals, English,vernacular or regional languages.ii) Magazines General or special,illustrated or otherwise, English, Hindi,Projectsformba.blogspot.com2526. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Regional language.iii) Trade &Technical Journals, Industrial Circulated all over the country yearbooks, commercial, directories, and among the industrialist andtelephone, Directories, references business magnates. books &annuals.2. Direct Mail Circulars, catalogues, leaflets, brochures,booklets, folders, colanders, blotters, diaries & other printed
  15. 15. material.3. Outdoor or Traffic Poster and bills on walls, railwaysstations platforms outside public buildings trains, buses.4. Broadcastor radio and T.V. Spot, Sectional or national trade cost5. PublicityMovie Slides and films non theatrical and documentary films metalplates and signs attaches to trees.6. House to house Sampling ,couponing, free gifts, novelties, demonst- rations.7. Dealer aidsCounter and widows display demonstration given by retailer or theadvertises goods.8. Internet Today, Internet is a big spot foradvertising.So these are the media of the advertising campaign of theselecting of the media.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2627. Projectsformba.blogspot.com6. Creating the AdvertisingMessages : This is an important stage of advertising campaign. Thecontents of themessage has to be very carefully drafted in theadvertisement. Characteristics ofperson in the advertising targetinfluence the message content and form. Anadvertisers must usewords, symbols and illustration that are meaningful, familiarandattractive to those persons. The type of media also influence thecontent andform of the message.7. Evaluating the Effectiveness ofAdvertising : The effectiveness of advertising is measured for avariety of reasons : a) To determine whether a campaignaccomplished its advertising objects. b) To evaluate the relativeeffectiveness of several advertisements to ascertain which copy,illustrations or layout is best. c) To determine the strengths andweaknesses of various media and media plans. In other words,measuring advertising effectiveness is needed to determinewhetherproposed advertisement should be used and if they will be now theymightbe improved; and whether going campaign should be stopped,continued orProjectsformba.blogspot.com 2728. Projectsformba.blogspot.comchanged. In accomplishing thesepurposes, pretests and post test are conducted.The former tests
  16. 16. before exposing target consumers to advertisements and theletterafter consumers have been exposed to advertisements and theletter afterconsumers have been exposed to advertisements. For aneffective advertising programme, the advertising manager requiresabasic understanding of the medium that is going to carry it. Foreffectively using advertising the management must test advertisingtoknow which of the advertisement to know which of theadvertisement have provedprofitable and why as compared toothers.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2829. Projectsformba.blogspot.com COMPANYPROFILEProjectsformba.blogspot.com 2930. Projectsformba.blogspot.comMARKET PROFILE(CocaCola)Brands of Coca- Colai) Coca Colaii) Thums-upiii) Limcaiv)Fantav) Maazavi) Maaza Tetravii) SpriteFlavours of the brand :i)ColaProjectsformba.blogspot.com 3031. Projectsformba.blogspot.comii) Lemoniii) Sodaiv) Orangev)Mangovi) Clear LemonSize of the Coca Cola cold drinks availablein marketi) 200 ml Bottles (RGB Glasses)ii) 300 ml Bottles (RGBGlasses)iii) 500 ml Bottles (RGB Glasses)iv) 1 Litre (PVCBottles)v) 1.5 Litre (PVC Bottles)vi) 2 Litre (PVC Bottles)Sales ofCoca Cola Cold drinksCoca Cola Weekly Monthly YearlyColddrinks (in carets) (in carets) (in carets)Coca Cola 520 184022400Fanta 250 1030 12900Thums-up 350 135018500Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3132. Projectsformba.blogspot.comLimca 380 1210 16300Maaza Tetra80 380 6200Sprite 70 280 5000Maaza 120 690 10000(Primarydata)There is more consumption of Coca Cola and has 70% marketshare in theYamunanagar city and Coca Cola is having maximumconsumption and after thatThumps-up and after it Limca cold drink
  17. 17. in the market and all the products hasgood sale but less thanthese.Brands of Pepsii) Pepsi Colaii) Mirinda Lemoniii) MirindaOrangeiv) Pepsi Sodav) Pepsi AppleFlavours of the brand :i) Colaii)LemonProjectsformba.blogspot.com 3233. Projectsformba.blogspot.comiii) Orangeiv) Sodav) AppleSize ofthe Pepsi cold drinks available in marketvi) 200 ml Bottles (RGBGlasses)vii) 300 ml Bottles (RGB Glasses)viii) 500 ml Bottles (500pt. Bottles)ix) 1 Litre (PVC Bottles)x) 1.5 Litre (PVC Bottles)xi) 2Litre (PVC Bottles)Sales of Pepsi Cold drinksPepsi Weekly MonthlyYearlyCold drinks (in carets) (in carets) (in carets)Pepsi 430 175021600Mirinda Lemon 390 1180 15400Mirinda Orange 245 100013600Pepsi Soda 126 470 6000Pepsi Apple 120 4005000Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3334. Projectsformba.blogspot.com(Primary Data) The consumption ofPepsi cola, after this sale of Mirinda Lemon is there andafter itMirinda Orange is there and the market share is less of Pepsiincomparison of Coca Cola.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3435. Projectsformba.blogspot.com OBJECTIVES OF THESTUDYProjectsformba.blogspot.com 3536. Projectsformba.blogspot.com OBJECTIVES OF THESTUDYFollowing are the objectives of the study:1. To know themost effective media of advertisement2. To find out the reasons forliking the advertisement of cold drinks.3. To find out the mostpopular slogan of advertisement regarding colddrinks.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3637. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Research MethodologyResearchMethodologyResearch is voyage from known tounknownProjectsformba.blogspot.com 37
  18. 18. 38. Projectsformba.blogspot.comResearch is a procedure of logicaland systematic application of the fundamentalsof science to thegeneral and overall questions of a study and scientifictechniquewhich provide precise tools, specific procedure andtechnical rather thanphilosophical means for getting and ordering thedata prior to their logical analysisand manipulation. Different type ofresearch designs is available depending uponthe nature of researchproject, availability of able manpower andcircumstances.Methodology 1. Research Design: The researchdesign is the blueprint for the fulfillment of objectives and answeringquestions. It is a master plan specifying the method and proceduresfor collecting and analyzing needed information. o DescriptiveResearch is used in this study as the main aim is to describecharacteristics of the phenomenon or a situation. 2. Data CollectionMethods: The source of data includes primary and secondary datasources. Primary Sources: Primary data has been collected directlyfrom sample respondents through questionnaire and with the help ofinterview. Secondary Sources: Secondary data has been collectedfrom standard textbooks, Newspapers, Magazines & Internet. 3.Research Instrument: Research instrument used for the primary datacollection is Questionnaire.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3839. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4. Sample Design: Sample designis definite plan determine before any data is actually obtaining for asample from a given population. The researcher must decide the wayof selecting a sample. Samples can be either probability samples ornon-probability samples. Sampling Technique: Convenience SampleSize: 50 Respondents. Area of Study: MP nagar, new market,Piplani, Nehru Nagar.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3940. Projectsformba.blogspot.com DATA ANALYSIS ANDINTERPRETATIONProjectsformba.blogspot.com 40
  19. 19. 41. Projectsformba.blogspot.com DATA ANALYSIS ANDINTERPRETATION TABLE 4.1RESPONDENTSCLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO AGEAge (in years) No. ofrespondents Percentage11-20 22 4421-40 25 5041-60 3 6Total 50100 100 90 80 70 60 20-Nov 50 21-40 40 41-60 30 Total 20 10 0No. of respondents PercentageTable 4.1 shows that 44% of therespondents are in the age group of 11-20, 50%are in the age groupof 21-40 and 6% are in the age group of 41-60.TABLE4.2Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4142. Projectsformba.blogspot.comRESPONDENTSCLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SEXSex No. of respondentsPercentageMale 30 60Female 20 40Total 50 100 100 80 60 MaleFemale 40 Total 20 0 No. of respondents Percentage Table 4.2shows that 60% of the respondents are males and 40% of themarefemalesTABLE 4.3Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4243. Projectsformba.blogspot.comRESPONDENTSCLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TOEDUCATIONALQUALIFICATIONQualification No. ofrespondents PercentageIlliterate 0 0Below Matric 0 0Matric 510Graduate 29 58Post graduate 16 32Total 50 100 60 50 40 IlliterateBelow Matric 30 Matric 20 Graduate Post graduate 10 0 No. ofrespondents Percentage Table 4.3 reveals that out of 50 respondents5 are matriculate and 29 are Graduateand rest of them 16 are postgraduate.TABLE 4.4DRINKING OF COLDDRINKProjectsformba.blogspot.com 4344. Projectsformba.blogspot.comDo you take cold drinks No. ofrespondents PercentageYes 50 100No 0 0Total 50 100 100 90 80 7060 Yes 50 No 40 Total 30 20 10 0 No. of respondents PercentageTABLE 4.5FREQUENCY OF TAKING COLD DRINKSHOW
