MDGs Dr. Suraj Chawla


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Millennium Development Goals

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  • MDG Report 2010
  • World health report 2010
  • MDGs Dr. Suraj Chawla

    1. 1. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Dr. Suraj Chawla Junior Resident, Community Medicine PGIMS, Rohtak 1
    2. 2. Contents Milestones Introduction Discussion of MDGs :  Targets & Indicators  World scenario  Indian scenario Barriers towards achieving MDGs Current policies of INDIA 2
    3. 3. Milestones 1990  Watershed in the evolution of ideas about poverty reduction  World Bank’s World Development Report  UNDP’s Human Development Reports  World Summit for Children in New York, to which the processes leading to the MDGs can be traced back 1993  World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, advanced the recognition of the rights of women 3
    4. 4. Milestones 1994  International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, focused on reductions in child, infant and maternal mortality and access to reproductive health services 1995  World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen, crucial for the MDGs as a global consensus was reached that poverty reduction was the priority goal for development 4
    5. 5. Introduction 189 heads of state in September 2000 adopted the Millennium Declaration during the UN Millennium summit The plan was for countries and development partners to work together to reduce poverty and hunger, tackle ill-health, gender inequality, lack of education, lack of access to clean water and environmental degradation They established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), with targets set for 2015, and to be measured in terms of progress since 1990 5
    6. 6. Cont. Each year, the Secretary-General presents a report to the UN General Assembly on progress achieved towards implementing the Declaration The goals, targets and indicators as developed in 2002 were used until 2007 to measure progress towards the MDGs In 2007, the MDGs monitoring framework was revised to include four new targets as agreed by member states at the 2005 World Summit and recommended in 2006 6
    7. 7. Cont. In 2007, the General Assembly took note of the Secretary-Generals report in which he presented the new framework, including the indicators to monitor progress towards the new targets as recommended by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators (IAEG). The 8 MDGs, break down into 21 quantifiable targets that are measured by 60 indicators, effective since January 15, 2008 7
    8. 8. INTER-RELATED 8
    9. 9. ‘ Overcoming poverty is not a gesture of charity. It is an act of justice. ’ - Nelson Mandela. 9
    10. 10. GOAL- 1ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGERTARGETS INDICATORS1.A: Halve ( between 1990 1.1 Proportion of populationand 2015) the proportion of below $1 (PPP) per daypeople whose income is less 1.2 Poverty gap ratiothan one dollar a day 1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption 10
    11. 11. GOAL- 1ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGERTARGETS INDICATORS1.B: Achieve full and 1.4 Growth rate of GDP perproductive employment and person employeddecent work for all, including 1.5 Employment to populationwomen and young people ratio 1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day 1.7 Proportion of own- account and contributing family workers in total employment 11
    12. 12. GOAL- 1ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGERTARGETS INDICATORS1.C: Halve ( between 1990 1.8 Prevalence ofand 2015 ) the proportion of underweight children under-people who suffer from five years of agehunger 1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption 12
    13. 13. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)The global economic crises has slowed down the progress, but world is still on track to meet the poverty reduction target 13
    14. 14. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)Hunger may have spiked in 2009, one of the many dire consequences of the global food & financial crises 14
    15. 15. GOAL-1 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Declining poverty needs to be accelerated… Proportion of people below the national poverty line (poverty headcount ratio or PHR) :  37.2% (1990)  27.5% (2004‐05)  Target is to reduce it by half to 18.6% (2015) Rate of decline in poverty ratio per annum :  0.8% (1990‐2005)  1.4% (2005‐06) Sign of improvement This improved rate, if persists, India will be able to achieve the 2015 target by 2012‐13. 15 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    16. 16. GOAL-1 PROGRESS GOAL-1 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Hunger, particularly undernourishment among children,persists as major food insecurity issue…  Proportion of underweight children below 3 years of age :  53.5% (1990)  46% (2005-06)  Target is to reduce it to 26.8% by 2015 Expected to come down to about 40% (2015) 16 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    17. 17. GOAL-1 PROGRESS GOAL-1 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Addressing the poverty burden in the heartland isvital…  The major states namely, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, MP, Maharashtra, Orissa, UP and Uttarakhand, are among the slow‐moving States & are not likely to achieve their target of halving the poverty. 17 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    18. 18. ‘Education is a human right with immense power to transform. On its foundationrest the cornerstone of freedom, democracy and sustainable human development.’ - Kofi Annan 18
    19. 19. GOAL- 2ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATIONTARGETS INDICATORS2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, 2.1 Net enrolment ratio inchildren everywhere boys primary educationand girls alike, will be able 2.2 Proportion of pupilsto complete a full course of starting grade 1 who reachprimary schooling last grade of primary 2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men 19
