Preparation of different agro chemical doses for field & pot application


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Preparation of different agro chemical doses for field & pot application:
-pigeon pea (Red gram)
-green gram & black gram
-STUDY 1: (Chick pea) /[Bengal gram]
Oilseed crop – Groundnut
Sugar crop – Sugarcane
Fruits – Mango
-Cole crops
-STUDY 2 :(Optimization & validation of targeted yield equation based fertilizer doses)

-STUDY 3: (Fertilizer management of cabbage)

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  • MALATHION-2-(dimethoxyphosphinothioylthio) butanedioic acid diethyl ester
  • Sclerotiais a compact mass of hardened fungal mycelium containing food reserves.
  • Preparation of different agro chemical doses for field & pot application

    1. 1. Preparation of different Agro-chemical doses for field & pot application Presented By: Supta Sarkar HHM/2013/010 M.Sc FN- 1st Yr.
    2. 2. Content  INTRODUCTION  DIFFERENT AGROCHEMICALS (PESTICIDES) DOSES FOR FIELD APPLICATION: Cereals: -rice -wheat -maize Millet: -ragi
    3. 3.  Pulses: -pigeon pea (Red gram) -green gram & black gram -Lentil -STUDY 1: (Chick pea) /[Bengal gram]  Oilseed crop – Groundnut  Sugar crop – Sugarcane  Fruits – Mango  Vegetables -Tomato -Cole crops
    4. 4.  FERTILIZERS FOR FIELD APPLICATION -STUDY 2 :(Optimization & validation of targeted yield equation based fertilizer doses)  GROWTH REGULATORS  DIFFERENT AGROCHEMICAL DOSES FOR POT APPLICATION -STUDY 3: (Fertilizer management of cabbage)  CONCLUSION  REFERENCES
    5. 5. Introduction  Agrochemical (or agrichemical), a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a generic term for the various chemical products used in agriculture.  Many agrichemicals are toxic, and agrichemicals in bulk storage may pose significant environmental and/or health risks, particularly in the event of accidental spills.  In many countries, use of agrichemicals is highly regulated.
    6. 6. Insecticide The broad category of agrochemicals are: Acaricide Nematicide Molluscicide Pesticides Rodenticide AGROCHEMICALS Synthetic Fertilizers Growth regulators Fungicide Bactericide Herbicide/ Weedicide
    8. 8.  It is also known as yellow borer of rice  The larva feeds inside the stem causing drying of the drying of the plants.  The caterpillars are tiny, black headed which bore into the stem from the growing points.
    9. 9. PESTICIDE DOSES • Spraying the seedlings with 400-500ml of Methyl Parathion 50EC or 500ml of Fenitrothion 50EC (Sumithion/Folithion) in 500 litres of water per hectare. • Application of Furadan 3 G granule (33kg/ha) or Cytrolan 5 G granule (20kg/ha) or Diazinon 4 G granule (16kg/ha) in 4-5 cm standing water after 15-20 days of transplanting. • This may be followed by one spraying of 350ml Methyl Parathion 50 EC or 400ml Thiodan 35 EC or 450ml Sumithion 50 EC or 200ml Dimecron 100 EC in 400 litres of water after 30days of granule application if the borer reappears.
    10. 10. RICE GRASS HOPPERS (Hieroglyphus niogrorepletus Bol & H. banyan Fab)  This is a polyphagus pest.  They start feeding from the leaf margins towards the centre.  They devour the young shoots causing drying or stunting of the plant.  They are active from July to Oct./ Nov.
    11. 11. DIFFERENT PESTICIDE DOSES  Dusting the grasses on the bunds with 10% BHC @15-20kg/ha in the morning hours.  Dusting with 5% Malathion @25-30kg/ha.  Spraying the crop with 0.04% Heptachlor or 0.02% Methyl Parathion or 0.02% Aldrin by using 750-1000 litres/ha.
    12. 12. • The weevils attack the seedlings. • They remain clinging near the root zone & feed on the fibrous roots of the plants with the result plants become yellow or sticky & in case of sever attack the plants die out. • Usually the attacked plants remain stunted & do not put forth tillers.
    13. 13. PESTICIDE DOSE Mix 5% Aldrin or Chlordane dust @30kg/ha in the soil before sowing in the endemic areas.
    14. 14. MOLLUSCICIDE
    15. 15. CRABS (Gecarcinucus jaccruemontii M.E., Pratelphuse guerif M.E., P. jaccruemontii Rathb., Puratelphusa spinigera, P. hydrodromus H.)  Crabs cause damage in both seed beds & transplanted crops.  They cut the plant near the ground level & carry them to their holes.  They make a series of holes in the bunds, due to which holding of water in the fields become difficult.