  20. 20. FREQUENTLY No. of respondents PercentageYOUDRINKProjectsformba.blogspot.com 4445. Projectsformba.blogspot.comOnce a day 15 30Twice a day 24More than twice 1 2Not regular drunker 32 64Total 50 100 100 9080 70 60 Once a day 50 Twice a day 40 More than twice 30 Notregular drunker 20 Total 10 0 No. of Percentage respondents Table4.5 reveals that 30% of the respondents drink it once a day, 4%twicea day, 2% more than twice and 32% drink it noregularly.TABLE 4.6NAME OF THE COLD DRINKSAVAILABLE IN MARKETName of cold drinks No. of respondentsPercentageCoca cola - -Pepsi - -Fanta - -Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4546. Projectsformba.blogspot.comLimca - -Mirinda - -Thums-up - -Canada dry - -Maaza - -Dew - -All of above 50 100Total 50 100 10080 60 East 40 West North 20 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Table4.6 reveals that all of the respondents are of the view that alltheabove mentioned cold drinks are available in the market.TABLE4.7PREFERENCE OF COLD DRINKWhich cold drink you No. ofrespondents Percentagelike mostCoca cola 12 24Pepsi 12 24Fanta 12Limca 7 14Mirinda 1 2Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4647. Projectsformba.blogspot.comThums-up 10 20Canada dry 48Maaza 3 6Dew - -Total 50 100 100 80 60 East 40 West North 20 01st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Table 4.7 indicate that out of 50respondents 12 like Coca cola, 12 like Pepsi, 7like Limca, 1 likeFanta, 1 like Mirinda, 10 like Thums-up, 4 like Canada dry and3 likeMaaza.TABLE 4.8FLAVOURS OF COLD DRINKSFlavours No. ofrespondents PercentageCola 30 60Lemon 7 14Orange 7 14Mango 24Others 4 8Total 50 100Projectsformba.blogspot.com 47
  21. 21. 48. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 100 90 80 70 Cola 60 Lemon 50Orange 40 Mango 30 Others 20 Total 10 0 No. of respondentsPercentage Table 4.8 shows that out of 60% of the respondents likethe cola flavour of colddrink, 14% like the Lemon flavour and samepercentage of respondents like theorange flavour of colddrink.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4849. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTABLE 4.9 ADVERTISEMENTOF COLD DRINKDo you think No. of respondentsPercentageadvertisement of colddrink is requiredYes 48 96No 24Total 50 100 100 80 60 Yes No 40 Total 20 0 No. of respondentsPercentage Table 4.9 indicate that 96% of the respondents are of theview that theyhave been the advertisement of the cold drink they likemost while 4% shows thatthey don‘t have seen the advertisementthey like most .TABLE 4.10Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4950. Projectsformba.blogspot.com MEDIA OFADVERTISEMENTTHROUGH WHICH No. of respondentsPercentageMEDIA YOU HAVESEEN IT?TV 46 92Newspaper 24Magazine 1 2Other 1 2Total 50 100 100 80 TV 60 NewspaperMagazine 40 Other 20 Total 0 No. of respondents Percentage Table4.10 reveals that 92% of the respondents are of opinion that theyhaveseen the advertisement on TV while 4% are of the opinion thatthey have seen theadvertisement through newspaper.TABLE4.11NO. OF ADVERTISEMENTProjectsformba.blogspot.com 5051. Projectsformba.blogspot.comHow many No. of respondentsPercentageadvertisements youseen are of the mostlikely cold drinkby you1 11 222 14 283 11 224 14 28Total 50 100 100 80 1 60 2 3 404 20 Total 0 No. of respondents Percentage Table 4.11 shows thatout of the 50 respondents 11 are of view that there is 1type ofadvertisement and other says that there are more than onetype.TABLE 4.12 SLOGAN OF COLD DRINKSlogan of cold drink
  22. 22. No. of respondents Percentagewhich youlikeProjectsformba.blogspot.com 5152. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTaste the thunder 12 24Yara Datashan 14 28Yeh dil mange more 16 32Jo chahe ho jaye, coca 816cola enjoyTotal 50 100 100 90 Taste the thunder 80 70 Yara Datashan 60 50 Yeh dil mange more 40 30 Jo chahe ho jaye, 20 cocacola enjoy 10 Total 0 No. of Percentage respondents Table 4.12shows that out of 50 respondents 12 like the slogan taste thethunder,14 like Yara da tashan, 16 like yeh dil mange more and 8like the slogan Jochahe ho jaye coca cola enjoy.TABLE 4.13REASON FOR LIKING THE ADVERTISEMENTWhy you likeNo. of respondents PercentageadvertisementIts theme and making is30 60Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5253. Projectsformba.blogspot.comappealableIt has film stars 714Because of good music 7 14Other reasons 6 12Total 50 100 10090 Its theme and making 80 is appealable 70 It has film stars 60 50Because of good 40 music 30 20 Other reasons 10 0 Total No. ofPercentage respondentsTable 4.13 shows that majority of therespondents like the advertisement due to itstheme while majority ofthe respondents like the advertisement due to its film starsand goodmusic.TABLE 4.14EFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENT ONCONSUMPTION OF COLD DRINKDo you think ads. No. ofrespondents PercentageEffect the consumptionof cold drinkYes 2346No 17 354Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5354. Projectsformba.blogspot.comCannt say 10 20Total 50 100 400350 300 250 Yes 200 No 150 Cannt say Total 100 50 0 No. ofrespondents Percentage Table 4.14 shows that 46% of therespondents are of the view that advertisementforced them toconsume product more 34% of them has view thatadvertisementdon‘t force them to consume the product while 20% of
  23. 23. them cannot say anythingabout it.TABLE 4.15 BEST MEDIA OFADVERTISEMENTWhich Media Presently No. of respondentsPercentageIs More EffectivelyTV 50 100Newspaper - -Magazine - -Others - -Total 50 100Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5455. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Table 4.15 reveals that 100% ofthe respondents are of the view thatpresently the TV is mosteffective media of advertisement.TABLE 4.16NECESSITY OFADVERTISEMENTDO YOU THINK THE No. of respondentsPercentageADVERTISEMENT ISNECESSARY FORCOLDDRINKS?Necessary 14 28Very necessary 34 68Can‘t say 2 4Total50 100Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5556. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 100 90 80 70 60 Necessary 50Very necessary 40 Can‘t say 30 Total 20 10 0 No. of respondentsPercentage Table 4.16 shows that highest number of respondents areof the view thatadvertisement is very necessary for cold drinks whilefew respondents are of theview that advertisement isnecessary.TABLE 4.17 EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPENDITUREINCURRED ON ADVERTISEMENTDoes expenditure No. ofrespondents Percentageshould be incurred onadvertisementYes 4386No 2 4Can‘t say 5 10Total 50 100Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5657. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 100 90 80 70 60 Yes 50 No 40Can‘t say 30 Total 20 10 0 No. of respondents Percentage Table 4.17shows that 86% of the respondents are of the view thattheexpenditure incurred on advertisement is effective in adding theprofit while 4%denied the same and 10% did not reply.TABLE4.18REASONS FOR DIFFERENCE OF ADVERTISEMENTEFFECTIVENESSWHICH REASON No. of respondentsPercentageYOU FIND FOR THEDIFFERENCEOFADVERTISEMENTEFFECTIVENESSEducation 20 40Liking
