Research Methodology


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Research means an objective and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.
Research has to be an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge.

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Research Methodology

  1. 1. Sunil Kumar Project fellow IHTM MDU ROhtak
  2. 2. Introducation Research means an objective and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research has to be an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge. Thus Research involves: Enunciating the problem Formulating the hypothesis Collecting data/ facts/information Analyzing the data/ facts/ information Reaching at conclusions Example of Research: A Profile of Food Consumption Trends in the United States Consumer Goods Packaging Innovation and its Role in the Product Adoption Process
  3. 3.     To achieve new insights into a phenomenon To know about the existing phenomenon To know extent of a cause or effect variables To establish relationship between variables
  4. 4. “ Doubt is often better than overconfidence as doubt leads to enquiry and enquiry leads to invention” “ Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking that promotes development of logical thinking”
  5. 5.  Research provides the basis of all government / international policies  Research is used for solving various problems of Businesses, NGOs, Societies etc.
  6. 6. Descriptive versus Analytical :  Descriptive research means describing state of affairs – Mostly involves primary data – ex-post research  Analytical research means carrying out analysis on a phenomenon – Mostly involves secondary data – ex-ante research- before contemplated change
  7. 7.  Applied versus Fundamental Research  Applied research aims to find a solution to an immediate problem facing a country/ society/ organization etc. Fundamental research is a basic research mainly concerned with generalizations 
  8. 8.  Quantitative versus Qualitative Research ```Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount ```Example CO2 emission ` ```Qualitative research is concerned with subjective attitude/ quality/ attributes / desires / feelings/ etc ```Example : Feeling about Dhaka city air pollution ( intolerable / Mildly intolerable / tolerable
  9. 9. Conceptual versus Empirical Conceptual research is about abstract ideas or theory Attack from ghosts, Empirical Research is data-based and subject to verification
  10. 10.     According to types of research discussed: There can be two approaches to research: Quantitative approach: Qualitative approach
  11. 11.  Quantitative approach can be further divided into 3 groups:  Inferential approach – infer characteristics of a phenomenon through collection of data –example CO2 emission. Experimental approach – Researcher deliberately changes some variables to know the causal effectexample – effect of temperature rise on plant growth under open sky 
  12. 12.  Simulation approach – Researcher artificially construct an environment and collects data  A greenhouse is constructed and impact of temperature rise on plant growth is measured
  13. 13. Research methods refer to use of instruments for a research technique Example: Type of Research Quantitative Field Research Methods of Research Questionnaire Focussed Group Discussion Technique of Research Researcher uses open and close ended questions Researcher selects a particular group for the detailed discussion
  14. 14.   Research methodology is a way to systemically solve the research problem Research methodology has a broader dimension than research methods
  15. 15.        Elements of Research Methodology are: Defining objective Reviewing Literature Formulating Hypothesis Designing sample Collecting data Analyzing of data Arriving at conclusions
  16. 16.        The objective of the research clearly defined The research methodology used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement The sampling design should be such as to yield least error The writing should be done with complete frankness – nothing which has bearing on the result should be hidden The validity and reliability of data as a well as calculations should be re-checked to avoid mistakes Conclusions should be confined to those justified by data and analysis Researcher should be a person of integrity
  17. 17. The End