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Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!1
• Impact Activation Improves Rapid Key Pressing Mon 16.30-17.50 516E
• Neuromechanics of Button Press Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB
• Moving Target Selection: A Cue Integration Model Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Watch carefully...
3
!2
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Watch carefully...
2
!3
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Watch carefully...
1
!4
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!5
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
A button press.
!6
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
10x slower

one button press

= approx. 100 ms
!7
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!8
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!9
Target
The ultimate button press: Input registration 

at the precise moment aligned with the intended timing.
Intended Point
Button press
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Keystroke itself

is continuous.
!10
but registration is on point in time.
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
• Activation point is the point of signal registration during button press.

• Activation point setting has became a design parameter.
Activation point
!11
Logitech Romer-G switch
https://www.logitechg.com/en-us/
articles/romer-g
Aimpad
http://aimpad.com/aimpad-vs-
flaretech/
Flaretech
https://wooting.helpscoutdocs.com/
article/28-flaretech-switch-mechanics
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!12
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Switch mechanism
!13
source: http://www.keyboardco.com/blog/index.php/2012/12/an-introduction-to-cherry-mx-mechanical-switches/ 

https://sitesdoneright.com/blog/2013/02/why-my-mechanical-computer-keyboard-is-better-than-your-keyboard
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
1.0
10 ms
2.0
3.0
4.0
(mm)
0.5
0
Displacement
Time(A)
Traditional Activation
(B)Fingertipforce
1.0
1.5
2.0 (N)
Impact Activation
compression release
Time
impact
Impact Activation
Activating a button at its impact point
!14
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!15
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Listen and tap

to the rhythm
!16
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!17
Displacement
* 100 keystrokes
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
AveragedDisplacement
Traditional Activation
Impact Activation
!18
-50 ms
-15 ms
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Rationale and hypothesis
• At the impact point, maximum energy is transferred to the mechanoreceptors of the
fingertip [14].

• When perceived timing matches with the stronger sensation, users should be better
able to calibrate their responses with the displayed stimulus [16]

• Hypothesis

• Better calibration of button pressing with IA

• The effect is more pronounced in fast tapping task. (less temporal noise [34])
!19
1.0
10 ms
2.0
3.0
4.0
(mm)
0.5
0
Displacement
Time(A)
Traditional Activation
(B)
Fingertipforce
1.0
1.5
2.0 (N)
Impact Activation
compression release
Time
impact
≈ strength of mechanoreceptor stimulation
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
The change seems subtle.
Is there any difference?
1.0
10 ms
2.0
3.0
4.0
(mm)
0.5
0
Displacement
Time(A)
Traditional Activation
(B)
Fingertipforce
1.0
1.5
2.0 (N)
Impact Activation
compression release
Time
impact
!20
10-20 ms
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Even 10 ms matters.
!21
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!22
* 10x slower
Target Zone (50 ms)
Key activation
Traditional Activation
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!23
* 10x slower
Target Zone (50 ms)
Key activation
Impact Activation
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Implementation
• "Analog" sensing is required

• Optical, force, capacitance, magnetic, etc.
!24
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Algorithm
• Algorithm: detecting the first local maxima in button press
!25
1.0
10 ms
2.0
3.0
4.0
(mm)
0.5
0
Displacement
Time
Fingertipforce
1.0
1.5
2.0 (N)
compression release
Time
impact
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Implementation - Physical
• Displacement sensing by magnet and hall-effect sensor.

• Scan rate: 542 Hz
!26
Magnet
Hall-effect sensor
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
50 ms
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Implementation - Touch
• Touch area sensing by capacitance change

• Scan rate: 542 Hz
!27
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
50 ms
Touch sensor

module
(MPR121)
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Experiment
• Goal: to assess the effect of Impact Activation in terms of temporal accuracy
!28
Target
Activation
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Task
• "Please try to activate the button WITHIN the target"
• "Maximize the number of successful trial"
• "Adjust your button press timing"
!29
Failure Success Failure
...Sound
Button press
Interval Target Width
Repeat x100
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!30
In this experiment, we measured...

