Examination of victim of rape

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A POWER POINT PRESENTATION BY DR.SANGEETA CHOWDHRY & DR.SUNIL SHARMA, DEPARTMENT OF FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY, GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE, JAMMU (JAMMU AND KASHMIR)

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Examination of victim of rape

  1. 1. Examination of a Victim of Rape
  2. 2. A POWER POINT PRESENTATION BY DR.SANGEETA CHOWDHRY & DR.SUNIL SHARMADEPARTMENT OF FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE JAMMU (JAMMU AND KASHMIR)
  3. 3. Procedure for examination
  4. 4. INFORMED CONSENT
  5. 5. Informed consent of the victim should betaken in writing in presence of a witness if she above the ageof 12 years. (IN INDIA) if she is under the age of 12 years or amentally subnormal person, the written consent of the parentsor guardian should be taken.SECTION 90 IPCConsent of insane person.-if the consent is given by a personwho, from unsoundness of mind, or intoxication, is unable tounderstand the nature and consequence of that to which hegives his consent; orConsent of child---unless the contrary appears from thecontext, if the consent is given by a person who is undertwelve years of age.The examination should be made in the presence of a femalenurse or a female relation unless the doctor is female.(SECTION 53(2) OF CrPC)whenever a female is to be examined, the examination shouldbe made only by, or under the supervision of, a femaleregistered medical practitioner.
  6. 6. The principal features of theexamination are:-1. Preliminary data2. The statement of the victim and others separately3. Signs of struggle on clothes and body4. Examination of the genitals for:-Local signs of violationGenital injuriesPresence of spermatozoa and othermicroorganismsAny evidence of STD5. Collection of laboratory specimens6. Inference7. Advice on follow-up
  7. 7. PRELIMINARY DATA
  8. 8. This includes name in full,address, age, occupation andsocial status, date, time ofarrival, consent for examination,identification marks, by whomexamination is requested, andthe name of the female nursepresent at the time ofexamination.
  9. 9. THE STATEMENT OF THE VICTIM AND OTHERS SEPARATELY
  10. 10. STATEMENT
  11. 11. The statement of the victim in her words must be writtendown as much as possible “WORD FOR WORD”. The amount ofviolence used, the position of the assailant, and the mode ofattack should be elicited. It is necessary to inquire if vaginal,oral, or rectal contact occurred. Her statement should benoted with reference to:-•Pain•Haemorrhage•Sensation as to penetration and emission and•The appearance of discharge•If she cried for help, or was too terrified to do so, or shefainted Enquiry should be made of the events after the allegedassault, e. g, if she has changed her clothing, bathed orpassed urine. Any delay in making complain to the authoritiesshould have a proper explanation. A record should be made ofthe statement of others who accompany her. The degree ofagreement of the various statements is important.
  12. 12. SIGNS OF STRUGGLE ON CLOTHES AND BODY LOK FOR CLOTHES AND THE BODY.
  13. 13. These should be looked for on the clothes and thebody. The clothing, if are the same as that wornat the time of crime should be examined in goodlight for evidence of a struggle, such as tears inthe fabrics, marks of mud or grass, or stain ofblood or semen. When clothes are torn,corresponding injuries to the body may bepresent and should be looked for. Mud and bloodstains, when present, are generally seen on theback clothes while seminal stains are seen on thefront clothes. Stains may be found on thematerial, e.g. Handkerchief, used for cleaningafter the assault. When blood stains are seen, itmust be ascertained if they are due tomenstruation ………cont…………
  14. 14. On microscopic examination, menstrual blood isfound to contain endometrial cells from theuterus, epithelial cells from the vagina, and alarge number of microorganisms which are notfound in ordinary blood. Trichomonas vaginalisor monilia may be present. Blood should betaken for grouping and DNA characteristics todetermine if the stains belong to the victim orassailant. Seminal stains should also be groupedto ascertain subsequently if they match with theassailant’s blood group. The clothing should beretained, carefully dried, labelled, and forwardedto the Forensic Science Laboratory forexamination of suspicious stains, either blood,semen, or both.
  15. 15. LOCARD’S PRINCIPLE OF EXCHANGE
  16. 16. Whenever a person enters orleaves a room, or whenever twopeople come into contact witheach other, there is always sometransfer of material from one toanother. Such transfer may ormay not be visible to the nakedeye.This trace evidence may beminute, but is often enough toestablish the particulars of acrime and lead to its solution.
