Rajiv Gandhi College Of Engineering, Research & Technology
PRESENTED BY :
SUNIL D. WASADE
Prof. B.K. KHADE
Dr. M.D. Uttarwar
Aim of the project
Objective of project
Purpose of shaft sinking
Design of mine shafts
Conventional method of shaft sinking
In India, “MINING” industry is the backbone of India’s economy and
energy. After agriculture mining is the second most important industry
on which India’s economy is depend. Which helps in growth of any
country in every aspects, because all existing industries are depend
on mining. There is none of the industry which will replace to mining
industry. Mining remains the most important player in the Indian
industry, as well as Indian economy, Mining industry plays an
important role in the development of nation.
For underground mining working access should be very
precious and reliable. There are many other access but most reliable
option one access to excavate deep seated mineral body, that term is
called as SHAFT. There is no other access existing which can
replace shaft. So we will have to go through shaft. And for better
shaft reliability we have to sink in better ways, that’s why SHINKING
is very important. But there are many things would be considered.
Then we can make better shaft.
Speedy and economical shaft sinking operation depends upon
not only on actual sinking speeds but to a great extent also on the
planning of the number and the size of the shaft of the hoisting
equipment. the shaft sinking with permanent winding equipment offers
some advantages due to the fact that in this case the transition from
shaft sinking to tunneling requires less time and that in case the
transition from shaft sinking to tunneling requires less time and that it is
possible to dispense with the expenditures on the installation and
dismantling of temporary equipment.
Mechanical excavation methods are a step change in
excavation performance and labour safety compared to drill and blast
operations. In hard rock conditions, road headers cannot be used
effectively, so disc cutting is the first
For excavation of declines, tunnel boring machines (TBM) can
be used in many cases. These provide, in certain rock conditions,
considerably higher production rates compared to drill and blast
excavation. Vertical shaft sinking machine (VSM) that allows
excavating shallow shafts in soil a medium soft rock.
Shaft: A vertical or inclined opening from surface for the conveyance of
men, materials, hoisting ore, pumping water and providing ventilation.
Sinking: The work in excavating a shaft.
It may be described as an excavation of vertical or inclined opening from
surface for conveyance of men, materials, ventilation, pumping water, in
addition to hoisting ore and waste rock.
It is also called Shaft Construction or Shaft Mining.
AIM OF THE PROJECT
To study conventional and advanced
techniques of shaft sinking. To increase
the production and Productivity in
method of working adopted to win the
ore or mineral deposit by selecting
appropriate and suitable available
technologies for shaft sinking in Indian
OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT
Increasing the safety during sinking.
The conditions inside the mine is needed to be improved
The safe transport of the waste/ material/men.
Increasing the production, efficiency and productivity of
To improve the ventilation arrangement of a mine.
For this we require the construction of a new, sufficiently
PURPOSE OF SHAFT SINKING
shaft sinking is used for many purposes.
To transport men and materials to and from underground Workings.
For hoisting ore and waste from underground.
To serve as intake and return airways for the mine (ventilation shaft).
To access an ore body
These shafts are used in applications such as hydro electric projects, water
supply, waste water shafts and tunnel projects.
Drilled shaft machine is used in such process, where it consists of special type
of units that are used in both stable and unstable soils.
Storage of nuclear waste
Temporary storage and treatment of sewage
DESIGN OF MINE SHAFTS
Shafts play a major role in the general planning of mine development, their
location is usually pre-determined. The location of a shaft can be changed
when adverse geotechnical site conditions are encountered.
The design of mine shaft is an iterative process, which requires several
variables and options to be considered in order to arrive at an economic
The economic decision is arrived at by comparing the net present
values (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) from the different options
considered in the optimization process. The option with the most attractive
financial option is then selected.
The design parameters mentioned above include, but are
not necessarily limited to the following: depth of shaft, ore and waste
tonnage to be handled, shift handling (work force), materials handling,
advance machines used, ventilation requirements, capital costs, operating
costs, and of course the selling price of the mineral commodity.
The finished dia. Of shaft varies from 4.2m to 6.7m.
SURFACE PLANT AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR SINKING
steam boilers and diesel engine for winding engine, pump etc.
unless electrical power is available.
winding engine and winders fitted with locked coil ropes.
steel headgear. The headgear may be temporary nature and after
the sinking is over, it is replaced by a permanent headgear and
permanent winders to suit the output.
double drum winches for Walling scaffold, and other winches for
lighting cable, pump suspension rope and pump cable.
air compressors for jackhammer drill used for drilling into rock and
other compressed air operated equipment.