• Success Rate

= # success trials / # total trials
• Mean Asynchrony

= mean of asynchronies 

(=time difference between input and the stimuli signal onset)
• Standard Deviation of Asynchrony
Mean Asynchrony
Data Analysis
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Experiment design
!31
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Results: success rate
!32
24.6% 27.0%
48.0%
37.1%
0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
Physical Touch
Task Succss Rate
Traditional
Impact
94.9% increase
(23.4%p)
37.4% increase
(10.1%p)
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Result: Asynchrony
!33
Physical
Impact Activation Traditional Ac
+50
+100
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
ms)Asynchrony(ms)
Target width = 50 ms 100 ms
Mean
Asynchrony
+-1 σ line
+-2 σ line
Interval Target Width
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Result: Asynchrony
!34
Physical
Impact Activation Traditional Ac
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
ms)Asynchrony(ms)
Interval
200ms
300ms
400ms
500ms
600ms
Interval Target Width
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Result: Asynchrony
!35
Physical
Impact Activation Traditional Ac
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
ms)Asynchrony(ms)
Interval Target Width
Slope
: Robustness against interval changes
Accuracy
: near-zero is better
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Result: Asynchrony
!36
Physical
Impact Activation Traditional Ac
+50
+100
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
ms)Asynchrony(ms)
Interval Target Width
Variance (=precision)
: narrower one indicates better precision
±1σ ≈ 68%
±2σ ≈ 95%
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Result: Asynchrony
!37
Physical
Impact Activation Traditional Activation
Touch
Tone interval (from 200-600 ms)
Tone duration Mean asynchrony ±1σ ±2σ
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms)
Physical
Impact Activation Traditional Activation
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms)
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Result: Asynchrony
!38
Physical
Impact Activation Traditional Activation
Touch
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms)
• Accuracy
• Physical > Touch

• Impact > Traditional

• Slope
• Physical-Impact was the best

• Impact < Traditional
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Result: Asynchrony
!39
Physical
Impact Activation Traditional Activation
Touch
Tone interval (from 200-600 ms)
Tone duration Mean asynchrony ±1σ ±2σ
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms)
• Variance
• Impact < Traditional
Tone interval (ms)
200 300 400 500 600 200 300 400 500 600
St.Dev.ofAsynchrony
80
(ms)
60
40
20
Tone duration = 50 ms Tone duration = 100 ms
Overall
Average
47.3
48.7
51.6
52.2
Physical
Impact
Physical
Traditional
Touch
Impact
Touch
Traditional
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Implications
• Analog keyswitch technology has advantages. 

• Deeper activation point is better for timing precision.

• Activation point setting becomes a design parameter.
!40
Logitech Romer-G switch
https://www.logitechg.com/en-us/
articles/romer-g
Aimpad
http://aimpad.com/aimpad-vs-
flaretech/
Flaretech
https://wooting.helpscoutdocs.com/
article/28-flaretech-switch-mechanics
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
Future challenges
• Limited to a specific modality combination: audio stimulus / visual feedback.

• Long-term adaptation has not been tested.

• Tested only two specific buttons (4 mm tactile button and zero-travel touch button)
and sensors (displacement and touch area).
!41
Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
!42
Questions?
Summary
• Set the right activation point is crucial.

• Impact Activation is a new principle of
activation regarding human tactile
perception.

