Insect pests of pulses (edited 23.8.08)

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Insect pests of pulses (edited 23.8.08)

  1. 1. Insect PestsInsect Pests of Pulsesof Pulses
  2. 2. Insect Pests of PulsesInsect Pests of Pulses  Gram Pod-borer,Gram Pod-borer, HelicoverpaHelicoverpa (=Heliothis)(=Heliothis) armigeraarmigera (Hubner)(Hubner)  LepidopteraLepidoptera  NoctuidaeNoctuidae
  3. 3. MothMoth  Stoutly builtStoutly built  Yellowish brown.Yellowish brown.  A dark speck andA dark speck and  A dark areaA dark area  near the other margin ofnear the other margin of each fore wing.each fore wing.
  4. 4. MothMoth  The fore wingsThe fore wings  greyish wavy lines andgreyish wavy lines and  black spots of varying sizeblack spots of varying size  on the upper side andon the upper side and  a black kidney-shaped marka black kidney-shaped mark andand  a round spota round spot  on the underside.on the underside.  The hind wingsThe hind wings  whitish andwhitish and  lighter in colour withlighter in colour with  a broad blackish banda broad blackish band  along the outer margin.along the outer margin.
  5. 5. EggsEggs  The eggsThe eggs  Shining greenish yellowShining greenish yellow  Round.Round.
  6. 6. LarvaeLarvae
  7. 7. CaterpillarsCaterpillars  The caterpillars,The caterpillars,  Full-grown - 3.5 cmFull-grown - 3.5 cm  Greenish with darkGreenish with dark broken grey lines alongbroken grey lines along the sides of the body.the sides of the body.
  8. 8. CaterpillarCaterpillar
  9. 9. CaterpillarCaterpillar  Larva on Pigeon peaLarva on Pigeon pea
  10. 10. CaterpillarCaterpillar  Larva on Pearl MilletLarva on Pearl Millet
  11. 11. CaterpillarCaterpillar  Larva on TomatoLarva on Tomato
  12. 12. CaterpillarCaterpillar  Larva on cotton flowerLarva on cotton flower
  13. 13. DistributionDistribution  CosmopolitanCosmopolitan  Widely distributed in India.Widely distributed in India.
  14. 14. Host RangeHost Range  It is a serious pest ofIt is a serious pest of  Chick pea or gram (Gram Pod Borer)Chick pea or gram (Gram Pod Borer)  Red gramRed gram  Cotton (Cotton Bollworm)Cotton (Cotton Bollworm)  SorghumSorghum  OkraOkra  Maize (Corn Earworm)Maize (Corn Earworm)  Tomato (Tomato Fruit Borer)Tomato (Tomato Fruit Borer)  PolyphagousPolyphagous
  15. 15. BiologyBiology  The females lay eggsThe females lay eggs singly onsingly on  tender parts of the plantstender parts of the plants  LeafLeaf  FlowerFlower  A single female may layA single female may lay  741 eggs in 4 days.741 eggs in 4 days.  The eggs hatch inThe eggs hatch in  2-4 days in April to2-4 days in April to October andOctober and  6 days in February.6 days in February.
  16. 16. BiologyBiology  The young larvae feed onThe young larvae feed on  the foliage for some timethe foliage for some time andand  later bore into the podslater bore into the pods and feed on theand feed on the developing grains,developing grains,  with their bodies hangingwith their bodies hanging outside.outside.
  17. 17. BiologyBiology  They move from pod toThey move from pod to pod andpod and  Full-fed in 13-19 days.Full-fed in 13-19 days.  Last instar larvaeLast instar larvae measure 3.5 cm in lenght.measure 3.5 cm in lenght.
  18. 18. BiologyBiology  The full-grown larvae comeThe full-grown larvae come out of the pods and pupate inout of the pods and pupate in the soil.the soil.  The pupa is dark brown andThe pupa is dark brown and have a sharp spine at thehave a sharp spine at the posterior end.posterior end.  In the active season, theIn the active season, the pupal period lasts 8-15 days,pupal period lasts 8-15 days,  In winter the duration isIn winter the duration is prolonged, particularly inprolonged, particularly in northern India.northern India.
  19. 19. BiologyBiology  There may be as many asThere may be as many as  eight generations in a year.eight generations in a year.  The caterpillars feed on their fellowsThe caterpillars feed on their fellows  if suitable vegetation is not available.if suitable vegetation is not available.
  20. 20. Nature of damage/SymptomsNature of damage/Symptoms  Although they prefer food plants like gram andAlthough they prefer food plants like gram and red gram, the larvae are polyphagous.red gram, the larvae are polyphagous.  They feed on the foliage, when young, and onThey feed on the foliage, when young, and on the seed in later stages, and thus reduce yield.the seed in later stages, and thus reduce yield.  A single larva may destroy 30-40 pods before itA single larva may destroy 30-40 pods before it reaches maturity.reaches maturity.
