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MARRIAGES
IN
HINDU SOCIETY
CONTENT
o Introduction
o Types of hindu marriages in Indian
context
o Marriage customs in different Hindu
societies
o Purpose & significance of hindu marriage
o Marriage partners preferred in different
region of india
o The Hindu marriage act
o Polygamy in Hinduism
o Problems related to hindu marriage
-dowry
-sati/bride burning
-child marriage
o Average age at marriage in india
o Conclusion
introduction
• Rig Veda:mentions marriage of Soman with
Suryai, basis of marriage
rituals those are followed
in Hindu marriage
ceremonies.
Types of hindu marriage
 8 Types of ancient hindu marriage
-4 types of approved marriages( Brahma,
Daiva,Arsha, Prajapatya)
-4 types of unapproved marriages(Ashura,
Gandharva, Rakshasha, Paisacha)
APPROVED MARRIAGES
1. Brahma marriage
(ceremonial form)

2.Daiva marriage
(divine form)

3.Arsha marriage
(priestly form)

4.Prajapatya marriage
UNAPPROVED MARRIAGE
5. Ashura marriage
(mercenary form)-bridal purchase
6.Gandharva marriage
(clandestine form)
7.Rakshasa marriage
(diabolic form)-force & might
8. Paisacha marriage
(ghastly form)
MARRIAGE CUSTOMS IN DIFFERENT
HINDU SOCIETY
• Members of any Hindu society can have an
Arya Samaj wedding performed as per vedic
rites.
• Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded Arya
Samaj in 19th century & propagated the
teachings of Vedas
ARYA SAMAJ WEDDING
MATCH MAKING
• Marriage within the same gotra is prohibited
• Some points noted: varna, Vashya, Tara, Yoni,
Gana as Rakshasa, Manav and Deva,etc.
• All such points are summed up, maximum to
36, if the total is less than18, then the
marriage is not permissible
MADHUPERK:
• First step after bride & groom have entered
the ‘mandap’
KANYADAAN-

HAVAN-
• PANI GRAHAN SANSKAR-

• SHILAROHAN –
• LAJAHOM-
PARIKRAMA
SAPTAPADI
• Most important in hindu marriage
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The meaning of the mantras chanted during
Sapthapadi:
invokes god for plenty of pure & nourishing food
Healthy life
Wealth & prosperity
Happiness & harmony
Virtuous & heroic children
Long life togetherness

7. Loyality,unity & all goodness forever.
• SPRINKLING WATER ON THE
COUPLE-

• HRIDAY SPARSHMANTRA-
• SINDOOR & MANGALSUTRA-
• DHRUVNAKSHATRA-

• ARUNDHATI NAKSHATRA-
ASHIRWAAD
AIM/ SIGNIFICANCE OF HINDU
MARRIAGE
• The main aim of Hindu marriage can be
summarized as:
-DHARMA: performing religious rites
-PRAJA: progeny/ procreation
-RATI: pleasure
MARRIAGE PARTNERS PREFFERED IN
DIFFERENT REGION OF INDIA
• South India: cross-cousin preferred (Kerala,
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh),
North india: marry a stranger (Rajasthan,
Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab),
Central india: northern type but brother-sister
exchange marriage is also frequent.
HINDU MARRIAGE ACT,1955
1. Extension of the Act
2. Application of the Act
-Hindu in any form
-Buddhist, Sikh or Jain
3.Conditions for Hindu marriage:
-marriageable age
-no spouse of any partner
-unfit for marriage
-not within degrees of prohibited relationship
4.Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage
5.Registration of Hindu marriage:
-compulsory
-punishable with fine extending Rs.2,500
to 25,000.
6.Divoce on Hindu marriages:
• Cruelty
• Deserted petitioner
• Converted religion
• Voluntary sexual intercourse
• Incurably of unsound mind
• Incurable-fatal-communicable disease
• Religious world
• Lost for 7yrs or more
• Spouse remarried
• Partner committed crime
7.Divorce by mutual consent:
-District court
8. No petition within one year of marriage
-Hear exceptional hardship by high court
9. Divorced persons when may marry again
10.Legitimation of children:
11. Punishment for contravention of Hindu
marriage Act:
-15days-1month imprisonment/Rs.1000
fine/both
POLYGAMY IN HINDUISM
• Polygamy for Hindus is banned by the lawHindu Marriage Act
• Supreme Court(May 5, 2000) plugged legal
loophole for all potential Hindu bigamists
• Offence punishable under the Hindu Marriage
Act and the Indian Penal Code.
PROBLEMS RELATED TO
MARRIAGE