    16. 16.  Mix one part of Calcium Arsenate & 16 parts of wheat bran moistening with water & spread in the infested field.  Mix 2% Metaldehyde dust, 5% Calcium arsenate & wheat bran, moisten with sufficient water & broadcast in the infested fields.  Spray 1% Copper sulphate solution. Two sparying should be done at an interval of 15-20 minutes.
    17. 17. SNAILS (Viviparus variatus F., Pila virens L., Indoplauorbis exustus D)  These species are commonly found in rice field.  The transplanted seedlings are cut 5-8cm below the water level during nights in an irregular serrated fashion.  The cut stubbles rot away under submerged water.
    18. 18.  Broadcast Copper sulphate @7.5kg along with 125kg of common salt per hectare.  Poison baiting with Parisgreen (copper acetoarsenite) 2.5kg with 27.5kg bran per hectare has been found effective against this pest.
    19. 19. RICE DISEASES: BLAST • This is also known as rotten neck, rice fever disease, Brusone. • Cause: Pyricularia oryzae Cav. (fungus) • Symptoms: Brown spindle shaped lesions on the leaf & leaf sheath
    20. 20. DIFFERENT FUNGICIDE DOSES  Seed treatment with Agrosan G.N. or Ceresan or Thiram @2.5g/kg of seed.  In endemic area where the disease appears every year spray the crop with 0.1% Hinosan 50 EC (1ml/L) or Benlate (1g/L) or Bavistin (1g/L).  4-5sparys at 10days interval may be needed for complete control.  Spraying of Dithane M-45 (2.5g/l) or Brestanol (4g/l) is equally effective.
    21. 21. SHEATH BLIGHT  Cause: Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (fungus)  It overwinters in the form of sclerotia of the fungus  Symptoms: 2-3cm long greenish- grey lesions with irregular dark brown margin on the leaf & leaf sheath.  Sclerotia form even on the grain in case of severe infection.
    22. 22. Control FUNGICIDE DOSES Seed treatment with Thiram or Agrosan GN @2.5g/kg seed. Soil application of Thiram or Brassicol @25kg/ha before transplanting has been recommended.
    23. 23. BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT • CAUSE: Xanthomonas oryzae Dowson • SYMPTOMS: It occurs in 2phases: 1.Wilt or kresek phase: This is the most destructive phase of the disease. The leaves roll completely, droop & turn yellow or grey. 2.Leaf blight phase: Appearance of straw coloured stripes with wavy margins generally on both edges of the leaves.
    24. 24. Control: BACTERICIDE DOSES • Spray the crop with a mixture of copper oxychloride & streptocycline with 1:1 ratio. • Apply 7.5g streptocycline or Agrimycin-100 & 500g copper oxychloride (Fytolan/ Blitox50) in 500litres of water. • It can be sprayed after 30days of transplanting & repeated after 1 day interval.
    25. 25. NEMATICIDE UFRA DISEASE OR RICE STEM NEMATODE O Cause: Ditylenchus angustus Butler O Symptoms: The nematode feeds ectoparastically causing malformation of host tissue, stunting & wilting of plants.
    26. 26. CONTROL NEMATICIDE DOSES Spraying Diazinon 100ppm on the soil in the rice crop completely controls the nematodes within 72hrs.
    27. 27. RICE ROOT NEMATODE  Cause: Hirschmanniella oryzae Bred de Haan.  It generally invades young roots.  Symptoms: Heavy population of nematodes may cause yellowing & reduction in the number of tillers.  Mentek: Reddish discolouration of leaves & stagnation of plant growth.  Underground symptom: Root rot.
    28. 28. Control NEMATICIDE DOSE • Presowing treatment of nursery beds with Dibromide injected @400 L/ha or DBCP (dibromochloropropane) applied @10 L/ha in irrigation water. • Phorate/ Carbofuran/Fenusulfothion @1-2kg/ha gives significant control of rice root nematodes • Root dip of seedlings in 500ppm solution of Vydate, Diazinon or Carbofuran for 15mins helps to keep off nematodes for several weeks.
    29. 29. RICE WHITE TIP NEMATODE  Cause: Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie  Symptoms: The upper 2-5cm leaf tips turn white or pale yellow in the tillering stage, then brown, & frayed.
    30. 30. DIFFERENT NEMATICIDE DOSE • Soil treatment with Diazinon or Disulfothion or Fensulfothion @ 1-2 kg a.i./ha gives good control of nematode • Spraying of infested crop with Parathion (0.025%) & Trichlorophos (0.03%) three times has been found to be effective.
