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Types, composition, and cleaning of hard surfaces


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Types, composition, and cleaning of hard surfaces

  1. 1. . Types, Composition, and Cleaning of Hard Surfaces
  2. 2. Objectives: . realize the importance of maintaining hard surfaces gain knowledge regarding the types of hard surfaces found in various areas of the hotel. understand the and tear, tarnish etc. assimilate the methods of cimportance and methods of protecting hard surfaces from wear leaning and maintaining the hard surfaces.
  3. 3. . Housekeeping staff must have an insight into the types, composition, care and maintenance of all hard surfaces they are responsible for cleaning. They must possess a good knowledge of the chemical agents that can or cannot be used on these surfaces.
  4. 4. . The types, composition, and cleaning of hard surfaces such as metals, their alloys, glass, plastics, ceramics, wood, stone, leather and rubber. protecting the surfaces by application of different finishes is discussed in detail. Many hard surfaces are high in cost and in most cases, once damaged, they are not easily restored to their original appearance and function.
  5. 5. TYPES OF SURFACES Metals Glass Leather Rexene Ceramic Wood Wall & Wall Coverings .
  6. 6. . METALS
  7. 7. Methods of Protecting Metals . 1. Painting 2. Electroplating 3. Galvanizing 4. Enameling 5. Lacquering 6. Anodizing 7. Tin-plating
  8. 8. . COMMONLY USED METALS AND ALLOYS • Silver • Steel • Copper • Brass • Bronze • Aluminium • Iron
  9. 9. Glass Glass is a transparent, lustrous, and brittle material made from silica or sand. A mixture of pure, fine sand, soda or potash, and other ingredients is carefully measured out. This is called “Batch” The batch is fed into a furnace and heated to an extremely high temperature, above 13000 C, where it fuses into molten glass. From the furnace, the molten glass is led away for shaping. After shaping, the glass is cooled by a process called “annealing”, in which the glass travels on a conveyer belt through an annealing oven. In the annealing oven, after the initial re-heating, the glass gradually cools as it passes through. Glass is used in making doors, windows, furniture, vases, lighting fixtures, mirrors, partitions, tableware, kitchenware, and bottles. .
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  11. 11. . WOOD
  12. 12. . WOOD - Wood is hard, compact, fibrous, and porous. Good wood makes for a rich, warm and beautiful surface. It is an extremely versatile surface material, with its varied colours and different grain patterns, and is used throughout hotel establishments. Being a porous material, wood absorbs water as well as dust. It is also prone to fungal attacks and pests infestations.
  13. 13. . CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD - This categorization is based on the origin as well as the treatment that wood has undergone before use. Wood is used in hotels in various forms, listed  Solid Woods  Wood Boards  Woven Stems  Hardwood  Softwood  Hardboard  Blackboard  Plywood  Chipboard  Cork
  14. 14. MAINTENANCE OF WOOD . While all the finishes above render varying degrees of protection to a wood surface, regular cleaning and care are still needed to ensure optimum performance and long life. This includes taking into account certain maintenance issues with wood, which may require small repairs. That said, wood remains a very versatile and fairly resilient surface for its aesthetic appeal and price.
  15. 15. CARE AND CLEANING PROCEDURES FOR WOODEN SURFACES .  Wood, being porous, deteriorates in contact with an excess of water. Therefore, the least possible amount of water should be used for cleaning wood. Always dry-dust the surface first with an impregnated mop, or vacuum- clean. Then remove excess soiling by damp-dusting in case of small articles and light damp-mopping for larger surfaces. Wooden floor surfaces need to be buffed with a floor polisher two times a week. Spills and stains should be removed immediately from wood surfaces so that they are not absorbed into the surface.  Cork should only be dusted or vacuumed daily.
  16. 16. . LEATHER  Leather is made from the skins of various animals—including sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle—by tanning or a similar process. It is one of the most durable and versatile of all natural materials.
  17. 17. .  The skins are treated in various ways to give different varieties of leather, ranging from the soft, flexible types such as suede and kid to the tougher types such as hide and sturdy varieties of pigskin (see Table 8.6). Leather can be dyed in a variety of colours and is used for belts, shoes, gloves, purses, wallets, luggage, upholstery, desk tops, and book bindings. Leather is expensive and should be kept supple to prevent cracking. Leather also picks up oil and grease readily. General cleaning of leather involves daily dusting or suction cleaning. In case of soiling, wipe the leather with a soft cloth wrung out of warm water and mild synthetic detergent. Follow with a damp-dusting with clean water and then dry thoroughly. Occasionally leather may be polished with a good furniture polish cream to keep it supple. Solvents should not be used on leather as they will stiffen it.
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  22. 22. Wall & Floor Coverings Wall coverings are decorative as well as functional. The primary consideration for wall coverings though should be their functional quality, durability, and ease of maintenance. .
  23. 23. FLOOR COVERINGS/FINISHES . Floor finishes Hard floor finishes Semi-hard floor finishes Soft floor finishes Non resilient Resilient
  24. 24. . Selection of floor coverings should be on the basis of Appearance, Comfort, Durability, Life expectancy, Safety, Ease of cleaning & Cost A maintenance program is a must for carpets since they get easily soiled or damaged. Good maintenance can increase the life of the carpet considerably. Most new carpets shed fluff for the first few weeks. During this period, they should be only lightly cleaned with a hand brush or carpet sweeper. After the first month, clean with a vacuum cleaner at least once a week, always making the last stroke in the direction of the pile so that it lies flat.
  25. 25. Thanks for watching!– .