  24. 24. 10 20Standard of Living 10 20Level of Development 1020Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5758. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTotal 50 100 100 80 Education 60Liking Standard of Living 40 Level of Development 20 Total 0 No.of respondents Percentage Table 4.18 shows that 40% of therespondents say education is one of themain reason of Advertisementeffectiveness while equal % of the respondents arein the favour oflikings, standars of living and level ofdevelopmentProjectsformba.blogspot.com 5859. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTABLE 4.19ADDEFFECTIVENESS AND IMPROVEMENT INADVERTISEMENTWILL THE STUDY No. of respondentsPercentageOF EFFECTIVENESSWOULDCONTRIBUTETOIMPROVEMENT OFPRESENTADVERTISEMENTYes 4590No 1 2Cannot say 4 10Total 50 100 100 80 60 Yes No 40 Cannotsay Total 20 0 No. of respondents PercentageTable 4.19 shows thatthe majority of the respondents are of the view that the studyofeffectiveness contributes the improvement in presentadvertisement.TABLE 4.20NECESSITY OF ADVERTISEMENTEFFECTIVENESSProjectsformba.blogspot.com 5960. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIS ADVERTISEMENT No. ofrespondents PercentageEFFECTIVENESS ISNECESSARYFORCOMPANY?Yes 48 96No 1 2Can‘t say 1 2Total 50 100 100 9080 70 60 Yes 50 No 40 30 Can‘t say 20 Total 10 0 No. of PercentagerespondentsTable 4.20 reveals that majority of the respondents saythat the advertisementeffectiveness is necessary while same did notreplied.TABLE 4.21USERS OF ADVERTISEMENTEFFECTIVENESSTHE USE STUDY OF No. of respondentsPercentageEFFECTIVENESS ISProjectsformba.blogspot.com 60
  25. 25. 61. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFOR WHOM?For company 3468For employees 1 2For customers 15 30None of these - -Total 50100Table 4.21 indicates that 68% of the respondents are of the viewthat the study ofeffectiveness is meant for company while 30% saythat it is meant for customers.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 6162. Projectsformba.blogspot.com OBSERVATIONS & FINDINGSFINDINGSAfter going through all the project and the collected data,I found that:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 6263. Projectsformba.blogspot.comP 84% of the respondents said thatTV is the most effective media of advertisement.a 60% of therespondents said that they like the advertisement of cold drinksbecause of its theme whereas, 14% said that they like celebrities inadvertisement.a Some 32% of the respondents said that‘ yeh dilmaange more‘ is the most popular slogan whereas 28% of therespondents said that ‗ yara da tashan‘ is the popular slogan.pMajority of respondents are of the view that advertisement is verynecessary for cold drink.f Majority of respondents sees theadvertisement of the cold drink they like most.m Majority of therespondents like cola flavor of cold drinkM Equal number ofrespondents like the brand of Coca Cola andPepsiProjectsformba.blogspot.com 6364. Projectsformba.blogspot.comCONCLUSIONCONCLUSIONProjectsformba.blogspot.com 6465. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIn last conclude that majority of therespondents said that TV is the most effectivemedia foradvertisement of cold drinks and the celebrities and the slogans intheadvertisement effect the consumers.SUGGESTIONSWe reachedsome suggestions :W Advertisement should not be too expensive,because the advertisement leads and increase the prize of the
  26. 26. product.a Media should be selected according to the choice ofcustomers.M In rural areas media should be according to the choiceof the people.I To give more attention in making the advertisementto make it effective for the sale of cold drink.s Price should bedecreased so as to attract the consumers to use product more.P Togive attention on the weak media of advertisement so that theconsumers comes to know about the product.c It should be attractiveone so that people are attracted toward theadvertisement.LIMITATIONSProjectsformba.blogspot.com 6566. Projectsformba.blogspot.comP The project relied mainly on theprimary data.T Consumer give very unclear picture.C We have alimited time.W The study is based on limited sample.T It begin myfirst attempt to undertake such a study, thus the inexperience is also aobstacle to accomplish the project in a proper way.a It was alsodifficult to get proper information from the people because they wereindulging in some other activities.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 6667. Projectsformba.blogspot.comBIBLIOGRAPHYProjectsformba.blogspot.com 67Aaker David A. etc. ― advertising Management‖ 4th ed, New Delhi,prentice Hall of India 1985.Journals: Economic PoliticalWeeklyMagazines and Newspapers:Projectsformba.blogspot.com68 68. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Ø Kothari, C.R (2003):―Research Methodology‖ (II Edition), New Age International Pvt.Ltd. Ø Khan and Martin (2003): ―Sales and Distribution‖ (I Edition),Anurag Jain publishing company, New Delhi Ø Rajan Saxena(2003): ―Marketing Management‖ (II Edition), Tata McGraw - Hillpublishing company Ltd., New Delhi
  27. 27. 69. Projectsformba.blogspot.com QUESTIONNARIESADVERTISEMENTEFFECTIVENESSProjectsformba.blogspot.com 6970. Projectsformba.blogspot.com OF COLD DRINKS BACKGROUND INFORMATIONI) Name :__________________________________II) Age :__________________________________III) Qualification :IV) 1.Literate 2. Illiterate if literate ? 1. Below Matric 2. Matric 3.Graduate 4. Post GraduateV) Profession :__________________________________VI) Address :____________________________________________________________________VII) Size of family :__________________________________1). Do you take cold drink? a. Yes b. No2). How frequently you take cold drink ? a. Once a dayb. Twice a day c. More than twice d. Not regular3). Which are thedifferent cold drinks available in the market ? a. Coca Cola b. Pepsic. Limca d. Fanta e. Thums-up f. Mirinda g. Limca h. Maaza i.Canada Dry j. All of these4). Which cold drink you like most ? a.Coca Cola b. Pepsi c. Limca d. Fanta e. Thums-up f. Mirinda g.Limca h. Maaza i. Canada Dry j. All of these5). Which flavour ofcold drink you like most ?Projectsformba.blogspot.com 7071. Projectsformba.blogspot.com a. Cola b. Lemon c. Mango d.Orange e. Other6). Have you seen the advertisement of cold drinkyou like most ? a. Yes b. No7). Through which media you have seenit? a. T.V. b. News Paper c. Magazine d. Others8). How many typesof advertisement of you preferred brand of cold drink arethere? a. 1b. 2 c. 3 d. 49). Which slogan of cold drink you like most ? a. Tastethe Thunder b. Yara Da Tashan c. Yeh Dil Mange More d. Jo chaheho Jai COCA-COLA enjoy10). Why do you like the advertisement ?a. Because it has film stars ? b. Because of Good music c. It‘s theme
  28. 28. and making is appealable. d. Any other reason.11). Do you think thatadvertisement has forced you to consume product more ? a. Yes b.No12). Which media is presenting the advertisement is necessary forsale of colddrink ? a. T.V. b. News Paper c. Magazine d. Others13).Do you think the advertisement is necessary for sale of cold drink ?a. Necessary b. Very Necessary c. Not Necessary d. Can‘tSayProjectsformba.blogspot.com 7172. Projectsformba.blogspot.com14). The expenditure incurred onadvertisement of cold drink is such effectivethat it adds to profit ? a.Yes b. No c. Can‘t Say15) Which reason you find for the differenceof advertisement effectiveness ? a. Education b. Likings c. Standardof Living d. Level of Development16) Is the study of effectivenesswould contribute to improvement in presentadvertisement ? a. Yes b.No c. Can‘t Say17) Is advertisement effectiveness is necessary forcompany ? a. Yes b. No c. Can‘t Say18) What do you think the useof study of effectiveness is for who? a. For Company b. ForEmployees c. For Customers d. None oftheseProjectsformba.blogspot.com 72
  29. 29. 2. Projectsformba.blogspot.com INTRODUCTION OF THEREPORTSTATEMENT OF PROJECT:The statement of our topicis―EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENT ON THE BUYINGBEHAVIOUR OFFEMALES‖So at the very beginning, we‘ll definethat what is the advertisement, its history, itsMedias and what are thereasons to advertise.WHAT IS ADVERTISEMENT?―PAID,MEDIATED PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION ABOUTSERVICES,PRODUCTS, OR IDEAS WITH THE SPECIFICGOAL OF INFLUENCINGCONSUMERS OR THE PUBLIC‖.THEADVERTISER PURCHASES TIME (RADIO, TELEVISION,CABLE) ORSPACE (PRINT PUBLICATIONS—NEWSPAPERS,MAGAZINES, SHOPPER)—ORON BILLBOARDS OR OTHERDISPLAY OPPERTUNITIES SUCH AS BUSCARDS.―ADVERTISING IS EVERYWHERE…‖ • In our homes • In thesupermarkets • On the streets • On airplanes • On trains • Even inschools, colleges and universities. ―WHY ADVERTISEMENT ISTHE GOAL OF INFLUENSING…‖ ADVERTISEMENT IS APERSUASIVE MESSAGE • HERE‘S why my product (or service oridea) is better than your alternatives… • If you buy my product (orservice or idea) your life will be improved in thisway…Projectsformba.blogspot.com 23. Projectsformba.blogspot.comProjectsformba.blogspot.com 34. Projectsformba.blogspot.com HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENTHERE IS A BRIEF HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENT IN THEWORLD… Johannes Gutenberg 1441 Inventiuon of Movable TypeVolney Palmer 1841 First Advertising Agency Robert Bonner 1850First Great Advertising Campaign "Doctor" Drake 1860- PatentMedicine Lydia Pinkham 1890 Patent Medicine George Rowell1869 American Newspaper Directory Francis W. Ayer 1875 OpenContract John Powers 1880 First Copywriting "Superstar" AdolphusGreen 1890 Branding J. Walter Thompson 1885 The AccountExecutive Cyrus Curtis Growth of Magazine AdvertisingEarnestElmo Caulkins 1895 Art Direction John E. Kennedy 1904 Reason-Why Copy Albert Lasker 1904 The Modern Advertising AgencyClaude C. Hopkins 1906 "Scientific" Advertising TheodoreMcManus 1915 Impressionism Social Sciences inAdvertisingStanley & Helen Resor 1920 Women in AdvertisingAdvertising Research Raymond Rubicam 1923 CreativeExperimentation 1926 Commercial Radio Leo Burnett 1930-Inherent Drama 1947 Commercial Television Rosser Reeves 1950Unique Selling Proposition David Ogilvy 1950 Brand Image MarionHarper 1950-60 Agency Mergers & Integrated Services WilliamBernbach 1960 Creative Revolution Jay Chiat 1990- Advertising inthe 90sCreativity & Brand Building Hal Riney FIRST