    20. 20. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)Hope dims for universal primary education by 2015, even as many poor countries make tremendous strides 20
    21. 21. GOAL-2 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Universal primary education is imminent... The country is tending to achieve 2015 target of universal primary education for all children aged 6‐11 years. Primary enrolment of 6‐11 year old children by their NER :  83% (2000)  95% (2007‐08) Survival rate in the primary stage up to Grade V :  62% (1999)  72% (2007-08) Youth literacy :  82.1% (2007 )  Expected 100% by the end of 2012. 21 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    22. 22. ‘ Women hold up half the sky ’. - Ancient Chinese saying 22
    23. 23. GOAL- 3PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMENTARGETS INDICATORS3.A: Eliminate gender 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys indisparity in primary and primary, secondary andsecondary education, tertiary educationpreferably by 2005, and in 3.2 Share of women in wageall levels of education no employment in the non-later than 2015 agricultural sector 3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 23
    24. 24. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)For girls in some regions, education remains elusive 24
    25. 25. GOAL-3 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Gender disparity in primary and secondary educationis set to disappear… Gender Parity Index (GPI) ratios in primary and secondary education are :  76 and 60 respectively (1990‐91)  94 and 82 respectively (2006‐07) 25 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    26. 26. GOAL-3 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Empowerment of women is still far & too slow toreckon... Participation of women in employment and decision making remains far less than that of men and the disparity is not likely to be eliminated by 2015. Percentage share of women parliamentarians  9.7% (1991)  9.1% (2007)  10.3% after the 15th General Election held in April‐May 2009 Though a marginal increase, this can be a turning point for the better to come by. 26 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    27. 27. ‘ A child like all other human beings has inalienable rights.’ - Lucrezia Molt 27
    28. 28. GOAL- 4REDUCE CHILD MORTALITYTARGETS INDICATORS4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, 4.1 Under-five mortalitybetween 1990 and 2015, the rateunder-five mortality rate 4.2 Infant mortality rate 4.3 Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles 28
    29. 29. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)Child deaths are falling, but not quickly enough to reach the target 29
    30. 30. GOAL-4 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Much sharper focus is needed for fasterimprovement in child-survival prospect … U5MR per thousand live births :  125 (1990)  74.6 (2005-06)  Target is to reduce it to 42 (2015) Expected near 70 by 2015 30 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    31. 31. GOAL-4 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Much sharper focus is needed for fasterimprovement in child-survival prospect IMR per thousand live births :  80 (1990)  53 (2008)  Target is to reduce it to 26.7 (2015) Expected near 46 by 2015 The proportion of 1 year olds immunised against measles reached 69.6% in 2007‐08 Expected to reach 97% by 2015 31 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    32. 32. ‘There is simply no good reason why in the 21st century thousands of women and children should be dying during childbirth.’ - Aileen Carroll 32
    33. 33. GOAL- 5IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTHTARGETS INDICATORS5.A: Reduce by three 5.1 Maternal mortality ratioquarters, between 1990 and 5.2 Proportion of births2015, the maternal mortality attended by skilled healthratio personnel 33
    34. 34. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)Giving birth is especially risky in southern Asia & sub- Saharan Africa, where most women deliver without skilled care 34
    35. 35. GOAL-5 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Life risk to motherhood takes a turn for the better… MMR per 100,000 live births :  301 (2001‐2003)  254 (2004-2006)  Target is to reduce it to 109 by 2015 Expected to reach 135 by 2015 Coverage of deliveries by skilled personnel :  33% (1992-1993)  52% (2007-2008)  Target - universal coverage by 2015 Expected to reach 62% by 2015 35 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    36. 36. ‘ Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health is the most shocking and the most inhumane.’ - Martin Luther King 36
    37. 37. GOAL- 6COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASESTARGETS INDICATORS6.A: Have halted by 2015 6.1 HIV prevalence amongand begun to reverse the population aged 15-24 yearsspread of HIV/AIDS 6.2 Condom use at last high- risk sex 6.3 Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non- orphans aged 10-14 years 37
    38. 38. GOAL- 6COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASESTARGETS INDICATORS6B: Achieve, by 2010, 6.5 Proportion of populationuniversal access to with advanced HIV infectiontreatment for HIV/AIDS for with access to antiretroviralall those who need it drugs 38
    39. 39. GOAL- 6COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASESTARGETS INDICATORS6C: Halt and begin to 6.6 Incidence and deathreverse the incidence of rates associated with malariamalaria and other major 6.7 Proportion of childrendiseases under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets 6.8 Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs 39
    40. 40. GOAL- 6COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASESTARGETS INDICATORS6C: Halt and begin to 6.9 Incidence, prevalencereverse the incidence of and death rates associatedmalaria and other major with tuberculosisdiseases 6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course 40