HINDU

DOWRY
• Vardakshina in kanyadaan
• Dowry Prohibition Act,1961
-Penalty for demanding:6month-2yr, fine
Rs.10,000
-Penalty for giving/taking (1984): 5yr, fine
Rs.15000 or amount dealed.
SATI/ BRIDE BURNING
• An ancient (formally abolished in 1829)
custom of Sati.
• Bride-burning is a form of domestic violence
practiced in India till today by Hindus.
• Crminal law ammendment act, 1986:
minimum 7yr – life imprisonment.
CHILD MARRIAGE
• Bal vivaha originated in the medieaval age
• The legal age for marriage in India is 18 years
for women and 21 for men
• Child Marriage Prohibition Act of 1929:
penalty: 2yr imprisonment, Rs.1 lakh fine
AVERAGE AGE AT MARRIAGE IN
INDIA
• Average age at marriage in India is 19.6yrs
(2001 census)
State

Female

Male

Andaman & nicobar island

19.6

25.4

Andhra pradesh

17.5

22.5

Arunachal pradesh

19.6

23.8

Assam

19.7

25.7

Bihar

17.2

20.6

Chandigarh

20

23.5

Chhattisgarh

17.6

20.9
State

Female

Male

Dadra & nagar haveli

18.8

21.5

Daman & diu

19.4

22.9

Delhi

19.2

23.1

Goa

22.2

27.4

Gujarat

19.2

22.1

Haryana

18

21.6

Himachal pradesh

19.1

23.8

J &K

20.1

23.7

Jharkhand

17.6

21.8

Karnataka

18.9

24.9

Kerela

20.8

27.1

Lakshadweep

19.1

25

Madhya pradesh

17

20.4

Marashtra

18.8

23.5

Manipur

21.5

25.5
State

Female

male

Meghalaya

20.5

24.8

Mizoram

21.8

25.3

Nagaland

21.6

25.7

Orissa

18.9

23.9

Pondicherry

20

26.4

Punjab

20.5

23.4

Rajasthan

16.6

19.9

Sikkim

20.2

24.2

Tamil nadu

19.9

25.5

Tripura

19.3

25.6

Uttar pradesh

17.5

20.1

Uttaranchal

18.5

23

West bengal

18.4

24.5

Source: census 2001
• Average age at marriage for female in India is
18.3yrs
• Average age at marriage for male in India is
22.6yrs
• Average age at marriage below legal age:
state