  17. 17. If there is some other physicalevidence, such as, foreign hairs,pieces of clothing that not havebeen derived from the victim, atrouser button identical with thoseof the assailant who was onemissing, it is a valuablecorroboration and should belooked for and noted. This is inaccordance with “LOCARD’SPRINCIPLE OF EXCHANGE”.
  18. 18. The woman usually scratchesthe assailant during thestruggle and this may result ininjury to her nails which shouldbe recorded. The debris undernails should be removed andexamined for the presence oftags of epithelium, blood,fibers, etc, of the assailant.
  19. 19. The “whole body” should then be examined formarks of violence. An attempt at undressingthe victim should not be made but she shouldbe requested to do so herself. The apparentdevelopment of the victim is important to notein connection with the ability to offerresistance. However, if throat has been grippedor if the head has received a blow, the victim’scapacity for any resistance may have beenimpaired. Injuries found on the body must bedescribed specially with reference to thepossibility of self-infliction or corroboration ofher tale. The injuries may be found:- ……..cont………
  20. 20. •About the cheeks, lips, and neckto stifle the victim’s cries for help•About the wrist and arms torestrain her•On the back from impact on gravelor hard ground while pinning her•About the inner sides of knees andthighs while separating her legs,and•On the breast from roughhandling. The breast may alsoshow bitten nipples
  21. 21. The injuries may be scratches,bruises, nail marks, and bites in theform of abrasions, contusion, andlacerations, etc. They should bedescribed in full, like any otherinjuries, with data to access theirage, to see if they tall with the timeof alleged incident. Biting of anydescription involves transfer of salivafrom which blood group substancescan be identified in secretors. Anoutline body diagram showinglocation, relative size, and nature ishighly desirable.
  22. 22. As a matter of practice, although this isnot often done, a second examinationshould be carried out forty-eight hourslater when deep bruises may be easier tosee.
  23. 23. LOCAL SIGNS OF VIOLATION:The presence or absence of blood stains about thelegs or vagina should be observed and if present,should be ascertained whether such stains could bedue to menstruation, or blood from the victim orassailant. If dry, they should be scraped with a cleanblunt scalpel and preserved for examination. Thepubic hair should be examined for matting fromseminal fluid or blood, and for foreign hairs. If thehairs are matted together, a portion must be cut offand kept for examination. The pubic hair should becombed out to collect non-matching male pubic hairand a comparison sample of plucked hair preservedfor laboratory examination. Some believe that hairneed not be plucked and that cutting would be alrightprovided all other foreign hairs have been removed bycombing, etc.
  24. 24. GENITAL INJURIES
  25. 25. EXAMINATION OF THE GENITALS
  26. 26. This should take in good lightand, when possible, inlithotomy position, with theparts fully exposed. Thesooner the examination ismade the better, andmenstruation should not be acause for delay.
  27. 27. “MENSTRUATION IS NOT BAR TO ILLEGAL SEXUAL INTERCOURSE”.
  28. 28. The vulva, hymen, vagina and the perineum should beexamined for any injuries. To determine the degree ofhymenal rupturing and whether this is recent or old, aglass rod with a small spherical head (Glaister Knee Rod),warmed to body temperature, if possible transilluminated,may be introduced into the vagina and partial withdrawnto display the edge of hymen. Signs of recent rupture areragged tears in the hymen with lack of epithelial healing,but with oedema and haemorrhage. Women who pay noattention to the cleanliness of their genital region oftenhave superficial areas of erythema, irritation andoccasionally abrasions, and therefore any superficialinjuries found in this area must be carefully assessed inthe light of personal hygiene of the woman. Redness dueto long standing inflammation or to irritation by a chronicdischarge must be distinguished from the effect of recentinjury. It must be noted at this stage, if gait is normal.When genital injury is present, the gait is broad based andpainful.
  29. 29. The dispensability of the vagina: should benoted in relation to the number of fingers itcan admit without causing discomfort. If itcan admit two fingers easily, sexualintercourse has probably occurred.The extent of violence to the private parts willdepend upon the age of the victim and herprevious condition with reference tointercourse, whether virgin, sexually active, ora child. Slaughter states that colposcopicexamination, within 72 hours of assault, is animportant adjunct to traditional simplemacroscopic assessment of genital trauma.