  21. 21. Spotted Pod Borer,Spotted Pod Borer, Maruca testulalisMaruca testulalis  Spotted PodSpotted Pod Borer,Borer,  Maruca testulalisMaruca testulalis Geyer.Geyer.  LepidopteraLepidoptera  PyralidaePyralidae
  22. 22. MorphologyMorphology  The adult is aThe adult is a conspicuous pyralidconspicuous pyralid moth.moth.  It often rests with theIt often rests with the wings outspreadwings outspread  measuring up to 25 mm.measuring up to 25 mm.  The wings are brownish-The wings are brownish- blackblack  with clear, whitewith clear, white markings.markings.
  23. 23. MorphologyMorphology  Eggs areEggs are  ovate,ovate,  pale yellowish-white,pale yellowish-white,  translucent.translucent.  Slight reticulate sculpturing on the chorion,Slight reticulate sculpturing on the chorion,  0.65 x 0.45 mm.0.65 x 0.45 mm.
  24. 24. MorphologyMorphology  Larva when fully fed,Larva when fully fed,  17-20 mm long.17-20 mm long.  Body whitish to paleBody whitish to pale green or pale brown,green or pale brown,  with irregular brownishwith irregular brownish black spots;black spots;  the spots becomethe spots become indistinct immediatelyindistinct immediately before pupation.before pupation.
  25. 25.  Larva on mungbeanLarva on mungbean
  26. 26. MorphologyMorphology  Pupae are 11.5 x 2.5 mm,Pupae are 11.5 x 2.5 mm,  Within a silken cocoon.Within a silken cocoon.
  27. 27. Host Range:Host Range:  Primary hosts:Primary hosts: Fabaceae (leguminous plants),Fabaceae (leguminous plants),  Caesalpinia,Caesalpinia,  Cajanus cajan,Cajanus cajan,  Canavalia ensiformis,Canavalia ensiformis,  Crotalaria,Crotalaria,  Derris,Derris,  Glycine,Glycine,  Phaseolus lunatus,Phaseolus lunatus,  Phaseolus vulgaris,Phaseolus vulgaris,  Tephrosia,Tephrosia,  Vigna unguiculata .Vigna unguiculata .  Secondary hosts:Secondary hosts:  Lablab purpureus,Lablab purpureus,  Pueraria phaseoloides.Pueraria phaseoloides.
  28. 28. Distribution:Distribution:  It is found throughout the tropics.It is found throughout the tropics.  It is often exported with legumes to other areasIt is often exported with legumes to other areas of the world,of the world,  But is unable to survive in temperate climates.But is unable to survive in temperate climates.
  29. 29. Biology:Biology:  Adults are inactive during the day andAdults are inactive during the day and  can be found at rest withcan be found at rest with  outspread wingsoutspread wings  under the lower leaves of the host plant.under the lower leaves of the host plant.  They live an average of 6-10 days.They live an average of 6-10 days.
  30. 30. Biology:Biology:  Fecundity varies according to diet,Fecundity varies according to diet,  Can be up to 200 eggs per femaleCan be up to 200 eggs per female  The eggs are laidThe eggs are laid  individually orindividually or  in small batches onin small batches on  flowers or flowerbuds,flowers or flowerbuds,  also on terminal shoots of young plants.also on terminal shoots of young plants.  sometimes partly covered with scales,sometimes partly covered with scales,  The egg period lasts an average of 3 days .The egg period lasts an average of 3 days .
  31. 31. Biology:Biology:  There are five larval instars.There are five larval instars.  Several first-instar larvae may be found togetherSeveral first-instar larvae may be found together among flowers, thereafter they disperse singly,among flowers, thereafter they disperse singly, moving from one flower to another so that eachmoving from one flower to another so that each larva damages 4-6 flowers.larva damages 4-6 flowers.  The larval stage lasts an average of 13-14 days.The larval stage lasts an average of 13-14 days.  The pre-pupal stage lasts an average of 1-2 days,The pre-pupal stage lasts an average of 1-2 days, and the pupal stage 6-7 days.and the pupal stage 6-7 days.