    31. 31. KHAIRA DISEASE  Cause: Zinc deficiency  Symptoms: The disease appears in nursery but may appear in patches after 10-15days of transplanting.  The leaves show chlorosis at the base.  The growth of disease plant is stunted.  Root growth is also restricted & usually the main roots turn brown & the finer roots are destroyed.
    32. 32.  Spray a mixture of zinc sulphate (5kg) & lime (2.5kg) in 1000 litres of water after 10days of sowing in the nursery  Zinc sulphate (5kg) & Urea (2%) in 1000 lites of water/ha can also be applied.
    33. 33. WEEDICIDE/ HERBICIDE The most common weeds found in the transplanted rice fields are green bristlegrass (Setaria glauca), smallflower umbrella-sedge (Cyperus difformis), Cyperus (Scirpus spp. Fimbristylis litoralis), akankong (Ipmea reptans), wild rice(Echinocloa sp. Oryza sativa), etc.
    34. 34. 1. Stam-F-34 (Propanil)  Spray a solution of 8 litres of herbicides (3kg a.i.) in 400-600 litres of water per hectare 6-8 days after transplanting.  It is advisable to remove water before spraying the weedicide.  The field should be flooded again within 24-48 hrs & kept submerged till crop covers the land.
    35. 35. 2. Machete (Butachlor)  Effective against annual grasses & broad-leaved weeds in rice field.  Spray 5 litres of herbicide (2kg a.i) in 400-600 litres of water per hectare immediately after transplanting.  Drain out the water from the field before the application of herbicide  Machete granules can be applied @50kg/ha in standing water (4-5 cm) & not on the dry soils.
    36. 36. 3. BASALIN (FLUCHLORALIN) Spray a solution of 2 litres (1 kg a.i) of Basalin in 400-500 litres of water per hectare or broadcast 50-60kg of granules/ha in standing water (3-5cm) after the final puddling or 1 or 3 days after transplanting the rice seedlings.
    38. 38. Termites (Odontotermes obesusRamb.)  These are social insects that live underground in colonies.  They attack roots & plants below the soil.  The damaged plants dry up completely & can be easily pulled out.
    39. 39. Control PESTICIDE DOSES • Mix thoroughly 5% Aldrin or Chlordane dust in the soil at the time of sowing or during preparation of land @ 20-25kg/ha. • In case of infestation found in standing crop apply Aldrin 30EC @5 L/ha with irrigation water. • Seed treatment with Aldrin 30 EC @ 4ml/kg of seed also gives good control.
    40. 40. STEM BORER Biological name Effects or symptoms Control Sesamia inferens Walk • The young caterpillars on hatching bore in the stem and feed on the tissues inside • As a result of larval feeding, the entire shoot withers & dies out giving rise to read hearts. Dust 5% BHC powder @ 20kg/ha Spray Endosulfan 35EC @ 1.5ml/litre of water.
    41. 41. DISEASES
    42. 42. Foot rot  Also known as common root rot Cause : Symptoms: Dose(Fungicide) • Brown lesion on the Helminthos coleoptiles, roots & porium stem of the surviving sativum seedlings. P.K. & B. • The plant turn yellow & dry up in patches. • Plants mature early & have shrivelled seed. • Heads are bronzed, white or bleached Seed dressing with Agrosan GN or Ceresan @2g/kg of seed (Fungus)
    43. 43. Cause: Symptoms: KARNAL BUNT grains in • Some Neovossia indica [fungus] Dose Treat seeds with the spike are Agrosan GN or partially or Ceresan or Vitavax wholly converted @ 2- 2.5 g/kg seed into black for eliminating powdery seed borne masses. infection • The black powder gives a foul smell due to presence of trimethylamine.
    44. 44. WEEDICIDE  Wheat crop is infested with the major weeds viz., Chenopodium album (bathua), Anagalis arvensis (Krishna neel), Cirsium arvense (Kateli), Fumaria parviflora (gajri), Lathyrus sp. (chatri matri), etc  All of these are broad leaved weeds .
    45. 45. » Bladex G (700ml/ha) or Weedar (700ml/ha) or Bladex C (1.4 L/ha) or Tafacide (625g/ha) or Fernoxone (625g/ha) should be sprayed in wheat fields 30-35days after sowing in 500700 litres of water per hectare » Spray Tribunil or Dosanex or Iso-proturon @2kg per hectare in 400-600 litres of water 32-35days after sowing.
    46. 46. MAIZE STEM BORER Biological name Effect & symptoms on maize Agrochemical dose Chilo zonellus It attacks • 1st spray after 15immediately after 20days of germination (partellus), germination & with 350ml of causes dead Sumithion /Folithion 50  Stem borer is a very serious EC (Fenitrothion) using pest of maize & Sesamia hearts in young occurs throughout inferens Wlk plants. the country litres of water per 200 hectare. • 2nd spray after 2530days of germination with Sevin 300g or Dipterex 550g in 300 litres of water.
