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  1. 1. Vitamins. Definition - Organic compound required in small amounts. Vitamin A Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12 Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K A few wordsabout each.
  2. 2. Sourcesin diet - Many plants(photoreceptors), also meat, especially liver. Fat soluble, so you can get too much, or too littleif absorption isaproblem. Vitamin A - Retinol Retinol (vitamin A) Someuses: Vision (11-cis-retinol bound to rhodopsin detectslight in our eyes). Regulating genetranscription (retinoic acid receptorson cell nuclei arepart of a system for regulating transcription of mRNAsfor anumber of genes).
  3. 3. Vitamin B1 - Thiamine Thiamine Someuses: Cofactor for several enzymes (aprecursor for thiaminepyrophosphate, oneof the cofactorsused by thepyruvatedecarboxylasecomplex (PDC). Also, acofactor for branched chain a-keto dehydrogenase. Found in awidevariety of foods, including meat, grains. Deficiency causes beriberi (muscleatrophy, neurological problems).
  4. 4. Vitamin B2 - riboflavin FMN - Flavin mononucleotide FAD - flavin adeninedinucleotide. Riboflavin isaprecursor for FAD and FMN. FAD isacofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenasecomplex (PDC), and succinatedehydrogenasein TCA cycle. FMN isan electron carrier in the electron transport chain.
  5. 5. Vitamin B3 - nicotinic acid (aprecursor for NAD). Also known asniacin. NAD+ isneeded for glycolysis, NADH getsoxidized in electron transport chain, etc. nicotinic acid
  6. 6. Vitamin B5 - pantothenic acid (needed for making CoA) Weget pantothenic acid in our diet asCoA, which must bebroken down to pantothenic acid to beabsorbed in intestine. Wethen usethepantothenic acid in making our own CoA. CoenzymeA pantothenic acid
  7. 7. Vitamin B6 - pyridoxine Precursor for pyridoxal phosphate(PLP). PLPisacovalently linked cofactor to transaminases, and somedecarboxylases, and glycogen phosphorylase; theseare called “PLP-dependent enzymes”. PLP
  8. 8. Vitamin B7 - Biotin. Used in fatty acid synthesis, also other functions. Biotin deficiency israre. Wesaw biotin in chapter 14:
  9. 9. Vitamin B9 - Folic acid. Required for synthesisof glycine, methionine, nucleotidesT & U (chapter 15). Important for rapidly dividing cells(very important in early pregnancy). N5 ,N10 methylene-tetrahydrofolateisa donor of methylenegroups. Deficiency in pregnancy causesneural tubedefects. Folic acid isnow added to many grain productsin theUS. folic acid
  10. 10. Wesaw cobalaminein fatty acid oxidation. Cobalamin isneeded in making adenosylcobalamin, acofactor for “methyl malonyl mutase”, which breaksdown odd-chain fatty acids. B12 isalso used in regenerating folate Sourcesaremeat, milk and eggs. Vegetarianswho eat dairy products areOK, but non-dairy vegansmay not get enough. Vitamin B12 - cobalamin. (also hydroxycobalamin, adenosylcobalamin). adenosyl- cobalamin
  11. 11. In almost all organisms, ascorbic acid issynthesized from glucosein 4 steps. A relatively recent (40 million yearsago) mutation in theancestor of humans madeusunableto makeascorbic acid. So for us, and someclosely related primates, it’savitamin. Guineapigscan’t makeascorbic acid, either. Sourcesof vitamin C arefruit and fresh meat. Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy, and in human history vitamin C deficiency may havebeen an impediment to spreading northward. Vitamin C - asorbic acid Required for collagen synthesis, and asa cofactor for several enzymes. Also scavengesoxygen radicals.
  12. 12. Vitamin D refersto agroup of similar lipid-solublemolecules(major forms areD2 and D3, also D1, D4, D5). Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)
  13. 13. Vitamin D3 can beobtained in diet, or derived from cholesterol in areaction that requiresUV light. UV light spontaneous liver enzyme 25-hydroxylase Vitamin D3 calcitriol
  14. 14. Vitamin D bindsto a“vitamin D binding protein” (VDP) for transport to target organs. Vitamin D isnot activeitself (it’saprohormone); it ismodified to yield biologically activeforms, such ascalcitriol. Calcitriol (derived from vitamin D) isatranscription factor, influencing expression of proteinsinvolved in calcium absorption and transport. Vitamin D isalso important for immunesystem function. Deficiency causesrickets, boneloss. Calcitriol, from vitamin D.
  15. 15. Vitamin D production requiresUV light (sunlight). Sometimeafter humansmigrated north out of Africaabout 50,000 yearsago, mutationsappeared that reduced melanin (pigment) production in theskin, permitting vitamin D production with lesssunlight. Disadvantagesof lessmelanin production areskin that iseasily damaged by thesun, skin cancer risk, and lossof folic acid dueto UV damage. Themelanin-reducing mutationshelped early humansmakevitamin D in northern europein winter.
  16. 16. Thousandsof yearsago. Human migration. . Thesegroupshave mutationsresulting in the most dramatic melanin deficiency.
  17. 17. In Texas, thereistoo much sun and plenty of vitamin D, so I want my melanin back !
  18. 18. It isessential, but rolesareunclear. Suggestions includeneural membranecomponent, antioxidant. Obtained in diet, deficiency israre. Vitamin E - Collectively refersto 8 related tocopherols.
  19. 19. Vitamin K isrequired for proper blood clotting. It isused in synthesizing gammacarboxy glutamate, apost- translationally modified amino acid in prothrombin. Sourcesarevegetablesand fruits, deficiency israre. Vitamin K - Refersto phylloquinonone(vitamin K-1), and several structurally similar molecules. phylloquinone
  20. 20. THANK YOU