  30. 30. COLPOSCOPIC EXAMINATION
  31. 31. RAPE ON A VIRGIN
  32. 32. BLOOD
  33. 33. Rape on a virgin: any bruising, laceration or swelling ofthe vulva is noted. The labia are then opened by gentletraction in order to examine the hymen for rupture.Laceration of this structure occurs with the firstintercourse, and in a virgin this is the principal evidenceof the crime.The character and extent of the injury will vary indifferent cases depending upon the nature of the hymen,disproportion between male and female parts, extent ofpenetration, and amount of force used. With the firstintercourse, tearing of hymen usually occurs posteriorlyat one or other side or in the middle. The semi lunar oftenruptures on both sides. The annular hymen which closesup the vaginal which nearly closes up the vaginal orificemay suffer several tears. The fourchette is torn and thefossa navicularis disappears. Even the posteriorcommissure may be ruptured. The latter injury usuallydoes not occur in consenting sexual intercourse unlessthere is much disproportion between the male and femaleparts.…………………………………CONT………………………………
  34. 34. Soon after the act, the torn margins aresharp and red, and bleed on touch. Evenwhen examined after 3 to 4 days ofoffence, the edges of laceration arecongested and swollen. The surroundingtissues are tissues are also swollen andtender. With violent intercourse,laceration of vaginal wall invariablyoccurs posteriorly or slightlyposteriorly. The gait is broad based andpainful.In indecent assault, due to digitalpenetration, the laceration is usuallysingle, may be lateral, and is often
  35. 35. RAPE ON SEXUALLY ACTIVE WOMEN
  36. 36. In women who have had considerable intercourse,even without children, the hymen is completelydestroyed, the vaginal orifice dilated and the mucousmembrane wrinkled and thickened. Rape on marriedwomen and females who have had previousintercourse causes little or no damage to the partsunless considerable violence is used. However,marks of genital injury should be looked for sincerape is generally associated with greater violencethan consensual sexual intercourse. In the absenceof genital injury, the presence of signs of violence inother parts of the body and the presence ofspermatozoa in the vagina or on the clothes from thechief evidence of crime. It must be remembered thatin a normal adult female, severe genital injuriesusually from the insertion of objects other than penisand they are indicative of sadistic or masochisticsexualism rather than coitus.
  37. 37. RAPE ON CHILDREN
  38. 38. in young children, as the vagina is very small andhymen deeply situated, the adult penis cannotpenetrate it. In rare cases of great violence, the organmay be forcibly introduced, causing rupture of thevaginal vault and associated visceral injuries. Suchinjuries might result in death. Usually, violence is notused and the penis is placed either within the vulva orbetween the thighs. And as such, only redness andtenderness of vulva may be caused. The hymen isusually intact. In many charges of rape or attemptedrape, since the victim is usually a child, the presenceof a discharge from the vagina, due to gonorrhea orinflammation of the parts, is only cause of suspicion.There may be no signs or very few signs of generalviolence, since the child has no idea of the act and isalso unable to offer resistance.
  39. 39. PRESENCE OF SPERMATOZOAAND OTHER MICROORGANISMS
  40. 40. Normally, sperms remain motile in the vagina for about 6-8 hoursand occasionally for 12 hours. Non-motile forms are detectable forabout 24 hours with occasional reports to 48-72 and very rarely 96hours. Motility persists longer at body temperature. The spermsremain motile in the uterus cavity for 3-5 days. Non-motile spermsremain in the uterine cavity for weeks or months after death. Todemonstrate the presence of sperms, the vaginal contents areaspirated by means of a blunt-ended pipette. A wet preparation isthen made on a slide and examined under a microscope for motilespermatozoa. If motile sperms are seen, it would mean thatintercourse has taken place within about 12 hours. If the spermsare not motile, it is not possible to say exactly when intercoursetook place except that it may be over 12 hours and within 24-48hours and occasionally up to 72 hours. Intact sperms are rarelyfound in the vagina after 72 hours of coitus. In such a case,sperms heads and tails can be separately demonstrated by usingpicroindigocarmine which stain sperms heads “RED” and tails“GREEN AND RED”. A smear is also made from the vaginalcontents, fixed by gentle heat, and stained by Ziehl-Neelson’smethod, and examined for the presence of spermatozoa andsmegma bacilli.