    41. 41. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)The spread of HIV appears to have stabilized in most regions, and more peoples are surviving longer 41
    42. 42. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)About Malaria … Global procurement of more effective antimalarial drugs continues to rise rapidly Poverty continues to limit the use of insecticide treated mosquito nets External funding is helping to reduce malaria incidence and deaths, but additional support is needed 42
    43. 43. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario) About Tuberculosis…  Incidence fell to 139 cases per 100,000 peoples in 2008 after peaking in 2004 at 143 cases per 100,000 people  Though Tuberculosis prevalence is decreasing in most regions, it remains the second leading killer after HIV/AIDSIf current trends are sustained, the world as a whole will have already achieved the target of halting and reversing the incidence of Tuberculosis in 2004 43
    44. 44. GOAL-6 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Trend reversal in prevalence of HIV/AIDS lookslasting… Estimated adult prevalence :  0.45% (2002)  0.34% (2007) Prevalence among pregnant women of 15‐24 years :  0.86% (2004)  0.49% (2007) Proportion of people aged 15‐49 having correct awareness about HIV/AIDS :  17.6% (2001 )  29.3% (2006) 44 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    45. 45. GOAL-6 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Trend reversal in prevalence of HIV/AIDS lookslasting… Condom use as percentage of all contraceptive methods is low, particularly in rural areas (3.3% in 2005‐06) Condom use is however, quite prevalent (71% in 2005‐06) among non regular sex partners Total number of females living with HIV/AIDS :  1.07 million (2002)  0.95 million (2007) 45 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    46. 46. GOAL-6 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Prevalence of Malaria and TB moves to a halt… Incidence of the Malaria :  1.74% (2005)  1.52% (Sept. 2009) In the malaria prone states like the North East States, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tripura and West Bengal, the number of deaths of malaria patients has consistently declined . 46 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    47. 47. GOAL-6 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Prevalence of Malaria and TB moves to a halt… The prevalence of TB per 100,000 population :  586 (1990)  283 (2007) The case detection rate under DOTS for new smear positive cases has improved from near 1% in 1997 to 68% in 2007, which is just short of 70% ‐ the desired level prescribed under DOTS The treatment success rate has remained steady at 86%‐87% level during the last five years 47 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    48. 48. ‘ Take care of earth and it will take care of you .’ 48
    49. 49. GOAL- 7ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITYTARGETS INDICATORS7.A: Integrate the principles 7.1 Proportion of land areaof sustainable development covered by forestinto country policies and 7.2 CO2 emissions, total,programmes and reverse the per capita and per $1 GDPloss of environmental (PPP)resources 7.3 Consumption of ozone- depleting substances 7.4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits 7.5 Proportion of total water resources used 49
    50. 50. GOAL- 7ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITYTARGETS INDICATORS7.B: Reduce biodiversity 7.6 Proportion of terrestrialloss, achieving, by 2010, a and marine areas protectedsignificant reduction in the 7.7 Proportion of speciesrate of loss threatened with extinction 50
    51. 51. GOAL- 7ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITYTARGETS INDICATORS 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the 7.8 Proportion of populationproportion of people without using an improved drinkingsustainable access to safe water sourcedrinking water and basic 7.9 Proportion of populationsanitation using an improved sanitation facility 51
    52. 52. GOAL- 7ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITYTARGETS INDICATORS7.D: By 2020, to have 7.10 Proportion of urbanachieved a significant population living in slumsimprovement in the lives ofat least 100 million slumdwellers 52
    53. 53. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)The rate of deforestation shows sign of decreasing, but is still alarmingly high 53
    54. 54. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)About biodiversity… The world has missed the 2010 target for biodiversity conservation, with potentially grave consequences The number of species facing extinction is growing by the day, especially in developing countriesAbout safe drinking water &sanitation … The world is on track to meet the drinking water target, though much remains to be done in some regions With half the population of developing regions without sanitation, the 2015 target appears to be out of reach The unparalleled success of the Montreal Protocol shows that action on climate change is within our grasp 54
    55. 55. GOAL-7 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Environmental measures covered up much of losses … India’s forest cover has increased by 0.03% (728 of the country’s geographical area :  20.99% (2005)  21.02% (2007) There was a significant loss of forest in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands because of the Tsunami in 2004 Most of the major forest losing states namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Manipur had much lesser loss of forest during 2005‐07 as compared to the earlier 3 years 55 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    56. 56. GOAL-7 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Environmental measures covered up much of losses … The coverage of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries (protected areas) in India has increased from 4.74% in 2006 to 4.83% in 2009 of the country’s geographical area. The per capita emission of carbon dioxide was 1.31 metric tonne in 2006, which is still much lower than that in some of advanced countries.. 