• Impact Activation improves both temporal
accuracy (2x success rate) and precision.
Physical
Impact Activation Traditional Activation
Touch
+50
0
-50
+100
+50
0
-50
-100
-150
+100
ynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms)
• Impact Activation Improves Rapid Key Pressing Mon 16.30-17.50 516E
• Neuromechanics of Button Press Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB
• Moving Target Selection: A Cue Integration Model Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB
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Impact Activation Improves Temporal Accuracy of Rapid Button Presses

  • 1. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !1 • Impact Activation Improves Rapid Key Pressing Mon 16.30-17.50 516E • Neuromechanics of Button Press Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB • Moving Target Selection: A Cue Integration Model Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB
  • 2. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Watch carefully... 3 !2
  • 3. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Watch carefully... 2 !3
  • 4. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Watch carefully... 1 !4
  • 5. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !5
  • 6. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 A button press. !6
  • 7. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 10x slower
 one button press
 = approx. 100 ms !7
  • 8. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !8 Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
  • 9. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !9 Target The ultimate button press: Input registration 
 at the precise moment aligned with the intended timing. Intended Point Button press
  • 10. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Keystroke itself
 is continuous. !10 but registration is on point in time.
  • 11. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 • Activation point is the point of signal registration during button press. • Activation point setting has became a design parameter. Activation point !11 Logitech Romer-G switch https://www.logitechg.com/en-us/ articles/romer-g Aimpad http://aimpad.com/aimpad-vs- flaretech/ Flaretech https://wooting.helpscoutdocs.com/ article/28-flaretech-switch-mechanics
  • 12. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !12 Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
  • 13. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Switch mechanism !13 source: http://www.keyboardco.com/blog/index.php/2012/12/an-introduction-to-cherry-mx-mechanical-switches/ 
 https://sitesdoneright.com/blog/2013/02/why-my-mechanical-computer-keyboard-is-better-than-your-keyboard
  • 14. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 1.0 10 ms 2.0 3.0 4.0 (mm) 0.5 0 Displacement Time(A) Traditional Activation (B)Fingertipforce 1.0 1.5 2.0 (N) Impact Activation compression release Time impact Impact Activation Activating a button at its impact point !14
  • 15. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !15 Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
  • 16. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Listen and tap
 to the rhythm !16
  • 17. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !17 Displacement * 100 keystrokes
  • 18. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 AveragedDisplacement Traditional Activation Impact Activation !18 -50 ms -15 ms
  • 19. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Rationale and hypothesis • At the impact point, maximum energy is transferred to the mechanoreceptors of the fingertip [14]. • When perceived timing matches with the stronger sensation, users should be better able to calibrate their responses with the displayed stimulus [16] • Hypothesis • Better calibration of button pressing with IA • The effect is more pronounced in fast tapping task. (less temporal noise [34]) !19 1.0 10 ms 2.0 3.0 4.0 (mm) 0.5 0 Displacement Time(A) Traditional Activation (B) Fingertipforce 1.0 1.5 2.0 (N) Impact Activation compression release Time impact ≈ strength of mechanoreceptor stimulation
  • 20. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 The change seems subtle. Is there any difference? 1.0 10 ms 2.0 3.0 4.0 (mm) 0.5 0 Displacement Time(A) Traditional Activation (B) Fingertipforce 1.0 1.5 2.0 (N) Impact Activation compression release Time impact !20 10-20 ms
  • 21. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Even 10 ms matters. !21
  • 22. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !22 * 10x slower Target Zone (50 ms) Key activation Traditional Activation
  • 23. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !23 * 10x slower Target Zone (50 ms) Key activation Impact Activation
  • 24. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Implementation • "Analog" sensing is required • Optical, force, capacitance, magnetic, etc. !24
  • 25. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Algorithm • Algorithm: detecting the first local maxima in button press !25 1.0 10 ms 2.0 3.0 4.0 (mm) 0.5 0 Displacement Time Fingertipforce 1.0 1.5 2.0 (N) compression release Time impact
  • 26. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Implementation - Physical • Displacement sensing by magnet and hall-effect sensor. • Scan rate: 542 Hz !26 Magnet Hall-effect sensor 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 50 ms