  41. 41. PRESENCE OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE UTERUS
  42. 42. The absence of sperms in the vagina does not mean that sexualintercourse has not taken place. It may be due to non-emission,aspermia, previous vasectomy, very old age, or poor technique bythe examining doctor. Detection of seminal fluid fromvasectomised males requires the demonstration of prostatic acidphosphatase which should be qualitatively distinguished fromvaginal acid phosphatase by electrophoresis. Quantitatively,normal value of acid phosphatase in the vagina is 340 IU/litre. Itrises to about 3000IU in about 2-3 hours after intercourse andgradually returns to normal in about 12-24 hours. Any level higherthan 340 IU indicates seminal fluid.As a result of the discovery of semen specific glycoprotein (P30),acid phosphatase test is used only as a screening test. P30 ispresent in normal and aspermic semen. Graves et al found insome instances P30 test was positive when acid phosphatasetest was negative. P30 is detectable in vaginal fluid for a meanperiod of 27 hours after intercourse as compared to 14 hours acidphosphatase. If semen is identified, determining of genericmarkers, if need be, can be done by enzyme studies and DNAtyping.Swabbing of mouth, vagina, and anus for sperm detection shouldbe performed on rape victims.
  43. 43. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
  44. 44. The disease for which the victims are atrisk appear to be:-•Chlamydial infection•Gonorrhea•Syphilis•Chancre•Genital wards•Genital herpes•Trichomoniasis•Hepatitis B and HIV infection may beconsidered if the assailant appears tobe so infected
  45. 45. COLLECTION OF LABORATORY SPECIMENS
  46. 46. In some jurisdictions, sexualassault kits are provided by thelaw enforcing agency. Theycontain packing material, andinstructions for collection andpreservation of evidence thatconform to standards laid downby the crime laboratory.
  47. 47. In those jurisdictions where nosuch kits are provided, it isnecessary to consult the crimelaboratory to ensure that theevidence meets with itsrequirements.The list of specimens to becollected from the victim forlaboratory examinationinclude:-
  48. 48. •Clothing-stained, torn, foreign matter•Scrapings of dried blood stains-grouping, DNAcharacteristics•Scrapings of dried seminal stains-grouping, sperms,P30 glycoprotein, DNA characteristics•Hair-matted pubic hair, combed foreign hair, pluckedhair•Broken nails and debris from under the nails•Blood- grouping, alcohol, drugs, VDRL, T cells•Saliva-secretor status, and•Swabs from any soiled area of skin; from the bitemarks for saliva; and from mouth, pharynx, vagina,cervix, and anus for spermatozoa, microorganisms, P30glycoprotein, and STD. other specimens, e.g. hair head,body hair, urine (for drugs, pregnancy), etc, arecollected at the discretion of the examiner. Theexamination should be tailored to the requirement ofthe particular case and collection of all samples maynot be necessary.
  49. 49. FOLLOW-UPThe aim is to aid the victim to recoverfrom the traumatic experience of sexassault and regain dignity and self-respect. According, follow-up involves:-•Treatment of injuries•Tetanus prophylaxis•Prevention and termination ofpregnancy•Prevention and treatment of any STD’sand•Referral to crisis intervention centersfor support by social workers andpsychiatrists
  50. 50. THE INFERNCEThis depends very much upon circumstances. The site ofoffence may be examined if it appears desirable. Inchildren, the examiner must not expect signs of struggle asthey are normally not capable of exercising sufficientresistance to provoke injury. The superstitious belief thatsexual intercourse with a virgin cures venereal disease has,on occasions, led to rape. Some girls are too terrified whenan attack of rape is made upon them; they do not offer anyresistance, with the result their bodies do not bear evidenceof injuries as might be expected from a struggle, whilelocally there may be all the expected signs of accomplishedact of penetration. In such a case, the acts and the“demeanour of the girl” (distressed, dazed, shocked, tearful,aggressive, etc) immediately after the alleged commissionof crime should be subjected to very critical investigation,as these may provide valuable evidence, corroborative orotherwise, regarding the alleged ravishing. The mentalcondition and any signs of drunkenness should beparticularly noted, if, on laboratory examination, a drug isfound, the doctor should be prepared to state if the amountof drug is consistent with the degree of intoxication thatwould make valid consent improbable or impossible.