    47. 47. TERMITES Biological name Effect Odontotermes They cut the obesus roots & stems or Microtermes obesi of the young plants just under the surface of the soil Control • Soil should be treated with Aldrin 5% dust or Heptachlor 3% dust @25kg/ha before sowing • In standing crop spray with Aldrin 30 EC/ Aldrex 30 EC @3.5 lites in 700-875 litre of water/hectare.
    48. 48. WEEDICIDE Maize crop is infested with common grassy weeds like Sawan, makra, kodo, banra, doob, nakrul, motha; and broad leaved weeds like chilimil, kankoua, hulhul, makoi, chaulai & naunia.
    49. 49. Control  Apply Atrazine or Simazine @ 1-1.25 kg a.i/ha in light soil & 1.25-1.50kg ai/ha in heavy soils immediately after planting maize by mixing with in 1000 litres of water.  Application of Lasso @ 5litres in 1000 litres of water per hectare.
    50. 50. Ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) Pest Effect Control Hairy caterpillars (Estigmene exigua Hub) Caterpillars attack the • Dust 10% BHC for maturing seeds & controlling early thus reducing yield stage caterpillars • Spray 0.05% parathion or Taxaphene for controlling grown up larvae.
    51. 51. SEEDLING BLIGHTS & ROTS Cause Symptoms Control dose Cochliobolus nodulosum (fungus) • Light brown lesions on the young leaves • Seed treatment with Agrosan GN before sowing at the rate of 2g/kg of seed • Can lead to prominent brown to dark brown discoloration followed by breaking & hanging down • Spray with Dithane Z-78 (2g/litre of water)
    52. 52. Symptoms Control Longitudinal streaks on the leaves Seed treatment with 5% Magnesium arsenatre @1g/kg of seed
    53. 53. PULSES
    54. 54. PIGEON PEA (Cajanus cajan) Pest 1.Pod borer PESTS: (Maruca testulalis) Control This 15-30mm moth causes grain damage by making tunnel into them. Donot show any external evidence until the borer make holes in the pod wall. Spray the crop with Thiodan/Endocal 35 EC (1.5L/ha) or Nuvacrone 40 EC (750ml/ha) at the rate of of 800-1000 litres of water per hectare.
    55. 55. Pest Effect Control 2.Pulse The larvae &  Mix Malathion 5% dust at the beetle beetles are rate of 2.5g/kg of grain for (Laria found inside seed purpose affinis) the grains &  Fumigate with EDCT they render (Ethylene Dichloride and the grain Carbon Tetrachloride) unfit for mixture @1 litre per 3 cu. M. human space or 20 quintal of grain consumption  Use aluminium phosphide (Phostoxin/ Celphos/ Delicia) Tablet @ one tablet (3g each) per metric ton.
    56. 56. GREEN GRAM & BLACK GRAM Pest Effect control Leaf Hopper The pest suck the juice from the leaves thus the leaves dry Spray the crop with 0.04% Monocrotophos 40 EC (1ml/litre of water) Bean fly Apply Termic 10G (10kg/ha) or Thimet 10G (10kg/ha) in the soil at the time of sowing Causes the plant to die
    57. 57. DISEASES Disease Cause Effect Control Seed or seedling rot FUNGUS: Fusarium sp., Pythium sp. Rot of seed & seedling Seed treatment with Thiram (2.5g/kg) or Captan (2.5g/kg of seed) Yellow mosaic VIRUS: Geminiviruses • The leaves turn to completely yellow & reduce in size • Pods are smaller & seeds deformed Spray mixture of 0.1% Metasystox +0.1% Malathion at 10 days interval.
    58. 58. LENTIL (Lens esculenta)
    59. 59. SOME COMMON DISEASES Disease Cause (FUNGUS) Symptom Control Dose Downy Mildew Peronospora lentis. Leaf is covered by brownish cottony growth of the fungus. Plant growth become stunted Seed treatment with Agrosan GN or Emisan at the rate of 2.5g/kg of seed before sowing Powdery Mildew Erysiphe polygoni Whitish patches or whitish powdery mass cover the entire leaves, stems & pods Spray the crop with Sulfex (0.2%) or Elosal (0.3%) or Thiovit (0.25%) Seedling mortality Schelotium rolfsii. & Fusarium oxysporum Drying up of seedlings Seed treatment with Benomyl at the rate of 2g/kg of seed before sowing
    60. 60. STUDY: Seed yield & economics of chickpea as influenced by foliar application of agrochemicals: A field study on 76 farmer’s field was conducted in three different villages of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) project during Rabi season 2009-10 with the objective to enhance the productivity level & net return of chickpea crop.