  32. 32. Nature of damageNature of damage  Young larvae may feed onYoung larvae may feed on any part of the flowers orany part of the flowers or foliage, but later-instar larvaefoliage, but later-instar larvae are more common in theare more common in the pods. This is true forpods. This is true for cultivated plants having long,cultivated plants having long, tender pods only (such astender pods only (such as beans and cowpeas).beans and cowpeas).  On other legumesOn other legumes (Tephrosia, Pueraria, pigeon(Tephrosia, Pueraria, pigeon pea), the older larvae webpea), the older larvae web together flowers and youngtogether flowers and young pods, and feed and pupatepods, and feed and pupate inside the webs. Larvalinside the webs. Larval damagedamage
  33. 33. Plume Moth,Plume Moth, Exelastis atomosaExelastis atomosa Lepidoptera; Pterophoridae
  34. 34. MorphologyMorphology  Adult is lightly built and lightAdult is lightly built and light brown in colour,brown in colour,  Wings deeply fissured, theWings deeply fissured, the forewings longitudinally cleftforewings longitudinally cleft into two plumes and hindinto two plumes and hind wings into three plumes.wings into three plumes.  Forewings are extremelyForewings are extremely elongate.elongate.  Legs are long and slender.Legs are long and slender.  Abdomen is dark-brown inAbdomen is dark-brown in colour.colour.
  35. 35. MorphologyMorphology  The full-grown caterpillarThe full-grown caterpillar is greenish brown andis greenish brown and measures 1.25 cm inmeasures 1.25 cm in length and has shortlength and has short hairs on the body.hairs on the body.  Pupa looks like larvaPupa looks like larva
  36. 36. Host Range and DistributionHost Range and Distribution  This insect is a specific pest of red gram (arhar)This insect is a specific pest of red gram (arhar) in many parts of India, particularly in Andhrain many parts of India, particularly in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,Pradesh, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Mysore.Maharashtra and Mysore.  Out side India, it has also been recorded inOut side India, it has also been recorded in Natal and New Guinea.Natal and New Guinea.  It also feeds on chick pea.It also feeds on chick pea.
  37. 37. BiologyBiology  The pest remains active throughout the year,The pest remains active throughout the year, provided suitable host plants are available,provided suitable host plants are available, although its incidence remains greater in thealthough its incidence remains greater in the monsoon season.monsoon season.  The female moths lay 17-19 eggs singly onThe female moths lay 17-19 eggs singly on tender parts of the plants.tender parts of the plants.  The eggs hatch in 2-5 days.The eggs hatch in 2-5 days.
  38. 38.  Young larvae feed on the pods and become full-Young larvae feed on the pods and become full- grown in 10-25 days.grown in 10-25 days.  Pupation takes place outside the pod on itsPupation takes place outside the pod on its surface or in the entrance hole itself.surface or in the entrance hole itself.  The pupal period extends from 3 to 12 days.The pupal period extends from 3 to 12 days.  The life-cycle is completed in 17-42 days.The life-cycle is completed in 17-42 days. BiologyBiology
  39. 39. Nature of damageNature of damage  The larvae first scrape the surface of the podsThe larvae first scrape the surface of the pods and finally make holes into them and feed on theand finally make holes into them and feed on the seeds, reducing crop yield.seeds, reducing crop yield.  The caterpillars cause damage by boring into andThe caterpillars cause damage by boring into and cutting through the pods while eating the grains.cutting through the pods while eating the grains. The larvae never enter the pod completely.The larvae never enter the pod completely.
  40. 40. Spiny Pod-borer,Spiny Pod-borer, Etiella zinckenellaEtiella zinckenella Lepidoptera; Phycitidae
  41. 41. MorphologyMorphology  Adult forewings areAdult forewings are brownish-grey with abrownish-grey with a white strip along thewhite strip along the leading edge of theleading edge of the narrow forewings.narrow forewings.  The hindwings areThe hindwings are transparent to opaquetransparent to opaque with darker outer edges.with darker outer edges.  The wingspan is 24-27The wingspan is 24-27 mm.mm.
  42. 42. MorphologyMorphology  The newly hatched larvaeThe newly hatched larvae are greenish and full-are greenish and full- grown larvae are rosy,grown larvae are rosy, with a purplish tinge.with a purplish tinge.
  43. 43. Host Range and DistributionHost Range and Distribution  It is a serious pest of lentils (It is a serious pest of lentils (Lens esculentusLens esculentus Moench.) and green peas (Moench.) and green peas (Pisum sativumPisum sativum L.) inL.) in northern Indianorthern India  It is also found on a variety of other pulses inIt is also found on a variety of other pulses in various parts of the country, Burma and Srilankavarious parts of the country, Burma and Srilanka
  44. 44. BiologyBiology  The pest breeds throughout the year and passesThe pest breeds throughout the year and passes through 5 generations.through 5 generations.  The moths emerge in February and March andThe moths emerge in February and March and are nocturnal.are nocturnal.  The eggs are laid both singly and in clusters onThe eggs are laid both singly and in clusters on various parts of the plant, including the pods.various parts of the plant, including the pods.  The eggs hatch in 5 days at 25°C.The eggs hatch in 5 days at 25°C.