56 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    57. 57. GOAL-7 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Access to safe drinking water tends to reach all … The overall proportion of households having access to improved water sources :  68.2% (1992‐93)  84.4% (2007‐08) The urban coverage has increased to 95% from 87.6% during the same period. The growth in rural coverage is not less significant, being about 19%  61% ( 1992‐93)  79.6% (2007-08) 57 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    58. 58. GOAL-7 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Sanitation facility still eludes half the population … The proportion of households without any toilet facility :  70% (1992‐93)  51% (2007‐08) The rural‐urban gap in access/use of sanitation facility continues to be very high 66% of rural households do not have toilet facilities against 19% of urban households(2007‐08) The target is to reduce the proportion of the household having no access to improved sanitation to 38% by 2015 58 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    59. 59. ‘The world’s leader won’t act unless they hear enough people telling them. And every day they fail to act thousand’s of people die because they can’t afford the basics of survival.’ 59
    60. 60. GOAL- 8DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENTTARGETS INDICATORS8.A: Develop further an open, rule- Official development assistancebased, predictable, non- (ODA)discriminatory trading and financial 8.1 Net ODA, total and to the leastsystem developed countries, as percentageIncludes a commitment to good of OECD/DAC (Organization forgovernance, development and poverty Economic Co-operation andreduction - both nationally and Development/ Developmentinternationally Assistance Committee) donors gross national income 8.2 Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) 8.3 Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied60
    61. 61. GOAL- 8DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENTTARGETS INDICATORS8.B: Address the special 8.4 ODA received inneeds of the least developed landlocked developingcountries countries as a proportion ofIncludes: tariff and quota their gross national incomesfree access for the least 8.5 ODA received in smalldeveloped countries exports; island developing States as aenhanced programme of debt proportion of their grossrelief for heavily indebted national incomespoor countries (HIPC) andcancellation of officialbilateral debt; and moregenerous ODA for countriescommitted to povertyreduction 61
    62. 62. GOAL- 8DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENTTARGETS INDICATORS8.C: Address the special needs of Market accesslandlocked developing countries and 8.6 Proportion of total developedsmall island developing States country imports (by value and(through the Programme of Action excluding arms) from developingfor the Sustainable Development countries and least developedof Small Island Developing States countries, admitted free of dutyand the outcome of the twenty- 8.7 Average tariffs imposed bysecond special session of the developed countries on agriculturalGeneral Assembly) products and textiles and clothing from developing countries 8.8 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic product 8.9 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity 62
    63. 63. GOAL- 8DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENTTARGETS INDICATORS8.D: Deal comprehensively with Debt sustainabilitythe debt problems of developing 8.10 Total number of countriescountries through national and that have reached their HIPCinternational measures in order (heavily indebted poorto make debt sustainable in the countries) decision points andlong term number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) 8.11 Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives 8.12 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services 63
    64. 64. GOAL- 8DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENTTARGETS INDICATORS8.E: In cooperation with 8.13 Proportion of populationpharmaceutical companies, with access to affordableprovide access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainableessential drugs in developing basiscountries8.F: In cooperation with the 8.14 Telephone lines per 100private sector, make available populationthe benefits of new 8.15 Cellular subscribers pertechnologies, especially 100 populationinformation and communications 8.16 Internet users per 100 population 64
    65. 65. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario)  Aid remains well below the United Nations target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for most donors. In 2009, the only countries to reach or exceed the target were Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden.  The largest donors by volume in 2009 were the United States, followed by France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Japan.Growth in mobile telephony remains strongest in the developing world, where, byend-2009, mobile penetration had passed the 50 per cent mark( Information & Communication Technology partnership ) 65
    66. 66. MDGs REPORT 2010 (world scenario) In 2009, net disbursements of official development assistance (ODA) amounted to $119.6 billion (0.31%) of the combined national income of developed countries US is contributing only 0.22 per cent of GNI Least developed countries benefit most from tariff reductions, especially on their agricultural products Access to the World Wide Web is still closed to the majority of the world’s people 66