  • 27. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Implementation - Touch • Touch area sensing by capacitance change • Scan rate: 542 Hz !27 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 50 ms Touch sensor
 module (MPR121)
  • 28. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Experiment • Goal: to assess the effect of Impact Activation in terms of temporal accuracy !28 Target Activation
  • 29. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Task • "Please try to activate the button WITHIN the target" • "Maximize the number of successful trial" • "Adjust your button press timing" !29 Failure Success Failure ...Sound Button press Interval Target Width Repeat x100 Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018
  • 30. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !30 In this experiment, we measured... • Success Rate
 = # success trials / # total trials • Mean Asynchrony
 = mean of asynchronies 
 (=time difference between input and the stimuli signal onset) • Standard Deviation of Asynchrony Mean Asynchrony Data Analysis
  • 31. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Experiment design !31
  • 32. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Results: success rate !32 24.6% 27.0% 48.0% 37.1% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% Physical Touch Task Succss Rate Traditional Impact 94.9% increase (23.4%p) 37.4% increase (10.1%p)
  • 33. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !33 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Ac +50 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ms)Asynchrony(ms) Target width = 50 ms 100 ms Mean Asynchrony +-1 σ line +-2 σ line Interval Target Width
  • 34. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !34 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Ac +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ms)Asynchrony(ms) Interval 200ms 300ms 400ms 500ms 600ms Interval Target Width
  • 35. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !35 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Ac +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ms)Asynchrony(ms) Interval Target Width Slope : Robustness against interval changes Accuracy : near-zero is better
  • 36. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !36 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Ac +50 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ms)Asynchrony(ms) Interval Target Width Variance (=precision) : narrower one indicates better precision ±1σ ≈ 68% ±2σ ≈ 95%
  • 37. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !37 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation Touch Tone interval (from 200-600 ms) Tone duration Mean asynchrony ±1σ ±2σ +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms) Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms)
  • 38. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !38 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation Touch +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms) • Accuracy • Physical > Touch • Impact > Traditional • Slope • Physical-Impact was the best • Impact < Traditional
  • 39. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Result: Asynchrony !39 Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation Touch Tone interval (from 200-600 ms) Tone duration Mean asynchrony ±1σ ±2σ +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 Asynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms) • Variance • Impact < Traditional Tone interval (ms) 200 300 400 500 600 200 300 400 500 600 St.Dev.ofAsynchrony 80 (ms) 60 40 20 Tone duration = 50 ms Tone duration = 100 ms Overall Average 47.3 48.7 51.6 52.2 Physical Impact Physical Traditional Touch Impact Touch Traditional
  • 40. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Implications • Analog keyswitch technology has advantages. • Deeper activation point is better for timing precision. • Activation point setting becomes a design parameter. !40 Logitech Romer-G switch https://www.logitechg.com/en-us/ articles/romer-g Aimpad http://aimpad.com/aimpad-vs- flaretech/ Flaretech https://wooting.helpscoutdocs.com/ article/28-flaretech-switch-mechanics
  • 41. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 Future challenges • Limited to a specific modality combination: audio stimulus / visual feedback. • Long-term adaptation has not been tested. • Tested only two specific buttons (4 mm tactile button and zero-travel touch button) and sensors (displacement and touch area). !41
  • 42. Sunjun Kim, Byungjoo Lee, Antti Oulasvirta, Impact Activation Improves Rapid Button Pressing, CHI 2018 !42 Questions? Summary • Set the right activation point is crucial. • Impact Activation is a new principle of activation regarding human tactile perception. • Impact Activation improves both temporal accuracy (2x success rate) and precision. Physical Impact Activation Traditional Activation Touch +50 0 -50 +100 +50 0 -50 -100 -150 +100 ynchrony(ms)Asynchrony(ms) • Impact Activation Improves Rapid Key Pressing Mon 16.30-17.50 516E • Neuromechanics of Button Press Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB • Moving Target Selection: A Cue Integration Model Tue 11:00-12:20 518AB I'm looking for job! http://kuaa.net