  51. 51. The opinion as to the commission ofthe crime of rape is based on aconsideration of•Scene examination•Signs of struggle•Presence of blood and/ or seminalstains on clothes and body•Presence of seminal matter in thevagina•Transmission of venereal disease, and•Laboratory reports
  52. 52. False accusations: the possibilityof false accusations must be keptin mind. In reality, if it were not forthe fact that rape can take placefrom fear, the problem might befairly easy to solve for “a fullyconscious woman of normalphysique will resist having her legsseparated by one man against herwill”. It has been very aptly said,“RAPE IS AN ALLEGATION, EASILYMADE, HARD TO PROVE ANDHARDER TO DISPROVE”.
  53. 53. A CHARGE OF RAPE IS EASY TO MAKE
  54. 54. HARD TO PROVE
  55. 55. HARDER STILL TO DISPROVE
  56. 56. Vulval and vaginal injuries may be maliciously producedin children by instruments or fingers and a false rapebrought against an individual with a view to take revengeor extort money from him. Artificial bruises may beproduced by using marking nut juice. The vagina may beirritated by using chilies. Sometimes, blood from ananimal/bird may be used for staining the clothes orprivates parts. Solution of starch or egg albumin may beused to stain the clothes and such stains simulateseminal fluids.Sometimes, the girl is a consenting party, and it is onlyafter the after the act she becomes frightened and bringsa charge to save her reputation.
  57. 57. Often, the victim’s story gives a strong indication of the falsityof the charge. The girl who tells of a cloth smelling ofchloroform being placed over her mouth after which sheimmediately became unconscious and on recovering her sensesfound her clothes in disorder, and complains that she has beenraped, is likely to be an hysterical one, rather than a victim ofrape. The statement of a woman who presents no signs ofstruggle and who appears to have offered no resistance to herassailant that she was under the influence of a drug must beaccepted with great caution. Probably, she is making anattempt to clear herself at the expense of her partner. In such acase, a close inquiry must be made into the history of the case,the manner in which the drug was given, whether in food or in adrink, the amount taken, the special taste if any noted, the timeelapsing before symptoms arose, and the nature os symptoms.The complainant must be pressed for details and the story maybe so clear that drugging may be ruled out! Blood and urineshould be preserved for chemical analysis; if deemednecessary. It should be remembered that drugs like Rohypnol(Roche) and Chloral hydras in alcoholic drinks have been usedas stupefying poisons prior to rape.
  58. 58. Vulval and vaginal injuries may be maliciouslyproduced in children by instruments or fingersand a false rape brought against an individualwith a view to take revenge or extort moneyfrom him. Artificial bruises may be produced byusing marking nut juice. The vagina may beirritated by using chilies. Sometimes, bloodfrom an animal/bird may be used for stainingthe clothes or privates parts. Solution of starchor egg albumin may be used to stain the clothesand such stains simulate seminal fluids.Sometimes, the girl is a consenting party, and itis only after the after the act she becomesfrightened and brings a charge to save herreputation.
  59. 59. Often, the victim’s story gives a strong indication of the falsity ofthe charge. The girl who tells of a cloth smelling of chloroformbeing placed over her mouth after which she immediatelybecame unconscious and on recovering her senses found herclothes in disorder, and complains that she has been raped, islikely to be an hysterical one, rather than a victim of rape. Thestatement of a woman who presents no signs of struggle andwho appears to have offered no resistance to her assailant thatshe was under the influence of a drug must be accepted withgreat caution. Probably, she is making an attempt to clear herselfat the expense of her partner. In such a case, a close inquirymust be made into the history of the case, the manner in whichthe drug was given, whether in food or in a drink, the amounttaken, the special taste if any noted, the time elapsing beforesymptoms arose, and the nature os symptoms. The complainantmust be pressed for details and the story may be so clear thatdrugging may be ruled out! Blood and urine should be preservedfor chemical analysis; if deemed necessary. It should beremembered that drugs like Rohypnol (Roche) and Chloral hydrasin alcoholic drinks have been used as stupefying poisons prior torape.