    61. 61. MATERIALS & METHODS  Four treatments viz; T1-control (no spray), T2-2 spray of 0.05% thio-urea at branching & pod formation stage, T3- 2 spray of 0.5% zinc sulphate at branching & pod formation stage, & T4- 2 spray of 0.05% thio-urea + 0.2% zinc sulphate stage by tractor mounted power sprayer using 500 litre of water/ha were tested.  The crop was sown in the 2nd fortnight of October under irrigated conditions along with recommended dose of N,P, K & it was harvested in the last week of March.
    62. 62. Result of the study: Table: Effect of foliar applied agrochemicals on yield: Treatment Grain yield (q/ha) % increase over control T1- control 8.00 - T2- Thio urea @ 0.05% 9.25 15.63 T3- Zinc sulphate @ 0.5% 10.25 28.13 T4- Thio urea @ 0.05% + 10.35 Zinc sulphate @ 0.2% 29.38
    64. 64. GROUNDNUT PEST TERMITES (Odontotermes obesus Ramb.)  They feed on the roots of groundnut plant & the attacked plants wither & finally dry up.  The attack incidence is high during July to September
    65. 65. Control Presowing soil application of 5% Aldrin dust or 3% Hepatachlore or 5% Chlordane @25kg per hectare at the time of last harrowing is recommended Dressing of groundnut kernels with Aldrin emulsion @12ml/kg kernels has been found to be cheaper & effective.
    66. 66. Disease Cause (FUNGUS) Symptom Chemical dose Rust of groundn ut Puccinia arachidis Speg. Infected leaves show • Spraying of Daconil whitish fleck in early (Chlorothalonil) @ stage. 0.03% or Mancozeb @ Later appears as 0.2% thrice in a season yellowish green after 40 days of flecks. sowing at 20 days Severely affected interval leaves dry out & fall • Sprayin Zineb @ 0.2% Rosette Aphis craccivora & A. gossypii • Plant remain stunted • Markedreduction in size of leaflets • Pray Metasystox 25 EC at the rate of 1 litre in 1000 litres of water per hectare.
    67. 67. SUGAR CROPS
    68. 68. SOME COMMON DISEASES RED ROT Cause- Colletotrichum falcatum Went Symptom: Brown coloured lesion with light brown straw coloured centre on the leaves If the diseased cane is split open, the pith inside is found reddened. The diseases tissue emit a typical alcoholic smell
    69. 69. CONTROL: Dip the setts in 0.25% solution of Agallol or Aretan for 5mins before planting.
    70. 70. SMUT OF SUGARCANE: CAUSE: Ustilago scitaminae Syd. SYMPTOMS:  Production of a long whip like black structure at the apex of the stalk CONTROL:  Treat setts before planting with the solution of Agallol or Aretan (0.25%) for 5mins.
    71. 71. WEED The major weeds in autumn sugarcane planted in October are the annual broad leaf weeds: Matri, krishna neel, Gajri,Makoya, Bathua CONTROL: Applying 2,4-Dibromide @ 1kg ai per hectare in 500- 600 litres of water 25-30days after planting.
    72. 72. Contd…… The spring cane are generally infested with weeds like Motha, Doob, Sama, Makra, Jongli cholai, Safed murga CONTROL: Spraying of Atrazine or Simazine @ 2kg ai/ha in 500600 litres water just after planting.
    73. 73. FRUITS
    74. 74. MANGO (Mangifera indica) PEST Pest Symptom/ Effect Dose Mango stem borer -The grubs damage the trees by boring into the trunk & making tunnels in branches & stems & feeding inside -The branches dry up & trees may die -Injection of 0.2% Methyl paration 50EC into the holes & subsequent plugging with mud. -Pour kerosine oil/ petrol/ formalin/ carbon bisulphide into the tunnel Red ants The ants stitch together some leaves & build their nests in them on the trees & renders new leaves useless for photosynthesis Spray with Dieldrin (0.3 %) or BHC 50 WP (0.25%) to keep these pests in check.
    75. 75. DISEASES DISEASE CAUSE EFFECT DOSE Black tip Physiological disorder The tip of the fruits from the base rots & turns black & shrivels Spraying of Borax @ 6g/litre water or caustic soda @ 8g/litre water. Leaf scorch Potash deficiency Scorching of old leaves at the tips & margins Apply solutions of potassium sulphate @ 5g/litre of water at 15days intervals on newly emerged flushes.