  45. 45. BiologyBiology  The newly emerged larvae feed on floral partsThe newly emerged larvae feed on floral parts and, subsequently, they bore into the pod toand, subsequently, they bore into the pod to feed on the seeds.feed on the seeds.  The larval stage is completed in 10-27 days.The larval stage is completed in 10-27 days.  Pupation takes place in the soil at a depth of 2-4Pupation takes place in the soil at a depth of 2-4 cm.cm.  Pupal development is completed in 10-15 days.Pupal development is completed in 10-15 days.
  46. 46. Nature of damage/symptomsNature of damage/symptoms  The larvae consume floral parts, newly formedThe larvae consume floral parts, newly formed pods and seeds inside the developing pods.pods and seeds inside the developing pods.  The tiny greenish caterpillars enter the pods andThe tiny greenish caterpillars enter the pods and eat away the young grains.eat away the young grains.  The reduction in yield may be up to 5 per cent.The reduction in yield may be up to 5 per cent.
  47. 47. Red Gram Pod-fly,Red Gram Pod-fly, Melanagromyza obtusaMelanagromyza obtusa  Red Gram Pod-fly,Red Gram Pod-fly,  MelanagromyzaMelanagromyza obtusaobtusa MallochMalloch  DipteraDiptera  AgromyzidaeAgromyzidae
  48. 48. MorphologyMorphology  It is a small metallic-It is a small metallic- black fly.black fly.
  49. 49. Red Gram Pod-fly,Red Gram Pod-fly, Melanagromyza obtusaMelanagromyza obtusa  The egg of M. obtusa is whiteThe egg of M. obtusa is white (0.66 mm long) but lacks any(0.66 mm long) but lacks any unusual features to aidunusual features to aid recognition.recognition.  The white larva (up to 4 mmThe white larva (up to 4 mm long) has a fine brownishlong) has a fine brownish stripe along its mid-dorsalstripe along its mid-dorsal line.line.  The puparium is initiallyThe puparium is initially yellowish-white, turningyellowish-white, turning reddish-brown after a day;reddish-brown after a day;
  50. 50. Host Range and DistrubutionHost Range and Distrubution  This pest occurs wherever red gram is grown inThis pest occurs wherever red gram is grown in India but is commoner in northern India.India but is commoner in northern India.  Primary hosts:Primary hosts: Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea).Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea).  Secondary hosts: Vigna radiata (bean, mung), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea).
  51. 51. BiologyBiology  The adult female fly thrusts its minute eggsThe adult female fly thrusts its minute eggs into the shell of a tender pod.into the shell of a tender pod.  They hatch in 2-4 days.They hatch in 2-4 days.  The maggots feed under the epidermis forThe maggots feed under the epidermis for some time and then enter the seed.some time and then enter the seed.
  52. 52. BiologyBiology  They are full-grown in 5-10 days.They are full-grown in 5-10 days.  Pupation takes place inside the damagedPupation takes place inside the damaged pods and the pupal period lasts 4-13 days.pods and the pupal period lasts 4-13 days.  The adults emerge by cutting holes.The adults emerge by cutting holes.  The life-cycle is completed in 11-27 daysThe life-cycle is completed in 11-27 days and several generations are produced in aand several generations are produced in a year.year.
  53. 53. Nature of damage/symptomsNature of damage/symptoms  Tiny maggots bore into the pods and feed onTiny maggots bore into the pods and feed on seeds.seeds.  The maggots eat away only a part of the seedThe maggots eat away only a part of the seed and the partially damaged seed becomes subjectand the partially damaged seed becomes subject to bacterial and fungal infections.to bacterial and fungal infections.  The damaged grains are, thus, rendered unfit forThe damaged grains are, thus, rendered unfit for human consumption.human consumption.
  54. 54. Bean fly,Bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoliOphiomyia phaseoli  Bean fly,Bean fly,  Ophiomyia phaseoliOphiomyia phaseoli (Tryon)(Tryon)  DipteraDiptera  AgromyzidaeAgromyzidae
  55. 55. MorphologyMorphology  It is a very minute insect,It is a very minute insect, body length of the malebody length of the male being about 1.9 mm and thatbeing about 1.9 mm and that of the female 2.2 mm.of the female 2.2 mm.  The general colour is shinyThe general colour is shiny black except for eggs, wingblack except for eggs, wing veins and antennae which areveins and antennae which are light brown.light brown.  The maggot is creamy inThe maggot is creamy in colour and apodous in form.colour and apodous in form.