  60. 60. When a woman’s husband is away and shebecomes pregnant, she may claim rape to helpcover up her activities during his absence.False charges can be disposed in many cases bymedical evidence in regard to the•Statement of the victim which is neitherconvincing nor consistent in relation to the timeof reporting the crime, scene, consent, andcircumstances•Injuries, the dating of which does notcorrespond to the time of alleged incident•Doubtful story about administration of drugs,and•Results from laboratory specimens
  61. 61. Accusations of indecent assault or rape havebeen brought in the past against doctors anddentists as a result of dreams or hallucinations,accompanied by erotic sensations, which somewomen experience under light anaesthesia. Ifthe patient is restless or struggling while underthe anaesthesia, or emerging from its effects,there may be disarrangements of her clothingupon which she may place the worstinterpretation. As on rare occasions, somedoctors and dentists have taken the advantageof the opportunity afforded by examination oranaesthesia, it is advisable for them to avoidsuch a charge by having a female nurse, afemale relation, or husband, present duringexamination or narcosis on a woman.
  62. 62. ACCIDENTS FOLLOWING RAPEDeath may occur from shock due to fright oremotion or from haemorrhage due to injuries togenitals and perineum. Death may occur fromsuffocation if mouth and nostrils are closed bythe hand or cloth to prevent crying or shouting.The act of rape may inflict violent psychic ormental trauma and may cause personalityderangement. Sometimes, the assailant maymurder the victim after rape to silence herpermanently. This is usually accomplished bythrottling with the bare hands of the assailantor by strangulation with a ligature from thematerial readily available at hand, e.g., nylonstocking, pantyhose, or the scarf of the victim.Victims from certain culture may commitsuicide out of shame and stigma to the family.
  63. 63. Preliminary data Place of Examination: Date and Time of Examination:a. Name: ………………………………………D/O, /W/O……………………………………………….b. Address: …………………………………………………………………………………………c. Age as stated:………………………………Marital Status……………………………………………………d. Religion: ………………………………………………………………………………………….e. Occupation: ……………………………………………………………………………………….f. Brought and identified by : ………………………………Police Station………………………………………g. Consent given in writing: U/S 53(2) CrPC)………………..signature/Thumb impression of individual………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………i. Identification marks:a. ……………………………………………………………………………………………..b. ……………………………………………………………………………………………..j. Alleged History of the incident in brief:a. As given to police:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………b. As given by alleged accused:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Did she know the accused before: ………………………………………………………
  64. 64. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION1 Height:2 Weight:3 Breath: 1. Inspiration: 2. Expiration:4 Chest girth at the level of nipples:5 Abdominal girth at the level of navel:6 General built and appearance:7 Voice:8 Teeth:9 Hair: 1. Axillary: 2. Pubic:10 Mammae-development of breast-milk in:11 Generative organs-development of genitals:12 Onset of puberty-date:13 Ossification report from radiological examination:
  65. 65. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION14 Age:15 History:16 Date and hour when the female made complain and the precise words employed by her at the time, i.e. detailed account of the occurrence as given by the women:17 General behaviour:18 Date and the exact time when rape was said to have been committed:19 Place where it occurred:20 The exact circumstances under which the rape was committed i.e. whether the parties were standing or lying on the ground:21 Whether or not the female was menstruating at the time:22 Whether she was sensible during the whole time when the offence was committed or under any influence of alcohol, or other intoxicant:23 General feeling of those accompanying the female towards her and towards the accused:24 Whether she uttered any cries or was too terrified to do so:25 Clothing-if changed-when26 Whether bath was taken-when:
  66. 66. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION27 Whether urine was passed-when:28 Whether motion was passed-when:29 Mental condition and signs of drunkenness, if any:30 Gait:31 Intelligence:32 Demeanour:33 Examination of clothes including under-linen worn at the time of alleged rape and preserved for examination of: a) Blood b) Semen( including grouping if possible) c) Other discharges d) Mud-dirt
  67. 67. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION 34 Injuries to cheeks, lips, mammae, thighs, and genitals: 35 Genitals-pubic hair-length-matted or not: Vulva: Vagina: Hymen: Fourchette: Perineum: Cervix: 36 Is venereal disease present? Is there is a possibility of HIV transmission? 37 Smears a) From vagina, for spermatozoa and microorganisms: b) From urethra for gonorrhoea: c) From sore for evidence of syphilis or chancroid: 38 Blood group examination if consent available: 39 Other examination, e.g. for pregnancy, HIV infection:STATION:DATE: Signature of the Medical Officer with designation
  68. 68. Thankx….We only need your valuable comments….

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