  30. 30. ADVERTISING AGENCY INPAKISTANProjectsformba.blogspot.com 45. Projectsformba.blogspot.com ―Manhattan Pakistan‖Head : Col.Aizaz ul WaheedAffiliation : NoneBrief Intro : We were one of thefirst Pakistani-owned ad agencies to enter Pakistan‘s advertisingarena and have remained one of the front- runners ever since. TodayMPL ranks as one of the top agencies in terms of business volumeand client portfolio. Serving the promotional needs of numerousclients both Above The Line (ATL) and through Below The Line(BTL) for the last four decades, Manhattan Pakistan has now enteredin its fifth decade with the fervor to build brands through consumerinsights by converting buyers into brand believers.History : We firstsaw the light of day in 1954, establishing our roots in Karachi,Pakistan. We operate with a strong family feeling, with 100professionals steering the agency on a straight course towardssuccess! We maintain the delicate balance betweenconceptualization, to product positioning and an effectiveperformance in the marketplace. We have helped influence consumerpreferences and changing lifestyles. We are ManhattanPakistan!Founded : 1954Top : InstaphoneClients Askari Bank PTVBurraq Telecom PTCL NOTE: DETAILS OF TOP ADVERTISINGAGENCIES IN PAKISTAN ARE ATTACHED AT THE END OFREPORT IN ANNEXURES. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 56. Projectsformba.blogspot.com MAJOR ADVERTISINGMEDIASIN 1970‘S FOLLOWING MASS MEDIAS BOCAMEMATURE IN THEWHOLEWORLD…Projectsformba.blogspot.com 67. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • NEWS PAPERS (DOMINATE) •TELEVISION • DIRECT MAIL • RADIO • MAGAZINES •OTHERS (BILL BOARDS, TRADE PRESS ETC…) IN 1980‘s,CABLE ADVERTISING GREW AND IN 1990‘s, INTERNETADVERTISING GREW. SPECIFIC MEDIA WITHIN EACHGENERAL MEDIA TYPETelevision Yellow PagesNewspaperMagazine Major Kinds of MediaDirect Mail Outdoor Radio InternetMAJOR ADVERTISING MEDIAS IN PAKISTAN IN THEBOUNDARIES OF PAKISTAN, FOLLOWING MEDIAS AREWORKING: Projectsformba.blogspot.com 78. Projectsformba.blogspot.com o TV o Radio o Media BuyingHouses o Media Representatives o Media Monitoring Agencies oMedia Marketing Firms o New Media Companies o Internet ServiceProviders o Major English Dailies o Major Urdu Dailies o EnglishEveningers o Urdu Eveningers o English Magazines o UrduMagazinesProjectsformba.blogspot.com 8
  31. 31. 9. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TYPES OFADVERTISEMENT:Product Advertising: In which manufacturerswants to focus on productsProjectsformba.blogspot.com 910. Projectsformba.blogspot.com For example: Head & shouldersshampoo.Institutional Advertising When focus on brand name of thecompany For example: McDonald, KFC.Informative AdvertisingThe purpose of the companies to give some sort of information Forexample Telenor informed earlier to its launching ofnetworkPersuasive Advertising When any company launches a newproduct For example When warid telecom introduces any newpackageReminder Advertising Telling the consumer that there is alsoadditional attributes in our product For example When Pepsiintroduces additional taste in bottles as Pepsi twistComparativeAdvertising When we compare any two products For exampleSupreme vs. LiptonProjectsformba.blogspot.com 1011. Projectsformba.blogspot.comCelebrity Testimonial Whencompanies cast a celebrity in its advertisement For example Alizafar, reema, meera and amna huq in LUX ADD now daysRetailAdvertising When shop keepers advertise their shops or malls Forexample PaceInteractive Advertising Contact through the telephonicconversation to sell the product. For example It happens basically inbusiness to business advertisement like when pharmaceuticalcompanies advertise their new medicines to the doctors.Advertisinga Service Instead Of A Product Advertising services is one of themost difficult type of advertising. You dont have a tangible productyou can put in someones hand. They cant touch it, feel it, see it orsmell it. For example Advertisement for new admission opens inuniversity.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1112. Projectsformba.blogspot.com REASONS TOADVERTISEAdvertising is such an important thing for a business todo, advertising is not justimportant for businesses but for things thatoffer services. Advertising tells people aboutyour product orproducts so they can be sold. Big companies such as McDonaldsandColgate Palmolive dont need to advertise because their productsare already knownthroughout the world, but when these two firstcame out they would have had to havespent millions of pounds onadvertising to get them to the stage where they are now.Thefollowing may be the maximum reasons toadvertise…Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1213. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Produce leads • Educateprospects about the benefits you offer • Expand into new markets •Influence the people who influence others (the trendsetters) • Makeyour name known to people who have never heard of you • Pre-sell
  32. 32. your offering (prior to the sales persons call) • Expand upon a publicrelations story • Tell the story of your company • Add authority toyour message (by putting it into print, people equate advertising withsuccess) • Build your corporate identity • Build confidence in yourproduct/services • Dispel an ugly rumor • Keep your name in theforefront of your customers minds • Head off competitors • Go aftercompetitors business • Prove your quality with success stories •Make your stockholders happy • Assert your leadership • Maintain aconstant public presence • Help your direct mail pay off • Announcethe existence of your product • Gain credibility • Become a brandname • Establish a niche • Highlight testimonials from satisfiedcustomers • Test something • Create a desire to buy • Make sales •Obtain names for your prospect or customer mailing list • Informmany people at the same time • Motivate people to call or e-mail orsend coupon • Engage in research by studying the profiles ofrespondents • Prove your superiority • ... to earn aprofitProjectsformba.blogspot.com 1314. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PROS AND CONS OFADVERTISEMENTSAdvertising - Good or Bad?"Advertising -Good or Bad" In todays society, one must consider – Is there anyadvantage ofadvertising? In many cases it is onlydisadvantageProjectsformba.blogspot.com 1415. Projectsformba.blogspot.com- An annoying hindrance in ourdaily lives. It gets on our nerves, distorts thetruth, and adds to thecost of the product. Advertising is designed for onepurpose - to sell.To achieve this goal, advertises are willing to stretch anddistort thetruth, just to convincing people to buy their product. Forexample, anadvertiser may convince buyers to purchase their product bystatingthat has been tested and found superior. In reality, the product isnotlikely to be better than any other - the tests themselvesdoubtlesslyconducted by the promoting company - conducted toensure at leastsomething is superior about the product, even if it isonly the color. Theseadvertisements are worded carefully so thatthey are telling the "literal truth"- the truth is exactly what the wordssay, although people misinterprets themessage by usingconversational logic as something different - somethingbetter. Byusing ingenious tactics like these, the populace is deceivedintobuying a product that may not do what is required, or a productwhich abuyer may have never really needed. This is why advertisingis a bad thing,for our society.FOLLOWING ARE THE BASICADVANTAGES ANDDISADVANTAGES OF ADVERTISMENT.Advantages DisadvantagesProjectsformba.blogspot.com 15 Self-service operations ability to possible provide detailedinformationPURPOSE OF