  56. 56. MorphologyMorphology  PupaPupa
  57. 57. Host Range and DistributionHost Range and Distribution  The bean fly has been found to infest the peaThe bean fly has been found to infest the pea ((Pisum sativumPisum sativum) streak bean () streak bean (Phaseolus vulgarisPhaseolus vulgaris),), Cowpea (Cowpea (Vigna sinensisVigna sinensis), Lima bean (), Lima bean (PhaseolusPhaseolus lunatuslunatus), Soybean (), Soybean (Glycine maxGlycine max),), CajanusCajanus,, CanavaliaCanavalia andand DolichosDolichos in Sri Lanka, India, China,in Sri Lanka, India, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, SingaporeIndonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and many African countries.and many African countries.
  58. 58. BiologyBiology  The flies are seen as soon as the host crops are availableThe flies are seen as soon as the host crops are available in the field.in the field.  The slender, white eggs are laid singly in holes made onThe slender, white eggs are laid singly in holes made on the upper surface of young leaves, especially near thethe upper surface of young leaves, especially near the petiole end of the leaf.petiole end of the leaf.  On hatching, the maggot forms a short linear leaf mineOn hatching, the maggot forms a short linear leaf mine and further on it tunnels underneath the epidermis ofand further on it tunnels underneath the epidermis of the leaf until it reaches one of the veins which leads itthe leaf until it reaches one of the veins which leads it to the midrib and then to the leaf stalk; and the stem.to the midrib and then to the leaf stalk; and the stem.
  59. 59. BiologyBiology  Pupation takes place inside the stem.Pupation takes place inside the stem.  The barrel shaped pupae are black and about 3The barrel shaped pupae are black and about 3 mm long.mm long.  The total life--cycle takes 2-3 weeks.The total life--cycle takes 2-3 weeks.  As many as seven generations of this pest haveAs many as seven generations of this pest have been reported during the active season of thebeen reported during the active season of the pest infestation.pest infestation.
  60. 60. Nature of DamageNature of Damage  Maggots bore into the stem and petiole.Maggots bore into the stem and petiole.  As a result of severe infestation, the leaves turn yellow,As a result of severe infestation, the leaves turn yellow, giving the plants a dry appearance.giving the plants a dry appearance.  The stems turn brown, become swollen and breakThe stems turn brown, become swollen and break down.down.  The spring crops usually suffer less infestation than theThe spring crops usually suffer less infestation than the late summer crops in which infested plants maylate summer crops in which infested plants may constitute over 70 per cent of the plant population.constitute over 70 per cent of the plant population.  The attacked plants bear less pods which are mostlyThe attacked plants bear less pods which are mostly empty or else their seeds may be very small.empty or else their seeds may be very small.
  61. 61. SymptomsSymptoms  Symptom on cowpeaSymptom on cowpea
  62. 62. Tur Pod Bug,Tur Pod Bug, Clavigralla gibbosaClavigralla gibbosa  Tur Pod Bug,Tur Pod Bug,  Clavigralla gibbosaClavigralla gibbosa SpinolaSpinola  HemipteraHemiptera  Coreidae)Coreidae)
  63. 63. MorphologyMorphology  The adult bugs are greenishThe adult bugs are greenish brown in colour, having abrown in colour, having a spined pronotum and thespined pronotum and the femur, swollen at the apicalfemur, swollen at the apical end.end.  The bugs are about 20 mmThe bugs are about 20 mm long.long.  The young nymphs areThe young nymphs are reddish and show prominentreddish and show prominent lateral spines on thelateral spines on the prothoracic and abdominalprothoracic and abdominal segments.segments.
  64. 64. DistributionDistribution  This insect is widely distributed in the IndianThis insect is widely distributed in the Indian sub-continent and adjoining countries includingsub-continent and adjoining countries including Burma.Burma.  In India, it has been recorded from Delhi,In India, it has been recorded from Delhi, Mysore, Orissa, Tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh,Mysore, Orissa, Tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
  65. 65. Host RangeHost Range  It feeds on pigeon-pea, lab-lab, and cowpea.It feeds on pigeon-pea, lab-lab, and cowpea. Both the nymphs and adults suck cellsap and areBoth the nymphs and adults suck cellsap and are harmful to the crops.harmful to the crops.
  66. 66. BiologyBiology  The pest is active from the middle of October toThe pest is active from the middle of October to the end of May and completes six overlappingthe end of May and completes six overlapping generations during this period.generations during this period.  They mate several times in end-to-end positionThey mate several times in end-to-end position and the copulation period varies from an hourand the copulation period varies from an hour to nearly 24 hours.to nearly 24 hours.  After a lapse of about 11 days, which is the pre-After a lapse of about 11 days, which is the pre- oviposition period, the females lay eggs.oviposition period, the females lay eggs.
