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Tenses

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Tenses

  1. 1. ENGLISH SUBJECT : ENGLISH (GRAMMAR) TOPIC: TENSES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
  2. 2. I exercise everyday, to stay fit. We used to exercise everyday, when we were young. Tomorrow onwards, I will start exercising .
  3. 3.  In sentence one, the word ‘exercise’ refers to present time.  In sentence two, the words ‘used to exercise’ refer to past time.  In sentence three, the words ‘will start exercising’ refer to future time.  Thus, verbs and their auxiliaries that refer to present time are said to be in the present tense.  Verbs and their auxiliaries that refer to past time are said to be in the past tense.  Verbs and their auxiliaries that refer to future time are said to be in the future tense.
  4. 4. TENSES  The Tense of a verb shows the time of an action or event. There are three main tenses. Each tense is further divided into four forms. They are: PRESENT TENSE PAST TENSE FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE PRESENT / PRESENT INDEFINITE SIMPLE PAST/ PAST INDEFINITE SIMPLE FUTURE/ FUTURE INDEFINITE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS FUTURE CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
  5. 5. SIMPLE PRESENT In exclamatory sentences beginning with ‘here’ and ‘there’ to express what is actually taking place in the present. For eg. The train leaves at 5.20 p.m. To express a future event that is part of a fixed timetable or fixed programme. For eg. Here comes the bus ! To express a habitual action. For eg. I drink milk everyday.
  6. 6. SIMPLE PRESENT The sun rises in the east. Immediately the Sultan rushes to his capital. In vivid narrative, as substitute for the Simple Past. For eg. It is used to introduce quotations. For eg. To express general truths. For eg. Keats says, ‘A thing of beauty is a joy forever’.
  7. 7. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE For an action going on at the time of speaking. For eg. The children are playing, To indicate a persistent habit. For eg. This girl is always talking. For an action that has already been arranged to take place in the near future. For eg. Tom Cruise is arriving in Delhi tomorrow. For a temporary action which may not be actually happening at the time of speaking.For eg. I am reading ‘Harry Potter And The Sorcerer’s Stone’ these days
  8. 8. CHART FOR THE PRESENT TENSE TENSE FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON SIMPLE PRESENT •I write •We write You write •He / She writes •They write PRESENT CONTINUOUS •I am writing •We are writing You are writing •He / She is writing •They are writing PRESENT PERFECT •I have written •We have written You have written •He / She has written •They have written PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS I have been writing for an hour We have been writing for an hour You have been writing for an hour •He / She has been writing for an hour •They have been writing for an hour
  9. 9. RULES FOR THE PRESENT TENSE PERSONAL PRONOUNS SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS FIRST I/We + V1 •I + am + V1+ing •We+are +V1+ing I/We + have +V3 I/We +have+ been+V1+ing SECOND You + V1 You + are + V1 + ing You+ have +V3 You +have+ been+V1+ing THIRD •He / She + V1 + ‘s’/ ‘es’ •They + V1 •He/She + is +V1+ing •They + are + V1+ing •He/She + has +V3 •They+ have +V3 •He/She +has+ been+V1+ing • They+have+ been+V1+ing
  10. 10. This tense can be used without an adverb of time. In such cases the time may be either implied or indicated by the context. For eg. To indicate an action completed in the past. It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time. For eg. He gave me flowers yesterday. This tense is also used for past habits. For eg. He studied for many hours every day.The Sri Lankans defeated the Australians to reach the Commonwealth Bank Finals.
  11. 11. To denote an action going on at some past time. The time of action may or may not be indicated. For eg. The light went out when I was reading. This tense is also used with ‘always’, ‘continually’, etc. for persistent habits in the past. For eg. He was always grumbling.
  12. 12. PAST PERFECT The past perfect describes an action completed before a certain moment in the past. For eg. I met him in Mumbai in 2005. I had seen him last, five years before. If two actions happened in the past, it may be necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other. For eg. When we reached the airport the plane had taken off.
  13. 13. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS  The Past Perfect Continuous is used for an action that began before a certain point in the past and continued up to the time being spoken about. For eg.  When Ms.Lee joined office in 2008, Mr.Smith had been working there for ten years, so he deserved the higher post.