    67. 67. GOAL-8 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Technology partnership drives connectivity fast … The tele-density per hundred population :  0.67 (1991)  36.98 (March 2009) The tele-density has more than doubled in the last two years The total number of telephones, both fixed and wireless :  22.8 million (1999 )  467.7 million (March 2009) 67 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    68. 68. GOAL-8 PROGRESS (INDIAN SCENARIO)Technology partnership drives connectivity fast … The number of internet subscribers  0.21 million (1999)  13.54 million (2009) The Govt. of India is contemplating of raising internet subscriber base to 100 million by 2014 and is planning to provide internet connectivity to all villages in the country by that time 68 Source: MDGs GOI Report 2009
    69. 69. Barriers towards Achieving the Millennium Development Goals Many people throughout the developed world are unaware of the plight of billions in developing countries. Television and other media typically do not report on these issues. It is not “news,” the information is depressing, and people will not pay attention. Diffusion of responsibility: It is someone else’s problem. Developed countries have their own issues; why should they help other countries when plenty of people in their own land live in poverty? Corrupt leaders in many developing countries have squandered or diverted foreign aid leaving developed countries feeling angry and fed up. Problems beget more problems: Witness Sub-Saharan Africa. 69
    70. 70. How MDGs can be achieved ?Keeping the promiseBuilding on successes  The economic growth momentum in developing regions remains strong  learning from the many successes of even the most challenged countriesBridging the gaps  Local government officials should put the issue of the Millennium Development Goals at the forefront of their attention and legislative work  Proper implementation of programs and policies 70
    72. 72. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)  Introduction of NREGA guaranteed 100 days of employment per household every year at the minimum wage level.  The human rights approach to policy is a developmental step to improving the lives of millions, however problem of implementation have meant the average employment is still much less than the 100 day baseline. 72
    73. 73. Agricultural debt waiver and debt relief scheme (2008)  Announced in the 2008/09 budget and extended in the 2009/10 budget, this one time bank waiver of nearly Rs. 71,000 crore to an estimated 40 million farmers aimed to resolve the issue of agrarian debt.  The act failed to address the private debts of farmers as those were difficult to assess. However, it was announced in the 2009/10 budget that in Maharashtra, a state badly affected, a task force has been set up to look into the issue 73
    74. 74. Right To Education Act 2009 The Right of children to Free and Compulsory Education Act has come into force from 1st April 2010 Provides for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years All private schools shall be required to enroll children from weaker sections in their incoming class to the extent of 25% of their enrolment, by simple random selection 74
    75. 75. Public spending on education In India, public spending in the year 2009/10 stood just 2% of GDP. This means there is major deficiency in the amount of money being paid into primary school education This is one of the leading causes as to why public schools are suffering from high rates of teacher absenteeism, lack of resources and basic infrastructure 12 crore children from government schools ranging from class 1-5 are covered by the Mid-day Meal scheme 75
    76. 76. Domestic Violence Act 2005 The act defines domestic violence to incorporate sexual, physical, economical and social abuse As domestic violence typically takes place behind closed doors, the implementation of the act is difficult, however it should be recommended for being an incremental step in ending discrimination 76
    77. 77. Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI)  Under the IMNCI, baseline workers are trained in holistic management of  measles,  malaria,  pneumonia,  diarrhoea and  Malnutrition  From Nov 2009 IMNCI has been shifted to F-IMNCI : with added component of asphyxia management & care of sick born at facility level 77
    78. 78. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)Universal access to public health services  Women’s health  Child health  Water, Sanitation & Hygiene  Immunization  Nutrition 78
    79. 79. National AIDS Control Programme (NACP)  Phase III of the NACP was implemented in 2007- 08 and will run for five years: it aims to halt and reverse the HIV epidemic during its time frame  The National and State Action Plans for Adolescence Education, aims to deliver to Grade IX and above: information of growing up, HIV/AIDS, life skills and extracurricular activities 79
    80. 80. National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC)  Launched in June 2008  Emphasizes the need for sustainable development through clean energy technology, however it does not set targets for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions  India’s stance is that developed countries should support developing countries should fulfill their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol 80
    81. 81. Accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goalssimply… “Provides every individual with the capacity to fulfill, their greatest potential” -Dr. Manmohan Singh…an accomplishment that is simply a human right, andhardly a lofty goal. 81
    82. 82. “ We must not fail the billions who look to theinternational community to fulfill the promise ofthe Millennium Declaration for a better world.Let us keep the promise.”-UN Secretary- General Ban Ki-moon 82
    83. 83. References The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010 UNITED NATIONS NEW YORK, 2010 United Nations Economic and Social Council. 2008. Report of the Secretary-General on the indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals. ES/60/1 New and Revised MDG Targets and Indicators According to the revised MDG framework, effective 15 January 2008 MDG Government of India Report 2009 Fact Sheets on MDGs in South Asia. 83
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