  33. 33. RESEARCH:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 16 Some media limitthe Editorial content throwaway rate surrounds ad Some mediahave high Message study possible Some media require longcontent; lead message can be standardized time Control overmessage Geographic flexibility available limited Manyalternatives Low cost per contact investments Some mediarequire large Gains pass along lack readership flexibility (for print) Standardized messages Attracts a large audience 16.Projectsformba.blogspot.com17. Projectsformba.blogspot.comEFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENTON THE BUYING BEHAVIOR OF FEMALES:As our basicresearch process is concerned with the effects of advertisementsonthe buying behavior of females so on this regards we‘ll conduct afullresearch process to evaluate that how much the advertisementaffects thebuying behavior of females.As it is a very known sayingthat ―Customer is the king of the market‖Now here we believe thatfemales are the queens of the market.As large areas of markets areoccupied by the females so their buyingbehavior means a lot for themanufacturers. They must be very careful intheir marketingstrategies and should consider the females attitudetowardsconsumption of their product.Now here our basic purpose ofresearch is to come to the result that what arethe basic thingsregarding to products that largely affect the buying behavioroffemales and how much advertising influence their buying. Whenwe‘ll getour findings then we‘ll give very fruitful suggestions to themarketingdepartments of the organizations that how they canincrease their saleamongst the females.Projectsformba.blogspot.com1718. Projectsformba.blogspot.comRESEARCH PROCESSNowcoming towards the basic topic, we‘ll start from here the majorportion of our reportwhich is the research process through whichwe‘ll conclude what we find and what arethe recommendations forthe marketing departments of theorganizations.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1819. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTYPE OF RESEARCH:As ourresearch is for all the organizations so we can say that our researchtype is BASICor PURE RESEARCH, which is on a generaltopic.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1920. Projectsformba.blogspot.com OBSERVATION:―Observationmeans to see or feel what certain changes are occurring or newbehaviors, attitudes and feelings are surfacing‖. It is the stage whenproblem is not defined yet.There are four types of observation suchas:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 20
  34. 34. 21. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1) Currently existing problem 2)Situation requiring improvements 3) Theoretical or conceptualproblem 4) Problem requiring empirical answersHere in our project,the problem can beSITUATION REQUIRINGIMPROVEMENT…Because we are going to conduct the wholeresearch process on the buying behavior offemales, so situation issatisfactory as females buy more and more with the passage oftime.We just want to reach at those results which tell us that which thingsinfluence thefemales buying. Is it advertisement, quality, appearanceor any other thing…?So our basic research is on a situation in whichwe observe the buying behavior offemales having different taste,different preferences, and living in different cities ofPakistan and areof different ages.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2122. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PRELIMINARY DATACOLLECTION: ―It means to seek information in order to knowmore about what we observed‖Here we are working on a broaderterm that which factors influence the females buyingbehavior so wehave to collect data from different tools to confirm our observationthatwhich things actually influence the female buying and how muchadvertisement play rolein their buyingbehavior.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 22 Unstructured interviews STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS:―Instructured interviews the interviewer asks those questions which arepre planned. All the questions are well prepared and the interviewercan easily ask the questions in a series from an appropriateRespondent. It is also called formal interview‖. UNSTRUCTUREDINTERVIEW: ―In unstructured interviews normally the interviewerasks the questions without any predetermined sequence. Thequestion which comes first in the mind of the interviewer will beasked first. It is also called informal interview.‖For the purpose ofcollecting the preliminary data about our observation, weconductedsome unstructured interviews from following 2SECTORS… A. EDUCATIONAL SECTOR B. ADVERTISINGAGENCY EDUCATIONAL SECTOR: FROM EDUCATIONALSECTOR WE SELECTED THE FEMALE MEMBERS OFFOLLOWING INSTITUTIONS…Projectsformba.blogspot.com23 Structured interviews 23.Projectsformba.blogspot.comPrimary Data can be collected by thefollowing two ways;1- Interviews2- Literature Survey 1.INTERVIEWS: Interviews are conducted for the followingreasons… • To bring preliminary issues to the surface so thatresearcher can determine about variables of interest. • To understandthe scenario of situation. • To explore the variables in thesituation.INTERVIWS MAY BE OF TWO TYPES:
  35. 35. 24. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1. THE WELL KNOWNEDFEMALE TEACHERS OF UNIVERSITY OF THE LAHORE 2.THE TEACHERS OF AN INSTITUTION, PAK AIMS INLAHORE 3. THE FEMALE TEACHERS OF D & E ACADEMYGUJRANWALA. 4. FROM THE FEMALE STUDENTS OFUNIVERSITY OF THE LAHORE, PAK AIMS AND D & EACADEMY.According to the structured and unstructured interviewswhich we have conducted to theabove females, we collected thefollowing information about our situation problem… • Femalesmostly prefer the quality of the product • Advertisement effects theirbuying but the routine products which they use to buy from manyyears, from them they don‘t see that for which product advertisementis good. they just buy that product as routine E.g. Max bar, head &shoulders shampoo… • Females are more attractive towards productslike cosmetics, clothing, shoes… Especially working women •Advertisement is also the biggest cause to influence the buyingbehavior of females but advertisements should be approved by themarketing departments of companies. ADVERTISINGAGENCYProjectsformba.blogspot.com 2425. Projectsformba.blogspot.com2. LITERATURE SURVEYS:It isalso a part of Primary Data Collection. The purpose of literaturereview is to ensurethat no variable is ignored that has been considerimportant in the past.Literature Survey can be defined in thefollowing manner;Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2526. Projectsformba.blogspot.com ―Documentation of comprehensivereview of published and unpublished work from secondary sourcesof data in area of interest‖As far as our topic is concerned, weselected the following literatures from internet forthe purpose ofpreliminary data collection… 1) AAEC 3100 Food and FiberMarketing Dr. Steven C. Turner Chapter 6 Analyzing ConsumerMarkets & Psychological 2) From the study of an article publishedin the site…www.csustan.edu/market/petrosky/Old3410/34Lect5CB/tsld0...Inthis article we found the following things according to consumerbuying behavior…Characteristics Affecting Consumer BehaviorBuyer Psychological Personal SocialCultureProjectsformba.blogspot.com 26 Personal SocialCultural Buying BehaviorIn which we found the following datathatMajor Factors which Influence the Consumer Behavior can be…27. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFactors Affecting ConsumerBehavior: Culture • Social Class • People within a social class tendto exhibit similar buying behavior. • Occupation • SOURCE ofIncome • Education • WealthMost basic cause of a persons wantsand behavior • Values • Perceptions • Subculture • Groups of people
