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Raising agents

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CHEMICAL USE AS SHINING AGENT

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Raising agents

  1. 1. RAISING AGENTS fall into three specific categories: Chemical, Mechanical and Natural CHEMICAL RAISING AGENTS The main two Chemical Leaveners used in Baking are:
  2. 2. Baking Powder and Baking Soda. Baking Powder is a blend of acid (most commonly calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminium sulphate or cream of tartar) and alkali – (baking soda/sodium bicarbonate). These create carbon dioxide bubbles when liquid and heat are added. Commercial baking powder uses several compounds which gives it a double action. It acts when liquid is added and once again when heat is added after you put your product in the oven. You can make up your own baking powder raising agent - for one teaspoon: mix 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar with 1/4 teaspoon baking soda. If you decide to mix up your own BE AWARE! You must put your product straight into the oven - the addition of liquid starts the chemical reaction. If you leave it standing pre- baking, your 'Home-Made' raising agent will be ‘spent’ before baking starts. Unlike commercial baking powder, it only has the one action – when you add moisture.
  3. 3. Baking Soda (Bicarbonate of Soda), is used when there is already an acid ingredient in the recipe such as: Applesauce, buttermilk, brown sugar, chocolate, cocoa powder, cream of tartar, honey, lemon juice, molasses, vinegar.
  4. 4. When baking soda comes in contact with an acid and liquid is added, carbon dioxide (CO2), water and a neutral salt are produced. Care must be taken with how much baking soda is used. If too much - a ‘soapy’ aftertaste remains and the product bakes darker. If not enough is used - an acid flavour remains. Baking soda is much stronger than baking powder. The general rule is to use 1 to 1-1/4 teaspoons baking powder per half cup of flour, (4ozs/100g). Baking soda should be added at 1/4 teaspoon per half cup of flour, (4ozs/100g). How do these chemical leaveners work? When carbon dioxide is released by either baking soda and/or baking powder, it first dissolves in the liquid. When this becomes saturated, the carbon dioxide produced turns into the air bubbles which expand.
  5. 5. . At higher altitudes less baking powder/soda is required. Low pressure has an effect on carbon dioxide and makes it expand more. If you do not use less Raising Agent your baking will end up with a poor texture. MECHANICAL ACTIONS as Raising Agents: The physical actions of creaming, kneading, beating, and whisking will incorporate tiny air bubbles which expand when heat is added. The addition of flour gives structure for the air bubbles to work against - you get rise. This structure is fixed in the oven by heat.
  6. 6. Creaming Method: Fat and sugar are creamed together until the sugar crystals melt and the whole mass takes on the consistency of whipped cream. Use castor sugar which has a small crystal size. It will combine with the fat far easier than granulated sugar, which has a larger crystal. The creaming method incorporates air into the mixture which is held in place by the semi-solid fat. These bubbles expand during baking allowing the batter to rise. Care must be taken once flour is added. This should be folded in carefully to avoid development of the gluten lattice structure. You will get a cake with a better texture and more rise by using special cake flours here - they are low in gluten.
  7. 7. Kneading is a process used in bread making. Yeast liquid is dispersed into high gluten flour to make a dough. The mechanical action of kneading the dough, either by hand or machine, develops the gluten strands which form into a lattice structure. As gentle warmth is applied, carbon dioxide is released by the yeast and is trapped in pockets, These continue to expand until heat is applied during baking. Heat kills the yeast off and fixes the gluten's lattice structure
  8. 8. Beating: Certain procedures in baking require you to use a ‘beating’ method – generally where heat is involved. If you are making Hot Water Crust Pastry you would bring water and butter to the simmer stage in a pan. Flour is added and the ‘batter’ is beaten until combined. Use as the pastry for ‘Raised’ Pies. This pastry has a much stronger structure allowing pies to be cooked without a tin. The same principal applies when making Choux Pastry. Flour is added to a hot water/butter mixture. Raw egg is then beaten in.
  9. 9. Whisking: When volume has to be added then the whisking method is used. Meringues are made by whisking egg whites with sugar until the volume is six to eight times more than you began with. Gentle heat applied over several hours dries out the meringue and leaves a crisp, sweet confection. Fatless sponge cakes require whole egg and sugar to be whisked together to achieve a high volume. Cake flour is gently folded in. Air incorporated into the egg gives volume and lightness to the cake.
  10. 10.  From:- vansh dang

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