    76. 76. VEGETABLES
    77. 77. TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum) PEST Pest Symptom Control Tomato fruit worm The caterpillars make holes into the fruits & make burrows Spray Endosulfan 35 EC @ 1.5ml/litre water or Sevin 50 WP @2g/litre of water at 15days interval commencing from flowering. Mealy bug Growth retardation Spraying of Necotine n malformation of sulphate 1:800 parts of leaves water with 4 parts of soap is also recommended.
    78. 78. DISEASES Disease Cause Symptom Control Septoria leaf blight Septoria lycopersici (fungus) Dark brown spots Drench seed beds with sunken grey or with Thiram or white on the centres Captan @ 3g/litre of water Root knot Meloidogyne incognita (nematode) Unthriftydevelopme nt, dwarfing, wilting in hot dry weather & in extreme cases death of the plants Apply phorate @25kg/ha to soil immediately or 7days before transplanting
    79. 79. COLE CROPS Pest Symptom Control Leaf webber The green caterpillars web up the leaves & live inside the knotted mass Dust 4% Carbaryl (sevin) or Spray Malathion 50 EC @1ml/litre water Termites They are common in sandy soil They feed on the roots & the affected plants die Apply 5% Aldrin or Chlordane dust @30kg/ha into the soil just before planting
    80. 80. DISEASES Diseases Cause Symptoms/ effects Control Downy mildew of crucifers Peronospora parasitica (fungus) Appearance of purplish brown spots on the undersurface of the leaves Treat seeds with Agrosan GN or Emisan @2.5g/kg of seed Spray with Dithane M-45 @2g/litre water Powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum (fungus) Silvery white patches on the upper surface of the leaves, which on severe attack may cover the entire leaf & cause defoliation Spray Karathane (Dinocap) 25 WP @ 2g/litre water at the first sign of disease appearance & thereafter repeat at 15days interval if needed.
    82. 82. Synthetic Fertilizers  1. A compound made artificially by chemical reactions. 2. Not genuine or natural.  They are specifically designed to feed a plant a certain amount of specific nutrients.  An example of a synthetic fertilizer input would be urea. This common nitrogen source is famous for its quick release and soluble nature.  Phosphoric acid and potash are also the most common phosphorus and potassium ingredients in synthetic fertilizers
    83. 83.  Nearly all nitrogen that plants use is in the form of NH3 or NO3 compounds. The usable phosphorus compounds are usually in the form of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and the potassium (K) is typically in the form of potassium chloride (KCl).  In commercial fertilizers the same required compounds are available in easily dissolved compounds that require no decay—they can be used almost immediately after water is applied.  Inorganic fertilizers are usually much more concentrated with up to 64% (18-46-0) of their weight being a given plant nutrient, compared to organic fertilizers that only provide 0.4% or less of their weight as a given plant nutrient.
    84. 84. Compound fertilizers often combine N, P and K fertilizers into easily dissolved pellets. The N:P:K ratios quoted on fertilizers give the weight percent of the fertilizer in nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5) and potash (K2O equivalent)
    85. 85. Application Synthetic fertilizers are commonly used for growing all crops, with application rates depending on the soil fertility, usually as measured by a soil test and according to the particular crop. Legumes, for example, fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and generally do not require nitrogen fertilizer. Studies have shown that application of nitrogen fertilizer on off-season cover crops can increase the biomass (and subsequent green manure value) of these crops, while having a beneficial effect on soil nitrogen levels for the main crop planted during the summer season
    86. 86.  Nutrients in soil can be thrown out of balance with high concentrations of fertilizers.   Applying excessive amounts of fertilizer has negative environmental effects.  To avoid over-application, the nutrient status of crops should be assessed. Nutrient deficiency can be detected by visually assessing the physical symptoms of the crop.  Both soil tests and Plant Tissue Tests are used in agriculture to fine-tune nutrient management to the crops needs.
    87. 87. STUDY: Optimization & validation of targeted yield equation-based fertilizer doses under Integrated Nutrient Management for wheat in Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India This investigation was undertaken to study the relationship between the nutrient supplied by the soil & added fertilizers, their uptake & yield of wheat & to develop a guideline for judicious application of fertilizer doses under integrated nutrient management
    88. 88. » Field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Centre of the G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & technology, Pantnagar » The soil was silty clay loam & was classified as Aquic Hapludoll » Prior to this experiment, fertility gradient was created through graded doses of N, P, K fertilizers to obtain appreciable variation in soil fertility in the same field.
    89. 89. O
    90. 90. Equations: 
    91. 91. *
    93. 93. RESULT In principle strip III should be richest in the soil fertility status, followed by strip II & further by strip I with poorest fertility. After the harvest of exhaust crop, soil test values for alkaline KMnO4, P & ammonium acetate extractable K were found in the order, stripIII> strip-II > strip-I.