  36. 36. with shared value systems based on common life experiences. •Mature ConsumersFactors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Social •Reference Group influence: • Membership Groups: • Primary andSecondary • Non-membership groups: • Aspiration and Dissociative• More important with publicly consumed products • Familyinfluences: • Stage of the family lifecycle • Buying Roles in thefamily Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Psychological •Psychological • Factors • Motivation • Perception •LearningProjectsformba.blogspot.com 2728. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Beliefs and • AttitudesSoaccording to these literature surveys and from the interviews, weconfirm ourobservation that there are some specific things whichhighly influence theconsumer‘s buying behavior, especially offemale customers.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2829. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PROBLEM DEFINITIONAfter thepreliminary data collection, we can now develop a statement toexplain thebasic problem.Any gap between desired situation andactual situation is called Problem and briefstatement that explainsany thing is called Definition. So, Problem Definition means:―Astatement that explains what the real problem is, what types offactors are involved in this problem and finally what areconsequences of a problem.‖Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2930. Projectsformba.blogspot.comAfter going through interviews andliterature review we check the following essentialelements ofProblem Definition: 1) Antecedents(Contributing Factors) 2) RealProblem(What is Wrong) 3) Consequences(Results)The problemdefinition of our project can be explained with the help offollowingdiagram: (Real situation) (Consequences) EFFECTS ONBUYING BEHAVIOUR OF PRICE AND QUALITY ORIENTEDFEMALES ECONOMY 1- PRICE 2- QUALITY 3-ADVERTISEMENT (Antecedents) 4- IMPORTED PRODUCTS 5-PURCHASING POWER 6- STATUSANTECEDENTS:Antecedents are the contributing factors which are responsible forthe real problem. In our project antecedents are1- PRICE2-QUALITY3- ADVERTISEMENT4- IMPORTED PRODUCTS5-PURCHASING POWER6- STATUSProjectsformba.blogspot.com3031. Projectsformba.blogspot.comThese are the antecedents becausethese are the basic reasons behind the buying behaviorof females.These above antecedents effects directly or indirectly to the buyingbehaviorof females.REAL PROBLEM: ―As we know that welldefined problem is half solved and symptoms are not the realproblems.‖Real problem is that situation which results from the
  37. 37. antecedents or contributing factors.So in our project real situationwhich is created from the contributing factors is:―How the buyingbehavior of females is influencing? Which factors influence it and istheadvertisement a basic factor‖?CONSEQUENCES:―Consequences are the results of real problem‖In our projectconsequence is ―The economy will be price and quality oriented‖thisconsequence is the result of the preliminary data collection as whenwe conductinterviews, mostly females think that they prefer thequality from all other factors.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3132. Projectsformba.blogspot.com THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK―It is a logical developed, described & elaborated network ofassociations among variables that have been identified throughinterviews, observation & literature survey‖Variables:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 32 Imported products Now in the research process we‘ll see that whichare the basic most important factors which mostly influence thebuying behavior of females. 3. Moderating Variable ―The variablewhich has strong contingent effect on the relationship of dependentSubstitutes Purchasing power Advertisement Quality Price Extraneous variable1. Dependent variable ―Any variable that willdepend on others for its values‖In our project, our dependentvariable is―BUYING BEHAVIOR OF FEMALES‖Now we‘llexplain the effect of other factors on this dependent variable in detailin ourwhole project.2. Independent Variables: It is the variable onwhich the dependant variable depends upon for its value ―The majorcauses of a problem are called independent variables.‖ In our project,our independent variables are: Intervening variable Moderatingvariable Independent variable Dependent variable 33.Projectsformba.blogspot.com The identification of key variables isvery important in every research study.It can be defined as: ―Avariable is anything that takes different values.‖ Types of Variables:& independent variable‖ It is also called second independentvariable. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 33 Sales taxAs sales tax has little effect on the buying behavior so itcan be easily ignoredHere we show the relationship of differenttypes of variables diagrammaticallyProjectsformba.blogspot.com34 Willingness to buyThe effect of these variables can only be feltbut we can not measure them quantitatively.These variablescontribute an important role on the creation of the problem.5.Extraneous Variables: ―There are infinite numbers of factors whichmay have impact on the situation but we will ignore these factors byassuming them as constant are called extraneous variables.‖ In ourproject extraneous variable is as follows Status consciousness
  38. 38. Above is the moderating variable because it has a strongcontingent effect on therelationship of dependent variables andindependent variables. As if marketingdepartments make the goodstrategies to attract the customers then they can increase theirsalevolume.4. Intervening Variables―There are some factors which haveeffect on the situation but we can not measure them quantitatively,we can just feel their effect.‖These variables will be createdautomatically by the working of independent variables.In our projectintervening variables are as follows: Role of marketingdepartments of the companies 34. Projectsformba.blogspot.comInour project, our moderating variables are:35. Projectsformba.blogspot.com (Dependant Variable) (InterveningVariables) (Independent Variables) Imported products SubstitutesPurchasing power Advertisement Quality Price -StatusconsciousneBuying behavior of ss females -willingness (ModeratingVariables) (Extraneous Variables) Role of the Sales tax marketingdepartmen ts of companies. . Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3536. Projectsformba.blogspot.comProjectsformba.blogspot.com 36 RELATIONAL This can be further classified as… o Co relationalhypothesis o Casual hypothesis.Co relational Hypothesis:―When astatement will create relationship among more than two factors orwhen causes of a problem are more than one, the hypothesis aboutsuch a problem will be called as co relational hypothesis.‖ OR―When there is only one problem and there are a lot of factors orvariables which Increase the problem is also called Co relationalHypothesis‖.In our study there is the situation of buying behavior offemales and there are manyindependent variables which influencethe buying behavior of females. Now we will checkthe relationshipamongst those variables by creating the Hypothesis and applyingcertainStatistical tools which will tell us that which factor is stronglyin connection with thebuying behavior offemales.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 37 DESCRIPTIVE 37.Projectsformba.blogspot.com HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT ―Ahypothesis is a logically conjectured relationship between two ormore variables expressed in the form of a testable statement.‖ OR ―Astatement whose validity will be confirm in future by applyingdifferent statistical tools‖So, in hypothesis we confirmed the validityof any statement after the experiments or datacollection.KINDS OFHYPOTHESIS:38. Projectsformba.blogspot.comSo the following is the creation ofHypothesis of different factors that affect the buyingbehavior offemales…Female preferences:Hο: females do not prefer quality ofthe product while buyingH1: females prefer quality of the products
  39. 39. while buying.Influence of advertisements:Hο: Advertisement has noinfluence on the buying behavior of femalesH1: advertisement hasinfluence on the buying behavior of females.StatusconsciousnessHο: females do not prefer status/self image whilebuying.H1: females prefer status/ self image while buying.Negativeeffects of advertisements:Hο: there is not any negative effect ofadvertisement on the buying behavior of femalesH1: there is anynegative effect on the buying behavior of females.Advertisements ofsubstitutes:Hο: advertisements of the substitutes do not affect thepopularity of the product.H1: advertisements of the substitutes affectthe popularity of the product.Imported goods:Hο: imported good arenot more attractive for femalesH1: imported goods are moreattractive for females.Satisfaction level:Hο: good advertisements arenot the basic cause of satisfaction of females towards consumptionof goods.H1: good advertisements are the basic cause of satisfactionof females towards consumption of goods.Advertised products:Hο:females do not prefer the advertised products on necessities oflifeH1: females prefer the advertised products on the necessities oflife.Product success or failure:Hο: advertisements can not becomethe cause of any product success or failure.H1: advertisements canbecome the cause of product failure or success.Demand of theproduct:Hο: advertisements cannot create the demand of anyproduct.H1: advertisements can create the demand of anyproduct.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3839. Projectsformba.blogspot.comProjectsformba.blogspot.com 3940. Projectsformba.blogspot.com RESEARCH DESIGN:It is a majorand pivotal step of business research. The step involves the overallschemeabout data collection.―Research design is a plan and structureof investigation to obtain answer to researchquestion. It is overallscheme and program of research which includes an outline ofwhatthe researcher will do from developing hypothesis and to thefinal analysis of data‖. Research design constitutes the blue print forcollection, measurement and analysis ofdata. R.D is plan andstructure of investigation to obtain answer to researchquestions.PURPOSEOF TYPE OFSTUDY INVESTI RESEARGATION CHER INTERFE RENCE STUDY SETTING UNIT OFANALYSI S TIME HORIZO N SAMPLIN G DATA COLLECMEASURE TION MENT OF METHOD MEASURE S SProjectsformba.blogspot.com 4041. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PURPOSE OF STUDY: In thepurpose of study, researcher defines the purpose behind the research.These may be 4 types of purposes: 1. exploration 2. description 3.hypothesis 4. case study Here in our research process, our purpose ofstudy is to evaluate that WHAT affects the female‘s buying