Fan of nearly 300m3 per min capacity.
generator with diesel or steam engine for lighting.
folding doors to cover the shaft top.
shaft centering arrangement.
signaling arrangement from pit bottom to pit top and form pit top to
For disposal of debris, chutes, buckets, and tipping tubs with
Workshop including smithly shop, mortar mill and other usual
CONVENTIONAL METHOD OF SHAFT
3.Mucking and Hoisting
4. Support or shaft lining
5. Auxiliary operations:
c) Lighting or illumination
d) Shaft centering
Drilling & blasting:
A shaft is constructed by
drilling holes and filling them
Using this method, drilling and
blasting can sink around 5-10
metres in one blast.
This is very labour-intensive,
unsafe and has high running
The most viable alternative for
shafts up to 100m in length.
The operation of loading
broken rock by hand or
machine, usually in shafts or
Note: Muck, any useless
material produced in mining.
mucking out cuttings from
the bottom of the shaft.
Usually this would require
some skip-hoisting, bucket-
hoisting or clam-shell-grab
Wall supporting methods
Rock bolting and meshing
A wire mesh is fastened to the walls with evenly spaced rock bolts.
Rock bolting is a commonly used, cheap method. The rock-bolts
increase normal stresses on joints so that shear failure along joints
becomes more difficult.
Often rock bolts and mesh are used as a basis for shotcreting.
Water in-flow during shotcreting severely reduces the quality of
Basically there are two types of lining:
Temporary and Permanent. The make of
water and strength of the strata through
which the sinking operation is to be
carried out govern the choice
In some situations temporary support is
not required, whereas in others, it
becomes essential to protect the crew
and equipment from any side fall
These consists of steel skeleton rings, say 15cm *12.5cm
,made in segments 62 to 68 m long and joined together by
bolted lap joints alternatively, the rings may be of channel
section for greater strength and joint by fish plate. The first
ring is anchored by change to a timber frame erected across
the shaft top or to steel rails driven into ground at a safe
distance, one chain to each segment. Subsequent rings are
hung from the one above by s- shaped hangers of 12.5 cm
round or square steel and 1.45 to 1.5 m long. Every fourth
ring is supported additionally by long steel pins driven into
the shaft sides. Behind the rings are placed 15cm*2.5cm
timber boards to form a close lining around the shaft and
these are wedged tightly into position. Alternatively, steel
backing sheets, some 0.6 m wide, may be used in place of
timber. Where necessary, a close lining of pointed timber or
steel piles may be driven down behind the rings to give
support in advance of the excavation
Sinking is continued for a depth of several feet into the
strong sandstone (blasting being required) to provide the
solid foundation for the permanent concrete lining , the
lower portion being widened out to enable a wedge shape
curb to be formed . The first shuttering is then assembled
and carefully levelled and centered by means of spirit level
and centered line and radius rod. Behind the shuttering is
added, a base of small debris and sand,(followed sometime
by floret board covered with brattice cloth)is prepared to
receive concrete. The ring is now filled with well rammed
concrete, another ring of shuttering is added, and the
process is continued ring by ring until concreting is
completed. All the temporary supports are removed as the
walling rises. During walling operation a temporary scaffold
must be provided which can be raised or lowered by chain
blocks slung by ropes or chains from girders placed across
the shaft top and resting on the long timbers to distribute
In day to day life, demands of mineral is increasing and for
fulfillment of this we would extracted more minerals by increasing
production and productivity of Indian mines working. The
production of opencast mining is greater than underground mines
but shallow depth reserves are being depleted, for what mineral
have to extracted from underground by underground method. .
But most of the mineral reserves are situated at great depth. For
minerals extraction from underground drives access through shaft.
And to drives shaft, sinking is most important aspect. So we have
to adopt best sinking methods so that cost of sinking will be reduce
and sinking work will be done at faster rate to achieve the targeted
For better sinking methods we studied the various Shaft
Sinking methods. After studying, found that, the advanced
mechanical excavations systems can have significant advantages
over conventional drill and blast methods for sinking of shafts in
many different aspects. Advanced mechanical excavation
systems allow for a significantly enhanced level of productivity and
safety due to the high degree of mechanization and
After studying case studies of two mines i.e Mansar and
Balaghat mine in India where the shaft sinking was carried out
recently by conventional shaft sinking methods techniques for
the purpose of shaft sinking . The shaft of Mansar and Balaghat
mines have made by Conventional Shaft sinking method but if
this shaft would have been sunk with the advanced technologies
like VSM and Shaft borer the production rate would have been
raised to 30 % (Marks, 2002) with the sophisticated usage of
manpower, increasing safety and reducing cost of capital on
shaft sinking with less time required for sinking same length of
Most reliable we can call that the advance sinking
methods eliminates the usage of tedious method of Drilling and
Blasting which is most critical to accidents with respect to
safetyin mines. This mechanized method can also be applied for
widening and deepening of existing shafts.
But there are some natural and technical problems, of
using advanced techniques in India, regarding with natural and
technical condition in India such as geology, ground condition,
required capital cost, operating cost, environment, suitability of
techniques with Indian mining atmosphere, lack of knowledge
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