  14. 14. CHART FOR THE PAST TENSE TENSE FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON SIMPLE PAST •I wrote •We wrote You wrote •He / She wrote •They wrote PAST CONTINUOUS •I was writing •We were writing You were writing •He / She was writing •They were writing PAST PERFECT •I had written •We had written You had written •He / She had written •They had written PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS I had been writing for an hour when there was a knock on the door We had been writing for an hour when there was a knock on the door You had been writing for an hour when there was a knock on the door •He / She had been writing for an hour when there was a knock on the door •They had been writing for an hour when there was a knock on the door
  15. 15. RULES FOR THE PAST TENSE PERSONAL PRONOUNS SIMPLE PAST PAST CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS FIRST I/We + V2 •I + was + V1+ing •We+were +V1+ing I/We + had +V3 I/We +had+ been+V1+ing SECOND You + V2 You + were + V1 + ing You+ had+V3 You +had+ been+V1+ing THIRD •He / She + V2 •They + V2 •He/She + was +V1+ing •They + were + V1+ing •He/She + had+V3 •They+ had +V3 •He/She +had+ been+V1+ing • They+had+ been+V1+ing
  16. 16. SIMPLE FUTURE To talk about things which we cannot control. It expresses the future as fact. For eg. I shall be fifty next month. To talk about what we think or believe will happen in the future. For eg. I think India will lift the next World Cup as well.
  17. 17.  We can use this tense when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. For eg.  It is raining. I will take an umbrella.  We use the ‘going to’ form to talk about what seems likely or certain. For eg.  It is going to rain very heavily; look at these black clouds.
  18. 18.  We also use the ‘going to’ form when we have decided to do something before talking about it. For eg.  “Why do you want to sell your bike?”--- “I am going to buy a car.”  The going to form may also express an action which is on the point of happening. For eg.  Run! The car is going to explode.
  19. 19.  To talk about actions which will be in progress at a time in future. For eg.  At 5p.m. today, I shall be watching my favourite cartoon.  To talk about actions in the future which are expected to happen in the normal course of things. For eg.  Mummy will be coming soon.
  20. 20.  It is used to talk about actions that will be completed by a certain future time. For eg.  By the end of this month I shall have worked here for ten years. (so I deserve the promotion)
  21. 21.  It is used to describe actions which will be in progress over a period of time that will end in the future. For eg.  By next March we shall have been living here for four years.
  22. 22. CHART FOR THE FUTURE TENSE TENSE FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON SIMPLE FUTURE •I shall write •We shall write You will write •He / She will write •They will write FUTURE CONTINUOUS •I shall be writing •We shall be writing You will be writing •He / She will be writing •They will be writing FUTURE PERFECT •I shall have written a letter by this time tomorrow •We shall have written a letter by this time tomorrow You will have written a letter by this time tomorrow •He / She will have written a letter by this time tomorrow •They will have written a letter by this time tomorrow FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS I shall have been writing for an hour by this time tomorrow We shall have been writing for an hour by this time tomorrow You will have been writing for an hour by this time tomorrow •He / She will have been writing for an hour by this time tomorrow •They will have been writing for an hour by this time tomorrow
  23. 23. RULES FOR THE FUTURE TENSE PERSONAL PRONOUNS SIMPLE FUTURE FUTURE CONTINUOUS FUTURE PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS FIRST I/We +shall+ V1 •I /We+ shall + be+V1+ing I/We+shall + have +V3 I/We +shall+have+ been+V1+ing SECOND You +will+ V1 You + will+be + V1 + ing You+ will+have +V3 You +will+have+ been+V1+ing THIRD •He / She +will+ V1 •They +will+ V1 •He/She + will+be +V1+ing •They + will+be + V1+ing •He/She +will+have +V3 •They+ will+have +V3 •He/She +will+have+ been+V1+ing •They+will+hav e+been+V1+in g
  24. 24. EXERCISES Identify the tense of the verb in each of the given sentences: 1) Ram is sleeping. 2) By June,2012 we shall have completed our schooling. 3) I have been studying since morning. 4) I was studying when Arshi disturbed me. 5) Rajiv Gandhi died in 1991.
  25. 25. EXERCISES 6) I used to write poems when I was in school. 7) My uncle is coming tomorrow. 8) My teachers were very encouraging. 9) Rahul has been living in the United States for the past ten years. 10)We will be preparing for the Annual Day in the month of October.
  26. 26. REFERENCES Book: Martin H, Wren P.C. “High School English Grammar & Composition”. S.Chand & Company Ltd. 2007. pp.68-75. Websites (for images)  shutterstock.com  norosebed.blogspot.com  karenswhimsy.com  www.fotosearch.com  www.google.com

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