A Study on fatal Road Traffic Accidents & its associated risk factors in Hyderabad, AP. AUTHOR .DR.SUNIL PAL SINGH. CPG STUDENT. DR.CH.KOTESHWARI.MD ASSISTANT PROFESSOR. DR.D.RAVI BABU .DPH,MD PROFESSOR. DR.G.KASHI RAM. MD. PROFESSOR AND HEAD
INTRODUCTIONRTA is a major public health problem mortality rates 5-10/ 1000 population injury incidence 70-140 per 1000 population (Guru Raj and Suryanarayana 2004).The problem can be solved by simple scientificmethods like safe roads, safe drivers and safe vehicle .Recent trends of Road Traffic Accidents (RTA):Represent a major epidemic of non-communicablediseaseResponsible for 2.1% of all deaths globally (2004 ) [Textbook of public health &community medicine byRajvir Bhalwar].
Fatal Road Traffic Accident -ProjectionsFatal Road Traffic Accident is defined as any person who waskilled outright or who died in 30 days as a result of theaccident.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES1. To identify the various factors which are responsible for fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Hyderabad,AP2. To identify the accident prone zones. 3. To suggest preventive measures .
METHODOLOGYSTUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study based based, mortem records (Forensic It is a cross-sectional, record on post retrospective study .Medicine Department).STUDY AREA: A total 52 police stations of Hyderabad city.STUDY PERIOD: 6 months(June2010-Nov 2010)SAMPLE SIZE: Total number of fatal RTA’s occurred during the study periodwhich were having complete information were included in the study ( 301 /310reported cases).STUDY TOOLS: Post-mortem records from hospital, Panchanama reportsfrom respective police station.ANALYSIS: Microsoft Excel 2007 used for data entry. Chi-square test to knowthe strength of association between the risk factor and fatal RTA by using Epi-info version 3.5.2RESULT PRESENTATION: percentages, tables, bar-charts, pie diagrams
AGE WISE DISTRIBUTION OF FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS 30.00 28.24 25.00 22.92%o 20.00f 17.61 15.00D 12.29e 10.00a 7.97 6.31th 5.00 3.32 1.33 0.00 0-9yr 10-19 yrs 20-29yrs 30-39yrs 40-49yrs 50-59yrs 60-69yrs >70 Years Age groupsHigher Fatal RTA were seen in age group of 20-39 YEARS(>51%) .
SEX AND MODE OF TRANSPORT 120.00 100.00 Males% Females 100.00 92.59 87.65 86.95O 78.98 80.00FD 60.00ea 40.00th 12.35 21.02 13.05 20.00 7.41s 0.00 0.00 PED Cycle MTV 3 Wheeler 4 Wheeler MODE OF TRANSPORTMajority population who met fatal RTA were motorized two wheeler vehicles (MTV) and pedestrians.
WEEK DAYS WISE DISTRIBUTION OF FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Sunday Monday 20% 18% Tuesday 8% Saturday 18% Wednesday 11% Friday Thursday 14% 11% Fatal RTA are more during week ends.
MONTH WISE DISTRIBUTION OF ACCIDENTMore number of accidents were observed during themonths of June and July.
AREA –WISE DISTRIBUTION OF FATAL ROAD TRAFFICACCIDENT.The present study shows that Keesara and Kukatpally police station areas weremore accident prone zones.
PLACE OF DEATHOut of total fatal RTA s about 28.57% were spot deaths.
CAUSE OF THE DEATHThe most common cause of death is multiple injuries.
TIME OF ACCIDENT AND SPOT DEATH 120.00% 100.00% 95.80% spot death%o 70.90% yes 80.00%f spot deathd 60.00% noea 29.10%t 40.00%hs 20.00% 4.20% 0.00% Time of accident 12am -6am accidents occurred during day and evening time Time of AccidentsOut of total fatal RTAs occurred during 12 midnight to 6am about 70.90% werespot deaths where as it was reverse in other timings. This observed differencewas statistically significant (p<0.001).
ALCOHOL AND SPOT DEATH 100.00% 94.55% % 90.00% 80.00% o 70.00% f 59.40% spot 60.00% death 50.00% (+) D 40.60% e 40.00% a 30.00% spot t 20.00% death 5.45% h 10.00% (-) 0.00% alcohol (+) alcohol (-) Under the influence of alcoholdStatistically significantly percentage of spot deaths were observed amongalcoholics than non- alcoholics (p<0.01).
SPOT DEATH VS HIGH SPEED AND HEAD INJURY 85.10% 90.00% 82.30% % 80.00% 70.00% Head o d 60.00% injury 50.00% Yes f e 40.00% Head a 30.00% 14.90% injury s t 20.00% 17.70% p h No 10.00% o 0.00% t High speed (+) High speed (-) speedStatistically significant percentage of spot deaths were occurreddue to high speed resulting in head injury (P<0.01).
HELMET AND HEAD INJURY 90.00% 80.00% Head% 70.00% 83.33% injury yes o 60.00% f 74.44% 50.00% Head I injury n 40.00% No j u r 30.00% e d 20.00% 25.56% 10.00% 16.67% 0.00% Helmet (+) Helmet (-)More percentage of head injuries occurred among helmet usersthan non-helmet users (p>0.05).
MODE OF TRANSPORT AND CAUSE OF DEATH*Mutiple injuries were found to be most common cause of death in pedestrain ,three wheelersand mtv.*Head injury is more common in four wheelers and cyclists.
CONCLUSIONS:• The male gender and young adults ( 20-39 yrs) were more prone for the fatal Road Traffic Accidents.• Motorized two wheelers were at high risk of fatal road traffic accidents.• Fatal RTA are more during weekends and during the months of June and July.• Spot deaths are more in accidents which occurred between 12:00am -6;00am.• Multiple injuries is the most common cause of death followed by Head injury .• Over speed and inebriation were the significant factors for the majority of the head injuries resulting fatal accidents.
RECOMMENDATIONS:1. Safety awareness should begin from childhood and it should be intensified at young adults.2. Driving license should be issued after proper verification and foolproof documentation.3. Rest rooms must be provided for every 80 km.4. Helmet for motorized two wheeler riders as well as pillions and seat belt for four wheeler must be implemented strictly.5. Separate lane system for high speed vehicles and speed limitation must be implemented strictly.6. Drunken driving must be curbed using breath analyzers on highly accident prone roads.7. Compensation should made very huge, making accidents unaffordable so that everyone will be vigilant.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTDr. Siddappa Gaurav, Principal, Osmania Medical College.Hyderabad.Dr. Narayana Reddy, professor and HOD, Forensic Medicine.Osmania Medical College.Dr.Ravinder Reddy ,professor and HOD, Forensic Medicine.Gandhi Medical College. THANK YOU