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[CHI 2018] Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing

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The activation point of a button is defined as the depth at which it invokes a make signal. Regular buttons are activated during the downward stroke, which occurs within the first 20 ms of a press. The remaining portion, which can be as long as 80 ms, has not been examined for button activation for reason of mechanical limitations. The paper presents a technique and empirical evidence for an activation technique called Impact Activation, where the button is activated at its maximal impact point. We argue that this technique is advantageous particularly in rapid, repetitive button pressing, which is common in gaming and music applications. We report on a study of rapid button pressing, wherein users’ timing accuracy improved significantly with use of Impact Activation. The technique can be implemented for modern push-buttons and capacitive sensors that generate a continuous signal.

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[CHI 2018] Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing

  1. 1. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !1 • Impact Activation Improves Rapid Key Pressing Mon 16.30-17.50 516E • Neuromechanics of Button Press Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB • Moving Target Selection: A Cue Integration Model Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB
  2. 2. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Watch carefully... 3 !2
  3. 3. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Watch carefully... 2 !3
  4. 4. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Watch carefully... 1 !4
  5. 5. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !5
  6. 6. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 A button press. !6
  7. 7. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 10x slower
 one button press
 = approx. 100 ms !7
  8. 8. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !8 Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
  9. 9. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !9 Target The ultimate button press: Input registration 
 at the precise moment aligned with the intended timing. Intended Point Button press
  10. 10. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Keystroke itself
 is continuous. !10 but registration is on point in time.
  11. 11. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 • Activation point is the point of signal registration during button press. • Activation point setting has became a design parameter. Activation point !11 Logitech Romer-G switch https://www.logitechg.com/en-us/ articles/romer-g Aimpad http://aimpad.com/aimpad-vs- flaretech/ Flaretech https://wooting.helpscoutdocs.com/ article/28-flaretech-switch-mechanics
  12. 12. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !12 Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
  13. 13. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Switch mechanism !13 source: http://www.keyboardco.com/blog/index.php/2012/12/an-introduction-to-cherry-mx-mechanical-switches/ 
 https://sitesdoneright.com/blog/2013/02/why-my-mechanical-computer-keyboard-is-better-than-your-keyboard
  14. 14. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 1.0 10 ms 2.0 3.0 4.0 (mm) 0.5 0 Displacement Time(A) Traditional Activation (B)Fingertipforce 1.0 1.5 2.0 (N) Impact Activation compression release Time impact Impact Activation Activating a button at its impact point !14
  15. 15. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !15 Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
  16. 16. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Listen and tap
 to the rhythm !16
  17. 17. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !17 Displacement * 100 keystrokes
  18. 18. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 AveragedDisplacement Traditional Activation Impact Activation !18 -50 ms -15 ms
  19. 19. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Rationale and hypothesis • At the impact point, maximum energy is transferred to the mechanoreceptors of the fingertip [14]. • When perceived timing matches with the stronger sensation, users should be better able to calibrate their responses with the displayed stimulus [16] • Hypothesis • Better calibration of button pressing with IA • The effect is more pronounced in fast tapping task. (less temporal noise [34]) !19 1.0 10 ms 2.0 3.0 4.0 (mm) 0.5 0 Displacement Time(A) Traditional Activation (B) Fingertipforce 1.0 1.5 2.0 (N) Impact Activation compression release Time impact ≈ strength of mechanoreceptor stimulation
  20. 20. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 The change seems subtle. Is there any difference? 1.0 10 ms 2.0 3.0 4.0 (mm) 0.5 0 Displacement Time(A) Traditional Activation (B) Fingertipforce 1.0 1.5 2.0 (N) Impact Activation compression release Time impact !20 10-20 ms
  21. 21. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Even 10 ms matters. !21
  22. 22. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !22 * 10x slower Target Zone (50 ms) Key activation Traditional Activation
  23. 23. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !23 * 10x slower Target Zone (50 ms) Key activation Impact Activation
  24. 24. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Implementation • "Analog" sensing is required • Optical, force, capacitance, magnetic, etc. !24