  67. 67. BiologyBiology  The eggs are usually laid on pods and, less frequently,The eggs are usually laid on pods and, less frequently, on leaves or the floral buds, in clusters of 3 to 15 , each.on leaves or the floral buds, in clusters of 3 to 15 , each.  A female, on an average, lays 60 eggs during anA female, on an average, lays 60 eggs during an oviposition period of 15 days.oviposition period of 15 days.  The eggs hatch in about 8 days and the newly-hatchedThe eggs hatch in about 8 days and the newly-hatched nymphs move away from the egg shells within 10 to 15nymphs move away from the egg shells within 10 to 15 minutes and gather together at a suitable feeding spot.minutes and gather together at a suitable feeding spot. 
  68. 68. BiologyBiology  They are gregarious in nature and are seen feeding inThey are gregarious in nature and are seen feeding in groups.groups.  The nymphs take about 17 days to completeThe nymphs take about 17 days to complete development, after passing through five nymphaldevelopment, after passing through five nymphal stages.stages.  A minute insect,A minute insect, Hadronotus antestiaeHadronotus antestiae (Scelionidae)(Scelionidae) parasitizes the eggs of this pest.parasitizes the eggs of this pest.  It has been observed in nature that up to 55 per cent ofIt has been observed in nature that up to 55 per cent of the eggs might be attacked and, destroyed.the eggs might be attacked and, destroyed.
  69. 69. Nature of Damage/SymptomsNature of Damage/Symptoms  Both the adults and theBoth the adults and the nymphs suck cell sap fromnymphs suck cell sap from the stem, leaves, flower-budsthe stem, leaves, flower-buds and pods.and pods.  As a result of this damage theAs a result of this damage the pods show pale yellowpods show pale yellow patches and later on shrivelpatches and later on shrivel up.up.  The grain inside remainsThe grain inside remains small in size and the yieldsmall in size and the yield may be reduced significantly.may be reduced significantly.
  70. 70. Girdle beetle,Girdle beetle, Oberea brevisOberea brevis SwedSwed  Girdle beetle,Girdle beetle,  Oberea brevisOberea brevis Swed.Swed.  ColeopteraColeoptera  CerambycidaeCerambycidae
  71. 71. Host RangeHost Range  This is an important pest of soybean and it alsoThis is an important pest of soybean and it also attacks lablab and cowpea in the north.attacks lablab and cowpea in the north.  In Madhya Pradesh O. brevis is an importantIn Madhya Pradesh O. brevis is an important pest of soybean causing 13.4 per cent damage onpest of soybean causing 13.4 per cent damage on an averagean average
  72. 72. BiologyBiology  The ovipositing female beetle girdles the stemThe ovipositing female beetle girdles the stem twice and makes 3 punctures just above thetwice and makes 3 punctures just above the lower ring before inserting a single egg throughlower ring before inserting a single egg through the largest hole into the pith. This results in thethe largest hole into the pith. This results in the dropping of the upper part of the stem.dropping of the upper part of the stem.  A female beetle lays 7-13 eggs, and they hatch inA female beetle lays 7-13 eggs, and they hatch in 4-5 days.4-5 days.
  73. 73. BiologyBiology  Larva tunnels upwards and downwards withinLarva tunnels upwards and downwards within the stem and a single larva can destroy the wholethe stem and a single larva can destroy the whole plant.plant.  Over-wintering takes place as the full-grownOver-wintering takes place as the full-grown larva within the feeding tunnel in a gall-likelarva within the feeding tunnel in a gall-like chamber near the base of the plant in the girdledchamber near the base of the plant in the girdled portion of the stem which has fallen out orportion of the stem which has fallen out or under plant debris.under plant debris.
  74. 74. BiologyBiology  Pupation takes place after the first rains in late June orPupation takes place after the first rains in late June or early July (in Uttar Pradesh) for a month.early July (in Uttar Pradesh) for a month.  Adults emerge in time to breed on monsoon crop.Adults emerge in time to breed on monsoon crop.  Egg period lasts for 3-4 days, larval period for 34-47Egg period lasts for 3-4 days, larval period for 34-47 days and pupal period for 8-11 days under laboratorydays and pupal period for 8-11 days under laboratory conditions.conditions.  In the field the developmental periods are protracted.In the field the developmental periods are protracted.