  40. 40. behavior, WHICH are the factors, which influence the buyingbehavior of females, HOW advertisements affect the buyingbehavior of females. So we can say that as we are explaining anexisting situation so our purpose of study is Description.‖ Objectiveof descriptive study is to learn the who, how, what, when, where of atopic. TYPES OF INVESTIGATIONS: Investigation is conducted tocomplete the research process efficiently. Investigations may be oftwo types: 1. casual investigation 2. co relational investigation CORELATIONAL INVESTIGATION: The investigation which isconducted to explain the effect of different variables on the situationis called co relational investigation.In simple words, we can say thatwhen there are more than one reasons of a problem it iscalled corelational investigation.In our research process,Our type ofinvestigation is ―Non Casual‖ because there is more than one reasonwhichinfluences the buying behavior of females.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4142. Projectsformba.blogspot.comRESEARCHERINTERFERENCE:In researcher interference we see that which typeof study is going to be conduct by ourgroup. Either it is 1. corelational study, in which minimum involvement of researcher isrequired because it is based on findings of others, or 2. Casual study,in which researcher involvement is more. As we are conductingresearch through the findings of others so our involvement isminimum in the findings of research. STUDY SETTING: It meansin which type of environment we‘ve conducted our research process.The study setting may be of 2 types: a. Contrived This can be furtherclassified as o Lab experiment. b. non-contrived This can also befurther classified as o Field study. o Field experiment. Non-contrived: ―When the research is conducted in natural or normalenvironment, it will be called non contrived study.‖ Normally, thistype of study is conducted inside the organization. Field Study:―When the researcher has to co related the factors then investigationout side the organization is called as Field Study.‖ So, the type of ourstudy setting is non-contrived and during our research we alsoconducted Field Study. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 42 Non Probability Sampling Projectsformba.blogspot.com 43Probability Sampling OrganizationsIt depends upon the nature ofproblem that is being investigated. In our research process, we‘vegathered the data from INDIVIDUALS in the form of questionnairesand from ORGANIZATIONS in the form of interviews. TIMEHORIZON: In which we mention that how much time we‘ve used indata collection. Time horizon has two types 1. cross-sectional 2.longitudinal Longitudinal study: ―As In Longitudinal method thewhole data is collected again and again with out any time interval.‖So in our research time horizon is Longitudinal. SAMPLING: The
  41. 41. process of using a small number of items or parts of a largepopulation to make conclusions about the whole population Thebasic purpose of sampling is; To obtain maximum information aboutthe characteristics of population with in less time, cost and effortThere are two types or styles of Sampling. That is GroupsDyads Individuals 43. Projectsformba.blogspot.com UNIT OFANALYSIS:It is aggregation of data during subsequent analysis.Data can be gathered form:44. Projectsformba.blogspot.comWHERE PROBABILITYSAMPLING CONTAINS: 1. Complex random sampling Thisfurther can be classify as o Systematic Sampling o StratifiedSampling o Cluster Sampling o Area Sampling o Double Sampling2. simple random samplingAND NON PROBABILITY SAMPLINGCAN BE CLASSIFIED AS: 1. Convenient sampling 2. purposivesampling o judgment approach o quota approachhere in our researchprocess, we‘ve done the complex random sampling under the head ofprobabilitysampling in which we‘ve used the CLUSTERSAMPLING APPROACH in which sample is chosen onthe basis ofintra- group heterogeneity and inter-group homogeneity.As we arecomparing here the females with females so our sampling criteria isinter-group homogeneity.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4445. Projectsformba.blogspot.comDATA COLLECTIONMETHODS:There are two types of data collection methods. 1.primary data collection • structured interviews • unstructuredinterviews 2. secondary data collection • questionnairesStructuredInterview: ―Structured Interviews are conducted when it is known atthe outsetwhat information is needed. The interviewer has a list ofpre-determined questions to beasked of the respondents eitherpersonally, through the telephone, or by sending the mainthroughelectronic mail.‖Un-Structured Interview: ―In case of unstructuredinterview, the interviewer asks thequestions without any pre-determined sequence. Those questions are asked first whichcome inthe mind of the interviewer first.‖So we conducted StructuredInterviews with the employees of different selectedorganizations.And our method of collecting Primary Data is throughStructuredInterviews and Un-structured Interviews which we havealready discussed in preliminarydata collection methods.Unobtrusivemeasures: ―It means to trace the measures from a primary source thatdoesnot involve people.‖In the primary data collection, we also usethis technique by just observing the buyingbehavior of females ofour homes and near our homes.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4546. Projectsformba.blogspot.comQuestionnaire: ―A questionnaire isa reformulated written set of questions to whichrespondents recordtheir answers, usually within rather closely defined
  42. 42. alternatives.‖Questionnaires are an efficient data collectionmechanism when the researcher knows exactlywhat is required andhow to measure the variables of interest.Questionnaire can beadministered personally, mailed to respondents, orelectronicallydistributed.During our research process we made closeended questionnaires, and these arepersonallyadministered.MEASUREMENT OF MEASURES: ―Measurement ofmeasures is a key step in research design; it means to measuretheinformation collected from different respondents by differentways by using differentmethods of data collection, to check theaccuracies and reliability of data or informationcollected. It is alsocalled the MOM of research.‖Scale: ―Scale is a tool by which theindividual units are distinguished on the basis ofvariable of interestin some meaningful way.‖We can say that scales will categories thethings into different groups.Types of Scales a) Nominal Scale b)Ordinal Scale c) Interval Scale d) Ratio ScaleAPPROACHES OFSCALING: a) Dictorious scaling. b) Category scaling. c) Likertscaling.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4647. Projectsformba.blogspot.com d) Semantic scaling. e) Numericalscaling. f) Ranking scaling. g) Fixed scaling. h) Psychologicalscaling i) Graphic scalingIn our Central EditingFIELDEDITING:According to this approach, researcher makes thecorrections at the time of gettinginformation from the respondents.Soin our research process, we used this approach at each and every stepdue to which ourdata is correct and having no mistake or blanks init.Now we can analyze it through differenttechniques.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 47 Field editing designing of questionnaire, we have used the following approachesin questions,Dictorious scalingCategory scalingSemanticscalingRanking scalingGraphical scaling (in every question)DATAPREPERATION FOR ANALYSIS:Before analyzing the data, we‘veedit our data due to the reason that there should be notany mistake indata which can cause the error in the data analysis.Types of Editing48. Projectsformba.blogspot.comProjectsformba.blogspot.com 4849. Projectsformba.blogspot.com DATA ANALYSISFor thepurpose of analyze the validity and reliability of data, certainstatistical toolsAveragesCorrelationPercentage etc are applied. Herefor the confirmation of our research we will use thepercentagetechnique in which mea of the data is also calculated.NOW WE‘LLANALYZE ALL THE FACTORS INVOLVED IN ALLQUESTIONSOF OUR QUESTIONNAIR TO COME AT THECONCLUSION THAT WHAT ARETHE BASIC FACTORSWHICH INFLUENCE THE FEMALE BUYING BEHAVIORANDHOW MUCH ADVERTISING PLAYS THE ROLE IN IT:We‘ll