  25. 25. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Algorithm • Algorithm: detecting the first local maxima in button press !25 1.0 10 ms 2.0 3.0 4.0 (mm) 0.5 0 Displacement Time Fingertipforce 1.0 1.5 2.0 (N) compression release Time impact
  26. 26. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Implementation - Physical • Displacement sensing by magnet and hall-effect sensor. • Scan rate: 542 Hz !26 Magnet Hall-effect sensor 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 50 ms
  27. 27. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Implementation - Touch • Touch area sensing by capacitance change • Scan rate: 542 Hz !27 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 50 ms Touch sensor
 module (MPR121)
  28. 28. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Experiment • Goal: to assess the effect of Impact Activation in terms of temporal accuracy !28 Target Activation
  29. 29. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Task • "Please try to activate the button WITHIN the target" • "Maximize the number of successful trial" • "Adjust your button press timing" !29 Failure Success Failure ...Sound Button press Interval Target Width Repeat x100 Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
  30. 30. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !30 In this experiment, we measured... • Success Rate
 = # success trials / # total trials • Mean Asynchrony
 = mean of asynchronies 
 (=time difference between input and the stimuli signal onset) • Standard Deviation of Asynchrony Mean Asynchrony Data Analysis
  31. 31. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Experiment design !31
  32. 32. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Results: success rate !32 24.6% 27.0% 48.0% 37.1% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% Physical Touch Task Succss Rate Traditional Impact 94.9% increase (23.4%p) 37.4% increase (10.1%p)
  33. 33. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !33 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Ac +50 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ms)Asynchrony(ms) Target width = 50 ms 100 ms Mean Asynchrony +-1 σ line +-2 σ line Interval Target Width
  34. 34. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !34 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Ac +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ms)Asynchrony(ms) Interval 200ms 300ms 400ms 500ms 600ms Interval Target Width
  35. 35. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !35 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Ac +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ms)Asynchrony(ms) Interval Target Width Slope : Robustness against interval changes Accuracy : near-zero is better
  36. 36. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !36 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Ac +50 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ms)Asynchrony(ms) Interval Target Width Variance (=precision) : narrower one indicates better precision ±1σ ≈ 68% ±2σ ≈ 95%
  37. 37. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !37 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation Touch Tone interval (from 200-600 ms) Tone duration Mean asynchrony ±1σ ±2σ +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms) Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms)
  38. 38. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !38 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation Touch +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms) • Accuracy • Physical > Touch • Impact > Traditional • Slope • Physical-Impact was the best • Impact < Traditional
  39. 39. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !39 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation Touch Tone interval (from 200-600 ms) Tone duration Mean asynchrony ±1σ ±2σ +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms) • Variance • Impact < Traditional Tone interval (ms) 200 300 400 500 600 200 300 400 500 600 St.Dev.ofAsynchrony 80 (ms) 60 40 20 Tone duration = 50 ms Tone duration = 100 ms Overall Average 47.3 48.7 51.6 52.2 Physical Impact Physical Traditional Touch Impact Touch Traditional
  40. 40. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Implications • Analog keyswitch technology has advantages. • Deeper activation point is better for timing precision. • Activation point setting becomes a design parameter. !40 Logitech Romer-G switch https://www.logitechg.com/en-us/ articles/romer-g Aimpad http://aimpad.com/aimpad-vs- flaretech/ Flaretech https://wooting.helpscoutdocs.com/ article/28-flaretech-switch-mechanics
  41. 41. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Future challenges • Limited to a specific modality combination: audio stimulus / visual feedback. • Long-term adaptation has not been tested. • Tested only two specific buttons (4 mm tactile button and zero-travel touch button) and sensors (displacement and touch area). !41
  42. 42. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !42 Questions? Summary • Set the right activation point is crucial. • Impact Activation is a new principle of activation regarding human tactile perception. • Impact Activation improves both temporal accuracy (2x success rate) and precision. Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation Touch +50 0 -50 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms) • Impact Activation Improves Rapid Key Pressing Mon 16.30-17.50 516E • Neuromechanics of Button Press Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB • Moving Target Selection: A Cue Integration Model Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB I'm looking for job! http://kuaa.net

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