    94. 94. GROWTH REGULATORS  The term “plant growth factor” is usually employed for plant hormones or substances of similar effect that are administered to plants. Growth factors are widely used in industrialized agriculture to improve productivity.  For instance, ripening tomatoes can be controlled by setting desired atmospheric ethylene levels.
    95. 95.  Traditionally five major classes of plant hormones are listed: auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene.  However as research progresses, more active molecules are being found and new families of regulators are emerging; one example being polyamines such as putrescine or spermidine
    96. 96. Auxins  Auxin is the active ingredient in most rooting mixtures.  These products help the vegetative propagation of plants.  Auxins influence cell elongation, cell division and the formation of adventitious roots.  Some auxins are active at extremely low concentrations.  Typical auxin concentration range from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. Cat. # B-2700 C-4140 I-1000 I-1700 N-1420 Product Name 4-Biphenylacetic acid 3-Chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid Indole-3-acetic acid ultra-pure Indole-3-acetyl-DL-tryptophan alpha-Naphthaleneacetic acid
    97. 97. Cytokinins  Cytokinins promote cell division, stimulate shoot proliferation, activate gene expression and metabolic activity in general.  In addition, cytokinins slow the aging process in plants.  Concentration of cytokinins used for horticulture vary between 0.1 to 10 mg/L Cat. # B-1000 K-4000 Z-3000 Product Name 6-Benzyladenine horticultural grade Kinetin trans-Zeatin Riboside
    98. 98. Gibberellins  Gibberellins are derivatives of gibberellic acid.  They are natural plant hormones and promote flowering, stem elongation and break dormancy of seeds.  Gibberellins are fundamental to plant development especially with respect to the growth of stems.  Low levels of gibberellins will prevent plants from reaching their natural height.  Gibberellins are particularly effective at breaking seed dormancy and at speeding up germination. Cat. # G-2700 Product Name Gibberellic acid GA3 90+%
    99. 99. Abscisic acid (ABA) Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth inhibitor It induces dormancy, prevents seeds from germinating and causes abscission of leaves, fruits, and flowers. High concentrations of abscisic acid can be induced by environmental stress such as drought. Elevated levels of abscisic acid will eventually induce dormancy, when all non-essential processes are shut down and only the essential metabolism is maintained in guard cells. Cat. # A-0120 Product Name (+)-cis, trans-Abscisic acid
    100. 100. Ethylene Ethylene is unique in that it is found only in gaseous form. It induces ripening, causes leaves to abscess and promotes senescence. Plants often increase ethylene production in response to stress and before death. Ethylene concentrations fluctuate with the seasons while playing a role in inducing foliage and ripening of fruit.
    102. 102. POT APPLICATION Pesticide Technical Name Field (1 acre) Pot dose (1 litre) Application Fame Flubendamide 39.35 SG 20-40ml For 200L 0.1 - 0.2 ml/L Foliar insecticide(Corn, cotton, fruits, grapes, nuts, orchard crops, rice, soybean, tree fruit, vegetables) Proclaime Imamactin Benzoiate 5SG 90g For 200L 0.45g/L Bollworm in cotton Glamore Idaprole 40% + Imidacloprid 40% UUG 50g For 200L 0.25g/L Aphids, cane beetles, sucking insect, termites, soil insects Tokain Danitoporain 20% SG 80g For 200L 0.40g/L Polo Diafenthiuron 50%SC 240g For 200L 1.2g/L Insecticide or acaricide (aphids & white fly in various fruits, vegetables & cotton)
    103. 103. Fungicide Technical Name Field (1 Acre) Pot Dose (1 Litre) Application Score Difenoconazole 2.5% EC 100ml Per 200l 0.5ml/L Foliar fungicide or seed treatment (rice,wheat, burley, potato, banana,grape) Raxile Tebokonazole 2% DS 40g Per 200l 0.2g/L Seed treatment fungicide (Cereals) Cabrio Top Metirame 55% + Piraclostrobina 5% WG 600g Per 200l 3g/L Fungal diseases in carrot, cole crops, onion, tomato, leafy & tuber vegetables, grapes Poliram Metirame 70% WG 800g Per 200l 4g/L Early blight, late blight in potatoes, apple rust Avatar Hexaconazole 4% + 400-500g Per Zineb 68% WP 200l 2-2.5g/L Tea plants, sheath blight of paddy, leafspots, red rot of sugar cane