Years below/above legal age
Female
Male

Andhra pradesh

-0.5

1.5

Bihar

-0.8

-0.4

Chattisgarh

-0.4

-0.1

Jharkhand

-0.4

0.8

Madhya pradesh

-1

-0.6

Rajasthan

-1.4

-1.1

Uttar pradesh

-0.5

-0.9
Marriage in hindu society
Marriage in hindu society

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Marriage in hindu society

  • 2. CONTENT o Introduction o Types of hindu marriages in Indian context o Marriage customs in different Hindu societies o Purpose & significance of hindu marriage o Marriage partners preferred in different region of india
  • 3. o The Hindu marriage act o Polygamy in Hinduism o Problems related to hindu marriage -dowry -sati/bride burning -child marriage o Average age at marriage in india o Conclusion
  • 4. introduction • Rig Veda:mentions marriage of Soman with Suryai, basis of marriage rituals those are followed in Hindu marriage ceremonies.
  • 5. Types of hindu marriage  8 Types of ancient hindu marriage -4 types of approved marriages( Brahma, Daiva,Arsha, Prajapatya) -4 types of unapproved marriages(Ashura, Gandharva, Rakshasha, Paisacha)
  • 6. APPROVED MARRIAGES 1. Brahma marriage (ceremonial form) 2.Daiva marriage (divine form) 3.Arsha marriage (priestly form) 4.Prajapatya marriage
  • 7. UNAPPROVED MARRIAGE 5. Ashura marriage (mercenary form)-bridal purchase 6.Gandharva marriage (clandestine form) 7.Rakshasa marriage (diabolic form)-force & might 8. Paisacha marriage (ghastly form)
  • 8. MARRIAGE CUSTOMS IN DIFFERENT HINDU SOCIETY • Members of any Hindu society can have an Arya Samaj wedding performed as per vedic rites. • Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded Arya Samaj in 19th century & propagated the teachings of Vedas
  • 10. MATCH MAKING • Marriage within the same gotra is prohibited • Some points noted: varna, Vashya, Tara, Yoni, Gana as Rakshasa, Manav and Deva,etc. • All such points are summed up, maximum to 36, if the total is less than18, then the marriage is not permissible
  • 11. MADHUPERK: • First step after bride & groom have entered the ‘mandap’
  • 13. • PANI GRAHAN SANSKAR- • SHILAROHAN –
  • 16. SAPTAPADI • Most important in hindu marriage
  • 17. • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The meaning of the mantras chanted during Sapthapadi: invokes god for plenty of pure & nourishing food Healthy life Wealth & prosperity Happiness & harmony Virtuous & heroic children Long life togetherness 7. Loyality,unity & all goodness forever.
  • 18. • SPRINKLING WATER ON THE COUPLE- • HRIDAY SPARSHMANTRA-
  • 19. • SINDOOR & MANGALSUTRA-
  • 22. AIM/ SIGNIFICANCE OF HINDU MARRIAGE • The main aim of Hindu marriage can be summarized as: -DHARMA: performing religious rites -PRAJA: progeny/ procreation -RATI: pleasure
  • 23. MARRIAGE PARTNERS PREFFERED IN DIFFERENT REGION OF INDIA • South India: cross-cousin preferred (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh), North india: marry a stranger (Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab), Central india: northern type but brother-sister exchange marriage is also frequent.
  • 24. HINDU MARRIAGE ACT,1955 1. Extension of the Act 2. Application of the Act -Hindu in any form -Buddhist, Sikh or Jain 3.Conditions for Hindu marriage: -marriageable age -no spouse of any partner -unfit for marriage -not within degrees of prohibited relationship 4.Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage
  • 25. 5.Registration of Hindu marriage: -compulsory -punishable with fine extending Rs.2,500 to 25,000. 6.Divoce on Hindu marriages: • Cruelty • Deserted petitioner • Converted religion • Voluntary sexual intercourse • Incurably of unsound mind • Incurable-fatal-communicable disease • Religious world • Lost for 7yrs or more • Spouse remarried • Partner committed crime
  • 26. 7.Divorce by mutual consent: -District court 8. No petition within one year of marriage -Hear exceptional hardship by high court 9. Divorced persons when may marry again 10.Legitimation of children: 11. Punishment for contravention of Hindu marriage Act: -15days-1month imprisonment/Rs.1000 fine/both
  • 27. POLYGAMY IN HINDUISM • Polygamy for Hindus is banned by the lawHindu Marriage Act • Supreme Court(May 5, 2000) plugged legal loophole for all potential Hindu bigamists • Offence punishable under the Hindu Marriage Act and the Indian Penal Code.
  • 28. PROBLEMS RELATED TO MARRIAGE HINDU DOWRY • Vardakshina in kanyadaan • Dowry Prohibition Act,1961 -Penalty for demanding:6month-2yr, fine Rs.10,000 -Penalty for giving/taking (1984): 5yr, fine Rs.15000 or amount dealed.
  • 29. SATI/ BRIDE BURNING • An ancient (formally abolished in 1829) custom of Sati. • Bride-burning is a form of domestic violence practiced in India till today by Hindus. • Crminal law ammendment act, 1986: minimum 7yr – life imprisonment.
  • 30. CHILD MARRIAGE • Bal vivaha originated in the medieaval age • The legal age for marriage in India is 18 years for women and 21 for men • Child Marriage Prohibition Act of 1929: penalty: 2yr imprisonment, Rs.1 lakh fine
  • 31. AVERAGE AGE AT MARRIAGE IN INDIA • Average age at marriage in India is 19.6yrs (2001 census) State Female Male Andaman & nicobar island 19.6 25.4 Andhra pradesh 17.5 22.5 Arunachal pradesh 19.6 23.8 Assam 19.7 25.7 Bihar 17.2 20.6 Chandigarh 20 23.5 Chhattisgarh 17.6 20.9
  • 32. State Female Male Dadra & nagar haveli 18.8 21.5 Daman & diu 19.4 22.9 Delhi 19.2 23.1 Goa 22.2 27.4 Gujarat 19.2 22.1 Haryana 18 21.6 Himachal pradesh 19.1 23.8 J &K 20.1 23.7 Jharkhand 17.6 21.8 Karnataka 18.9 24.9 Kerela 20.8 27.1 Lakshadweep 19.1 25 Madhya pradesh 17 20.4 Marashtra 18.8 23.5 Manipur 21.5 25.5
  • 34. • Average age at marriage for female in India is 18.3yrs • Average age at marriage for male in India is 22.6yrs • Average age at marriage below legal age: state Years below/above legal age Female Male Andhra pradesh -0.5 1.5 Bihar -0.8 -0.4 Chattisgarh -0.4 -0.1 Jharkhand -0.4 0.8 Madhya pradesh -1 -0.6 Rajasthan -1.4 -1.1 Uttar pradesh -0.5 -0.9