  43. 43. analyze here each and every question one by one, keep in mind thatthisquestionnaire was only for females.Projectsformba.blogspot.com4950. Projectsformba.blogspot.comQ#1: What is your preference whilebuying?Frequency TableYour preference while buying FrequencyPercent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid price 33 11.0 11.011.0 quality 134 44.7 44.7 55.7 appearance 24 8.0 8.0 63.7 local or22 7.3 7.3 71.0 imported all of the 87 29.0 29.0 100.0 above Total300 100.0 100.0GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: price all of theabove local or imported qualityappearanceProjectsformba.blogspot.com 5051. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIN THE NUT SHELL: In thisquestion we want to evaluate that which factors basicallyinfluencethe female buying. We filled the 300 questionnaires from 300femalesof different ages and from different areas. When we took thefrequency of ourresults provided by females, we come to the resultthat the main basic factorwhich hardly influences the female buyingis PRODUCT QUALITY. Manyfemales have also selected the priceand appearance and imported products, butaccording to the results itis approved that they give more preference to thequality of anyproduct.At the second place, mostly females also selected the lastoption which is ALLOF THE ABOVE, which means now daysfemales do shopping according to aplanning. They buy each andevery thing with full concentration and do notcompromise with anything while buying.So at the result, we can say that females give firstpriority while buying to thequality and then to the other influencingfactors. HENCE THE RESULTQ#2: Do advertisements influenceyour buying?Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5152. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFrequency TableDo adver influencebuying Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative Percent Percent Validyes 193 64.3 64.3 64.3 no 58 19.3 19.3 83.7 I don‘t 49 16.3 16.3100.0 know Total 300 100.0 100.0GRAPHICALREPRESENTATION: 300 200 100 Count 0 yes no i dont know doadver influence buyingIN THE NUTSHELL:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5253. Projectsformba.blogspot.comWe structured the above questionaccording to the basic requirement of ourresearch topic which isEFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON THE BUYINGBEHAVIOUROF FEMALES.So according to the above findings, we can see that193 females are agreedupon the fact that their buying influencedwith the advertisements. Whichmeans advertisement is also a basicfactor of influencing females buyingbehavior.Secondly 58 femalessaid that advertisement do not influence their buying. Thismay be
  44. 44. due to the fact that Pakistan is a poor country and females can‘t beartoomuch expensive things so they always cant follow theadvertisements whilebuying the necessities of life.And the lastportion of females, which is 49…they said that they don‘t haveanyidea about it which means they do shopping according to theroutine matters.They don‘t prefer which things are newly emergingin advertising Medias. HENCE THE RESULTQ#3: While buying,you are more conscious towards:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5354. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFrequency TableConscious towardsFrequency Percent Valid Cumulativ Percent e Percent Validadvertise 33 11.0 11.0 11.0 ment status 51 17.0 17.0 28.0 price, 14147.0 47.0 75.0 quality all of the 75 25.0 25.0 100.0 above 300 Total100.0 100.0GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION: advertisement allof the above status price, qualityIN THE NUTSHELL:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5455. Projectsformba.blogspot.comAbove question was administeredby our group by keeping in mind the femalepsyche that when theygo to the market to buy something, they are moreconscious towardswhich things. So according to the results we also got thesameanswers as we got in question one because mostly females said thattheyprefer quality and price factor while buying. They do notcompromise with thequality of the product. Others are the secondarythings.Here we can observe that status also influence the buyingbehavior because inour country females often consider the statuswhile buying. HENCE THE RESULTQ#4: Do you prefer status/selfimage during buying?Frequency TableProjectsformba.blogspot.com5556. Projectsformba.blogspot.comStatus preferences FrequencPercent Valid Cumulati y Percent ve Percent Valid i think so 15451.3 51.3 51.3 i dont 44 14.7 14.7 66.0 think so seldom 64 21.3 21.387.3 think so i dont 38 12.7 12.7 100.0 know Total 300 100.0100.0GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION 180 160 140 120 100 8060 40 Count 20 i think so i dont think so seldom think so i dontknow status preferencesIN THE NUTSHELL:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5657. Projectsformba.blogspot.comHere we can see that how statuseffects the female buying behavior. Here in ourcountry females arevery conscious for their self image so we can see that in theresults144 females agree that they consider the self image whilebuying.Secondly females said that they seldom think that theyconsider the status whilebuying because they also consider the priceand quality of the products as wellbecause they are also veryimportant.At the last some females said that they are not status
  45. 45. conscious and some saidthat they don‘t know that either theyconsider the self image while buying ornot. These may be thosefemales which only prefer to buy basic necessities lifeand belongs tomiddle or lower middle families. HENCE THE RESULTQ#5:Which type of advertisement is more attractive foryou?Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5758. Projectsformba.blogspot.comFrequency TableType ofadvertisement Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative Percent PercentValid product 165 55.0 55.0 55.0 institutional 51 17.0 17.0 72.0celebrity 84 28.0 28.0 100.0 Total 300 100.0 100.0GRAPHICALREPRESENTATION: celebrity product institutionalIN THE NUTSHELL:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5859. Projectsformba.blogspot.comHere we‘ll se that whichadvertisement type is more attractive for females. Thisquestion wasmade for the purpose to suggest the companies that femalespreferwhich types of advertisements.Here we can see that productadvertisement is at the top of the list. Females aremore familiartowards product advertisements instead of other types.Secondarycelebrity advertisements are also very famous amongst thefemalesbut there should be improvements in this type for becomingmore successful. HENCE THE RESULTQ#6: Is there any negativeeffect of advertisement on your buying behavior?FrequencyTableProjectsformba.blogspot.com 5960. Projectsformba.blogspot.comNegative effect of advert FrequencyPercent Valid Cumulative Percent Percent Valid yes 59 19.7 19.719.7 no 66 22.0 22.0 41.7 sometimes 147 49.0 49.0 90.7 never 28 9.39.3 100.0 Total 300 100.0 100.0GRAPHICALREPRESENTATION: 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Count 0 yes nosometimes never negative effect ofadvertProjectsformba.blogspot.com 6061. Projectsformba.blogspot.comIN THE NUT SHELL:Now we‘llsee that we know that advertisements have influencing effects onthebuying behavior of females but is advertisement has negativeeffects as well ornot.For this purpose we illustrated the abovequestionnaire and took feedback fromfemales. From that feedbackwe came to know that mostly females think thatsometimesadvertisement effects negatively. These negative effects may beofany type.On the second and third place we can see that ratio isalmost same, somefemales think that there are definitely bad effectsof advertisement and somethink that there is no any negative effectsof advertisements. And some said thatthere can never be any badeffects of advertisements. Advertisements aresuccessful always.