    104. 104. Bactericide Technical Name Field (1 Acre) Pot Dose (1 Litre) Application Phytolan Copper Oxychloride 50% WP 600g Per 200L 3g/L Leaf spot, fruit rot, foot rot, black rot, rust, blight, brown leaf spot, bud rot, early blight, red rust, downy mildew Coside Copper 600g Per Hydrochloride 77% 200L WP 3g/L Leaf spot, anthracnose, tikka leaf spot, blister blight, False smut. Thiovit Sulphex Wettable Sulphur 600g Per 200L 3g/L All citrus fruits Zed -78 Zenab 75% WP 400g Per 200L 2g/L Downy Mildew, Scab, Early Blight. For apple, Grapes, Beans, Potato, Tomato
    105. 105. Weedicide Technical Name Field (1 Acre) Pot Dose (1 Litre) Application Millchlore, Billchlore Butachlore 1L/200L 5ml/L Rice field Anilogaurd, Anilthan Anilophos 0.5L/200L 2.5ml/L Paddy, soya bean Stamp, Dhanutop Pendimethali 1L/200L n 5ml/L Wheat, corn, soybeans potatoes, cabbage, peas, carrots and asparagus Weedmar, Walkweed 2, 4 Dichlorophe noxy Acetic Acid Ethoxysulph uran 75WP 500g/200L 2.5g/L For perennial and broad leaf weeds in rice & wheat field 60ml/200L 0.3ml/L Rice & wheat field Leader, Phatae, korosan
    106. 106. STUDY: Fertiliser Management Of Cabbage As Influenced By Method Of Raising Seeding, Depth Of Placement & Levels Of 35slabelled Superphosphate  Two kinds of growing seedlings: on raised bed in the field & in pro-trays using coco-peat as the substrate; two band placements of 35 S-labelled superphosphate at 5 & 10cm depths & 3 levels of superphosphate at 60,80 & 100% of recommended P dose were evaluated for yield & S-use efficiency using ‘Omphalos’ F1 hybrid cabbage.
    107. 107. The raised bed seedlings of cabbage were more vigorous, well-nourished in terms of seedling length, girth & dry weight of shoot & root. They showed more prominent tap root than pro-tray seedlings. The crop grown from transplanting raised bed seedling produced a significantly higher yeild & dry matter production of head portion & the whole plant compared to that grown from protray seedlings.
    108. 108. Conclusion drawn for the study: Coco peat contained definitely higher quantities of all nutrients & was more fertile compared to the soil used in raised bed. The seedlings raised in both the media showed almost the same height but those grown in raised bed were thicker in girth compared to that of the pro-tray seedlings.
    109. 109. Upon transplantation in the field, cabbage grown from raised bed seedlings produced 22.3% higher yield compared to that grown from pro-tray seedlings. Banding of fertiliser at 10cm depth was superior to shallower 5cm deep banding. The yield of cabbage heads & dry matter production increased as the S doses increased.
    110. 110. • Interaction of the treatments showed that in the cabbage crop grown from raised bed seedlings by banding fertiliser at 5cm depth, increasing fertiliser dose significantly decreased yeild of cabbage heads at 60% to 100% doses. • Yield significantly increased from 48.88 t/ha at 60% dose to 54.81 at 80% dose & to 60.35 at 100% dose by growing cabbage from properly raised seedlings & by banding the basal dose of fertilisers at 10cm depth.
    111. 111. REFERENCES: Journals: 1. Dayanand, Mehta,s.M., Verma,r.K., 2013, Seed Yield & Economics Of Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum) As Influenced By Foliar Application Of Agrochemicals, Indian Jounal Of Agricultural Research, Vol-47(4), PP 359-362. 2. Bhaduri,d., Gautam,p., 2013,optimization & Validation Of Targeted Yield Equation –Based Fertilizer Doses Under INM For Wheat In Tarai Region Of Uttarakhand, India, Indian Journal Of Agricultural Research, Vol-47(1), PP 16-25. 3. Kotur,s.C., 2013, Fertiliser Management Of Cabbage As Influenced By Method Of Raising Seedling, Depth Of Placement & Levels Of 35s-labelled Superphosphate, Indian Jounal Of Fertilisers, February 2013, PP 42-48.
    112. 112. TEXT BOOK: 1. Saha,l.R., Handbook Of Plant Protection, First Edition, 2003, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi110002, India. 2. Chand,P., Agricultural And Forest Pest & Their Mangement, 1995, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, PP 322-350. 3. Pradhan,S., Agricultural Entomology & Pest Control, 2002, Published By Directorate Of Information & Publications Of Agritre, ICAR, Pusa, New Delhi, PP 177-182. 4. Ulysses,S.J., Fertilisers & Soil Fertility, 1987, Prentice Hall Of India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
    113. 113. WEBSITES     