  75. 75. Nature of damageNature of damage  The ovipositing female beetle girdles the petioleThe ovipositing female beetle girdles the petiole or stem twice which results into drying andor stem twice which results into drying and dropping of the upper part of stem.dropping of the upper part of stem.  Early symptoms include the drying of the edgesEarly symptoms include the drying of the edges of trifoliate leaves.of trifoliate leaves.  Seedlings and young plants are wilted or dead.Seedlings and young plants are wilted or dead.  On older plants, all or part of the leaves areOn older plants, all or part of the leaves are wilted and brown.wilted and brown.  Plants may fall over (lodge).Plants may fall over (lodge).
  76. 76. Soybean Fly,Soybean Fly, Melanagromyza sojaeMelanagromyza sojae  Soybean Fly,Soybean Fly,  Melanagromyza sojaeMelanagromyza sojae (Zehntner)(Zehntner)  DipteraDiptera  AgromyzidaeAgromyzidae
  77. 77. Soybean Fly,Soybean Fly, Melanagromyza sojaeMelanagromyza sojae  The flies are 1.60-The flies are 1.60- 1.88mm long, 3.90-1.88mm long, 3.90- 4.45mm wing span,4.45mm wing span, metallic black colourmetallic black colour with a metallic shinywith a metallic shiny abdomen.abdomen.  Antennae, legs, andAntennae, legs, and bristles on head andbristles on head and thorax are all black.thorax are all black.  The wings areThe wings are transparent.transparent.
  78. 78. MorphologyMorphology  The egg is whitish, partly transparent and measures 0.34The egg is whitish, partly transparent and measures 0.34 ± 0.02 mm in length and 0.15 ± 0.01 mm in width.± 0.02 mm in length and 0.15 ± 0.01 mm in width.  The young larva is nearly colourless. The anteriorThe young larva is nearly colourless. The anterior spiracles are short and knoblike, with eight minutespiracles are short and knoblike, with eight minute pores. Posterior spiracles are well separated andpores. Posterior spiracles are well separated and normally consist of six raised pores around a centralnormally consist of six raised pores around a central truncated horn.truncated horn.  The pupa is cylindrical, golden yellow, and measuresThe pupa is cylindrical, golden yellow, and measures 2.75 mm long and 1.00 mm wide.2.75 mm long and 1.00 mm wide.
  79. 79. Host RangeHost Range  Primary hosts:Primary hosts: Soyabean.Soyabean.  Secondary hosts:Secondary hosts: Pigeon pea, sunn hemp,Pigeon pea, sunn hemp, Lucerne, adzuki bean, bean, mung, black gram,Lucerne, adzuki bean, bean, mung, black gram, common bean, pea, cowpea.common bean, pea, cowpea.
  80. 80. DistributionDistribution  The fly is widely distributed in China,Taiwan,The fly is widely distributed in China,Taiwan, India,Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Korea, PhilippinesIndia,Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Korea, Philippines and Vietnam.and Vietnam.
  81. 81. BiologyBiology  Eggs are always laid on the underside of the youngEggs are always laid on the underside of the young leaves; on a unifoliate leaf if the plant has only twoleaves; on a unifoliate leaf if the plant has only two leaves, or on fully opened trifoliate leaves, at the basalleaves, or on fully opened trifoliate leaves, at the basal part of the leaf lamina, near the petiole.part of the leaf lamina, near the petiole.  Egg hatch commences in 2 days, peaks in 3 days andEgg hatch commences in 2 days, peaks in 3 days and can last up to 7 days after oviposition .can last up to 7 days after oviposition .  Immediately after emergence, the larva burrowsImmediately after emergence, the larva burrows through the mesophyll tissue into the closest vein,through the mesophyll tissue into the closest vein, disappearing downwards in the leaf, eventuallydisappearing downwards in the leaf, eventually tunnelling through the petiole and ending up in thetunnelling through the petiole and ending up in the stem.stem.
  82. 82. BiologyBiology  In the stem, the larva burrows into the pith reaching theIn the stem, the larva burrows into the pith reaching the root-shoot junction. It burrows further into theroot-shoot junction. It burrows further into the thickened tap root, turns around, and moves upwardthickened tap root, turns around, and moves upward into the pith, thus widening the original tunnel. Itinto the pith, thus widening the original tunnel. It gnaws through xylem and phloem tissues to thegnaws through xylem and phloem tissues to the epidermis, making a hole to the outside, closes it withepidermis, making a hole to the outside, closes it with debris and pupates in the stem.debris and pupates in the stem.  There are three larval instars. The total duration ofThere are three larval instars. The total duration of larval stage is 7 days.larval stage is 7 days.
