A Presentation for the course Biological Resource Management ENR-555
Dr Archana Sharma
Major problems faced by world
The developmental gap between the industrialized and developing countries has continued to widen.
More than 1billion people in the developing world live without adequate food, health care, education and housing.
Poverty and environmental degradation closely related and environmental protection in developing countries had too be viewed as integral part of the developmental process.
It was logically articulated in 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development also which recognized that International Protection Measures have to take current global imbalances into account so as to move towards Sustainable Development.
This Commission was headed by the then PM of Norway Ms Gro Horlem Brundtland
22 Dec 1989
UN General Assembly resolved to convene a United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janerio June,1992.
During this conference following documents were opened for discussion, signing and adoption as follows:
The Convention on Biological Diversity
The Non-Binding Forest Policy
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.
It is a product of the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.
It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels.
The "21" in Agenda 21 refers to the 21st Century.
Agenda 21's goal is to help the environment and was agreed at Rio Earth Summit in 1992.
Local Agenda 21 is Agenda 21 on a local scale, a saying is "think globally act locally"
Agenda 21 is a 300-page document divided into 40 chapters that have been grouped into 4 sections-
Section I: Social and Economic Dimensions
International cooperation for sustainable development
changing consumption pattern
demographic dynamics and sustainability
Section II: Conservation and Management of Resources for Development
protection of the atmosphere
desertification and drought
sustainable mountain development
sustainable agriculture and rural development
conservation of biodiversity
protection of the oceans
toxic chemical management
hazardous waste management
solid waste management
radioactive waste management
Section III: Strengthening the Role of Major Groups
Preamble major groups
Children and youth
Business and industry
Scientific and technological community
Role of farmers
Section IV: Means of Implementation
science for sustainable development
education, public awareness , training
capacity building in developing countries
international legal instruments
information for decision for decision making
Development and evolution
The full text of Agenda 21 was made public at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), held in Rio de Janeiro on June 13, 1992.
178 governments voted to adopt the program.
In 1997, the UN General Assembly held a special session to appraise the status of Agenda 21 (Rio +5).
The Assembly recognized progress as "uneven" and identified key trends, including increasing globalization, widening inequalities in income, and continued deterioration of the global environment.
The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Earth Summit 2002) affirmed UN commitment to "full implementation" of Agenda 21, alongside achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other international agreements.
Agenda 21 for culture (2002)
The first World Public Meeting on Culture, held in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in 2002, came up with the idea to establish guidelines for local cultural policies, something comparable to what Agenda 21 was for the environment.
They are to be included in various subsections of Agenda 21 and will be carried out through a wide range of sub-programs beginning with G8 countries
In 2012, at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development the attending members reaffirmed their commitment to Agenda 21 in their outcome document called "The Future We Want".
180 leaders from nations participated.
To whom it addresses for implementation-
To the agencies, Organizations and Programmes of UN
To intergovernmental agencies
To non-governmental organizations
To constituency groups
To the public
Means to ensure sustainability
Integration of development and environment at all levels of political and economic decision making.
National policies and development projects should take full account of the effect on the environment and include the cost of natural resource depletion in the value of environmental quality in national accounting system.
Improvement in the International trade systems.
Use of biotechnology for building natural capital, increase food, feed and fiber production and enhance the overall quality of life.
Using precautionary measures to prevent global climate change.
Taking precautionary measures while using chemicals.
Agenda 21 is thus a dynamic program. It has been carried out by various actors according to different situations, capacities and priorities of countries and regions in full respect of all the principles contained in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.
It could evolve over time in the light of changing needs and circumstances.
This process marks the beginning of a new global partnership for sustainable development.