Effect of alcohol on body


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Effect of alcohol on body

  1. 1. Effect of Alcohol on Human Body Must Know
  2. 2. ETHYL ALCOHOL. The alcohol found in alcoholic beverages is ethyl alcohol (ethanol). The molecular structure of ethanol looks like this: H H3 C - C - O - H H
  3. 3. HOW ALCOHOL ENTERS THE BODY  20 percent of the alcohol is absorbed in the stomach  80 percent is absorbed in the small intestine.  How fast the alcohol is absorbed depends upon several things: – The concentration of alcohol in the beverage - The greater the concentration, the faster the absorption. – The type of drink - Carbonated beverages tend to speed up the absorption of alcohol. – Whether the stomach is full or empty – Food slows down alcohol absorption.
  4. 4. Cont…  Alcohol enters the bloodstream and dissolves in the water of the blood  The blood carries the alcohol throughout the body.  The alcohol from the blood then enters and dissolves in the water inside each tissue of the body  Alcohol cannot dissolve in fat tissue.  The BAC ( Blood Alcohol Concentration ) can rise significantly within 20 minutes after having a drink.
  5. 5. HOW ALCOHOL LEAVES THE BODY The kidney eliminates 5 percent of alcohol in the urine. The lungs exhale 5 percent of alcohol, which can be detected by breathalyzer devices. The liver chemically breaks down the 90 percent alcohol into acetic acid. As a rule of thumb, an average person can eliminate 10- 15 ml of alcohol per hour
  6. 6. Breakdown of Alcohol The breakdown, or oxidation, of ethanol occurs in the liver. An enzyme in the liver called alcohol de- hydrogenase strips electrons from ethanol to form acetaldehyde. Another enzyme, called aldehyde dehydrogenase, converts the acetaldehyde, in the presence of oxygen, to acetic acid
  7. 7. The Effects of Alcohol  Euphoria (BAC = 0.03 to 0.12 percent)  Excitement (BAC = 0.09 to 0.25 percent)  Confusion (BAC = 0.18 to 0.30 percent)  Stupor (BAC = 0.25 to 0.4 percent)  Coma (BAC = 0.35 to 0.50 percent)  Death (BAC more than 0.50 percent)
  8. 8. Euphoria (BAC = 0.03 to 0.12 percent) They become more self-confident or daring. Their attention span shortens. They may look flushed. Their judgement is not as good They have trouble with fine movements, such as writing or signing their name.
  9. 9. Excitement (BAC = 0.09 to 0.25 percent)  They become sleepy.  Trouble understanding or remembering things  Their body movements are uncoordinated.  They begin to lose their balance easily.  Their vision becomes blurry.  Trouble sensing things (hearing, tasting, feeling)
  10. 10. Confusion (BAC = 0.18 to 0.30 percent)  They are dizzy and may stagger.  Highly emotional -- aggressive, withdrawn or overly affectionate.  They cannot see clearly.  They are sleepy.  They have slurred speech.  They have uncoordinated movements .  They may not feel pain as readily as a sober person.
  11. 11. Stupor (BAC = 0.25 to 0.4 percent)  They can barely move at all.  They cannot respond to stimuli.  They cannot stand or walk.  They may vomit.  They may lapse in and out of consciousness.
  12. 12. Coma (BAC = 0.35 to 0.50 percent)  They are unconscious.  Their reflexes are depressed (i.e. their pupils do not respond appropriately to changes in light).  They feel cool (lower-than-normal body temperature).  Their breathing is slower and shallower.  Their heart rate may slow.  They may die.
  13. 13. Death (BAC more than 0.50 percent)  The person usually stops breathing and dies.
  14. 14. MEN VS. WOMEN  When you compare men & women of same sex, age, height, weight & built, men tends to have more muscle& less fat then women.  Muscle tissue has more water than fat tissue, a given dose of alcohol will be diluted more in men than women.  Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) resulting from the dose will be higher in women than in men.  Women will feel the effect sooner than the men.
  15. 15. Effect on Human Brain The order in which alcohol affects the various brain centers is as follows: Cerebral cortex - Thought process Limbic system- Emotions and memory Cerebellum - Movement of muscles Hypothalamus and pituitary gland - Sexual behavior and urinary excretion Medulla - Breathing, heart rate, temperature and consciousness
  16. 16. Long Term Effect  The increased activity in the liver causes cell death and hardening of the tissue (cirrhosis of the liver).  The brain cells in various centers die, thereby reducing the total brain mass.  Stomach and intestinal ulcers can form because the constant alcohol use irritates and degrades the linings of these organs.  Blood pressure increases as the heart compensates for the initially reduced blood pressure caused by alcohol.  Male sex-cell (sperm) production decreases because of decreased sex-hormone secretion from the hypothalamus/pituitary.  Poor nutrition decreases levels of iron and vitamin B, leading to anemia.  Because alcoholics lose balance and fall more often, they suffer more often from bruises and broken bones; this is especially true, as they get older.