  83. 83. BiologyBiology  The pupa is always located in the pith tunnel,The pupa is always located in the pith tunnel, often at the level of unifoliate leaves of youngeroften at the level of unifoliate leaves of younger plants and usually near the fly escape hole, seenplants and usually near the fly escape hole, seen as a dark depression.as a dark depression.  At an average temperature of 27°C, the pupalAt an average temperature of 27°C, the pupal stage lasts 6-9 days.stage lasts 6-9 days.  The total development time from egg to adult isThe total development time from egg to adult is 16-26 days with an average of 21 days.16-26 days with an average of 21 days.
  84. 84. Nature of DamageNature of Damage  There are no clear externalThere are no clear external symptoms of infestationsymptoms of infestation except for some minuteexcept for some minute oviposition/feedingoviposition/feeding punctures at the base of thepunctures at the base of the leaf lamina.leaf lamina.  When the stem is cut open,When the stem is cut open, feeding tunnels containingfeeding tunnels containing larvae and pupae arelarvae and pupae are visible.Larva boringvisible.Larva boring
  85. 85. Bihar Hairy CaterpillarBihar Hairy Caterpillar  Bihar Hairy CaterpillarBihar Hairy Caterpillar  Spilarctia (=Diacrisia, Spilosoma) obliquaSpilarctia (=Diacrisia, Spilosoma) obliqua WalkerWalker  ArctiidaeArctiidae  LepidopteraLepidoptera
  86. 86. MorphologyMorphology  The moth measuresThe moth measures about 50 mm across theabout 50 mm across the wing spread.wing spread.  The head, thorax andThe head, thorax and under-side of the body isunder-side of the body is dull yellow. The antennaedull yellow. The antennae and eyes are black.and eyes are black.
  87. 87. EggsEggs  SphericalSpherical  YellowishYellowish
  88. 88. MorphologyMorphology  Full-grown caterpillarsFull-grown caterpillars measure 40-45 mm inmeasure 40-45 mm in length and are profuselylength and are profusely covered with longcovered with long greyish hair.greyish hair.
  89. 89. CaterpillarsCaterpillars
  90. 90.  Gregarious feedingGregarious feeding
  91. 91.  Cocoon and PupaCocoon and Pupa
  92. 92. Host Range and DistributionHost Range and Distribution  The Bihar hairy caterpillar is a sporadic pest andThe Bihar hairy caterpillar is a sporadic pest and is widely distributed in the Orient.is widely distributed in the Orient.  In India, it is very serious in Bihar, MadhyaIn India, it is very serious in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and the Punjab as aPradesh, Uttar Pradesh and the Punjab as a polyphagous pest, particularly of soybean,polyphagous pest, particularly of soybean, sesamum, mash (Phaseo/us mungo), mung (P.sesamum, mash (Phaseo/us mungo), mung (P. aureus), linseed, mustard and some vegetables.aureus), linseed, mustard and some vegetables.
  93. 93. BiologyBiology  The pest breeds from March to April and again fromThe pest breeds from March to April and again from July to November.July to November.  It passes the hottest part of the summer (May- June)It passes the hottest part of the summer (May- June) and winter (December to .February) in the pupal stageand winter (December to .February) in the pupal stage amidst plant debris.amidst plant debris.  Adults emerge from the over-wintering larvae in March.Adults emerge from the over-wintering larvae in March.  The moths are nocturnal and they mate during theThe moths are nocturnal and they mate during the night.night.  The female lays 412-1241 light-green, spherical eggs inThe female lays 412-1241 light-green, spherical eggs in clusters on the underside of leaves.clusters on the underside of leaves.
  94. 94. BiologyBiology  The eggs hatch in 8-13 days and during the first twoThe eggs hatch in 8-13 days and during the first two stages the tiny caterpillars feed gregariously, butstages the tiny caterpillars feed gregariously, but afterwards they disperse widely in search of food.afterwards they disperse widely in search of food.  They grow to maturity through 7 stages, within 4-8They grow to maturity through 7 stages, within 4-8 week.week.  When full-grown, the larva spins a loose silken cocoonWhen full-grown, the larva spins a loose silken cocoon in which pupation takes place in plant debris or in thein which pupation takes place in plant debris or in the soil.soil.  The pupal stage lasts 1-2 weeks in the active periodThe pupal stage lasts 1-2 weeks in the active period  The moths livefor about a week.The moths livefor about a week.  The life-cycle is completed in 6-12 weeks and the pestThe life-cycle is completed in 6-12 weeks and the pest passes through 3 or 4 broods in a year.passes through 3 or 4 broods in a year.
  95. 95. Nature of DamageNature of Damage  The caterpillars eat leavesThe caterpillars eat leaves and soft portions ofand soft portions of stems and branches.stems and branches.  In severe infestation, theIn severe infestation, the plants may be completelyplants may be completely defoliated.defoliated.

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