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Effect of heat on food


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heat effect on food

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Effect of heat on food

  1. 1. Effects of Heat on Food
  2. 2. • Coagulation – exposure of proteins to excessive heat toughens them and makes them dry. Most proteins complete coagulations or are cooked at 71*C to 85*C
  3. 3. • By cooking properly, tough meats can be made tender.
  4. 4. • Acids, like lemon juice, vinegar and tomato products do two things to proteins: 1. speed coagulation 2. help dissolve some connective tissue
  5. 5. CARBOHYDRATES • Caramelization • Gelatinization • Acids inhibits gelatinization
  6. 6. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES • The softening of fruits and vegetables in cooking is, in part, the breaking down of fiber.
  7. 7. • Sugar makes fiber firmer • Baking soda makes fiber softer.
  8. 8. FATS • When fats are heated, they begin to break down.
  9. 9. Smoke point – the temperature at which the fat deteriorate rapidly and begins to smoke.
  10. 10. MINERALS AND VITAMINS • Mineral components may be leashed out, or dissolved away from foods during cooking.
  11. 11. • Vitamins and pigments may also be destroyed by heat, by long cooking and by other elements present during cooking.
  12. 12. HEAT TRANSFER A. Conduction B. Convection C. Radiation
  13. 13. 1. When heat moves directly from one item to something touching it. A. Conduction
  14. 14. 2. When heat moves from one part of something to an adjacent part of the item.
  15. 15. B. Convection 1. Natural – hot liquids and gases rise while cooler ones sink.
  16. 16. 2. Mechanical – heat is transferred more quickly to the food and the food cooks faster.
  17. 17. C. Radiation 1. Infrared – an electric element or ceramic element heated by a gas flame becomes so hot that it gives of infrared radiation which cooks the food.
  18. 18. 2. Microwave – the radiation generated by the oven penetrates partway into the food, where it agitates the molecules of water.