Medicines refers to a
Which is used in
cure & mitigation of
various diseases &
Medicinal plant has similar
properties as conventional
pharmaceutical drugs which have
been used to cure or lessen
symptoms from an illness.
According to WHO, “A medicinal
plant is any plant which, in one or
more of its organs, contains
substances that can be used for
therapeutic purpose or which are
precursors for the synthesis of
Medicinal plants have aided our
survival from ancient time.
Allopathic medicine has only existed
for the last 2 centuries.
80% of the planet uses plants as their
primary source of medicine.
In the records, the study of herbs dates
back over 5,000 years to the sumerians.
The earliest mentioned medicinal use
of plant is found in Rig Vada ( 4500-
In 1500 BC, the ancient Egyptian’s
“Ebers papyrus” contain information
on 850 plant medicine.
The first Chinese pharmacopeia
appeared around 1122 BC .
For the treatment of majority of population in
Medicinal plants are a feature of traditional health
Medicinal Plants act as source of traditional
Ayurvedic is the science of life.
Ayurvedic medicine, which is a natural system of
The resin has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for
centuries to treat a variety of ailments
Health care and botany have evolved as inseparable
domains of human activity.
Medicinal plant products are still of paramount
importance in traditional health care systems of
E.g. Turmeric is being used as a traditional medicine
for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, skin cancer,
small pox etc.
Chemical' drugs have largely replaced plant products
in mainstream medicine.
Over 25% prescriptions in developed countries and
60% in eastern European countries uses products
with higher plant constituents.
quinine and artemisinin
Potential of the Plant kingdom to provide new drugs.
Finding of new medicinal plants which benefits the
Adequate quantities of medicinal substances can be
obtained from plant.
Has significant economic value.
• Rainforests contain no less than 60% of all higher
• Plants have developed large numbers of chemical
substances through evolution.
• They have highly complex molecular structures.
Natural drugs & medicinal plants yield important
The Pharmaceutical industry uses tropical rainforest
as a source of chemicals for new drug development.
E.g. Research is being done over thousand of plant
extracts from all over the world to find activity
against cancer & HIV.
With the development of human knowledge,
scientists have isolated chemical constituents from
Through biological & pharmacological tests,
therapeutically active compound have been identified.
E.g. ancient use Datura plants have led to isolation of
hysocine, atropine, cinchona bark to quinine &
The list of plant derived substances occurring is very
E.g. drug like atropine, digoxin, L-dopa, papain,
morphine, emetine etc. are also plant derived.
There are other plant derived substances that are used
as drug or necessary component in many
preparations. E.g. volatile oils, cardiac glycosides,
It has anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, insect
repellent, antiseptic, antibacterial,
expectorant, fever reduction, pain relief
It is an effective nervine.
Give relief from nervousness & tension.
Give relief from pain.
It is a heart stimulant & worm expellant.
It is famous for soothing headaches,
fighting nausea, calming the stomach,
& reducing nervousness & fatigue.
It is a fairly effective antiviral.
Has more than 500 medicinal plant species.
Novel structures of biologically active compounds helps
the chemist to synthesis similar or more potent semi
Synthetic drugs are often prepared by structural
modification of biologically active plant derived
Various derivates of plant constituents with similar
pharmacological action prepared by chemist to be used as
1) In USA, in 1980 alone, consumers paid 8 million dollar for
the prescription drugs in which the APIs were derived from
2) 47% of some 300 million new prescriptions in America in
1961 contained, One or more active ingredients & one of
them is of natural origin.
3) About 33% of the drugs produced in the developed countries
are derived from plants.
4) More than 47% of all drugs used in Russia are obtained from
Many Pharmaceuticals have a long history of use of herbal remedies,
including opium, aspirin, digitalis
The population of Asia & African countries currently use herbal
medicine as their primary source of medicine.
Herbal medicines are still popular
because of their low cost &