CHAPTER 31: GARNISHES AND THEIR HISTORICAL
In the African style, as practiced by French chefs. dishes
that bear this title must convey the style of foods consumed
in the vast continent of North, West, Central and East
Africa, and the Union of South Africa. It was however
indiscriminately applied by the French chefs to dishes during
the reign of Napoleon III when Meyerbeer’s opera L’Africaine
enjoyed great popularity .The principal ingredients used as
garnish, giving dishes the right to bear this title are:-
chicken, mushroom, tomatoes, eggplant,
Curried and spiced foods; dishes garnished with savoury rice
or flavoured with garlic or pimento and groundnuts. Coconut
and pistachio nuts find their way in the sweet course.
Wing tips of chicken. Foods garnished with small wings of
poultry or fins of fish of certain types of fish.
Eg .Consommé ‘Ailerons’
Chicken consommé garnished with stuffed chicken wings and
A Provencal olive oil cum garlic sauce. In Provençe the
Aioli is the name of the dish itself whether it be fish,
Vegetables or snails when served with this cold sauce.
Sauce: Garlic flavoured mayonnaise sauce with hard boiled
eggs added sprinkled with cayenne.
Formerly called Russian America, it is a territory of the United
States of America.
i) Sole Alaska – poached whole sole in white wine, half
coated with a pink shrimp sauce and the other half with
white wine sauce (made with fish liquor) garnished with poached
oysters and noisette potatoes.
ii) Baked Alaska is Americas favourite dessert .It is frozen
vanilla ice cream placed on a sponge cake base covered
quickly with Meringue and baked in a hot oven to brown the
iii) Cantaloupe Alaska –cut cantaloupes into 2, fill with
ice cream, topped with meringue and browned.
Was the consort (the queen) of Edward VII, a king of Great
Britain and Ireland in whose honour many dishes were named.
Indicates inclusion of asparagus tips.
i) Consommé Alexandra. Chicken consommé thickened with
tapioca, garnished with shredded chicken, lettuce and
ii) Chicken Sauté Alexandra: - Cook the
chicken breasts in butter, mask with thin soubise sauce
reduced with cream, and garnish with asparagus tips.
In the German style, dishes garnished with sauerkraut or
pickled pork or smoked sausages.
i) Consommé: Allemande: Beef Consommé flavored with juniper
berries thickened with tapioca flour garnished with julienne of
red cabbage and slices of smoked sausages.
ii) Salad: Allemande: slices of apple, new potatoes, beetroot, mixed
with smoked herrings fillets and gherkins sprinkled with chopped
parsley and vinaigrette dressing.
Literally means the wife of the Ambassador.
i) Sole: Crayfish encased in rolled fillets of sole,
poached and served with sauce Normande.
ii) Pudding: a rich custard flavored with kirsch with a layer of
served with strained strawberry jam flavored with kirsch.
In the American style as practiced by the French chefs.
A garnish for fish :slices of lobster tail and truffles.
Sauce: Tomato sauce enriched with cream, blended with pounded
Coral butter and tail meat. Reduce with rich fish stock.
Bombe: Ice cream bombe mould, lined with strawberry ice cream
flavored with grenadine, alternated with pistachio ice cream
Salad: Sliced potatoes, tomatoes, celery, rings of onions and
sliced hard boiled eggs with a French dressing.
In the Andalusian style. A Spanish province.
Chicken Consommé: garnished with diced tomatoes, cucumber and
A cold sauce: Mayonnaise + tomato puree mixed
with brunoise of capsicum.
In the English style as prepared by the French chefs. It indicates
a “plainly/simply prepared” dish.
Garniture for Chicken: mixed vegetable (carrots, french beans,
potatoes, cauliflower) cooked in salted water
Côtelette de veau: Grilled breaded cutlets garnished with
par boiled potatoes fried in butter.
The first name of Anna Amelia, Duchess of Saxony, born 24th
October 1739, chiefly applied to a certain manner of cooking
potatoes invented by Chef Dugleré who was Chef at Café D’
anglaise in Paris, in pre - war days.
Potatoes: peeled, sliced thinly, arranged in a shallow mould
With melted butter and seasoning. Baked in the oven to golden
Name of a district in France, famous for its asparagus.
Potage: Asparagus soup thickened with rice and garnished with
Chicken: large flat fillet, poached and coated with supreme
sauce to which asparagus puree has been added .
13. AU BLEU
Meats/Fish cooked fresh and simply,
Truite au bleu: Trout brought to the kitchen alive and stunned and
gutted just before cooking in water and white wine. Flavored with
herbs and vinegar served with parsley potatoes, hollandaise sauce
or melted butter.
Dawn - Break of day. The Roman Goddess of Dawn - Aurore.
Consommé of veal stock with tomato puree added, garnished
with diced chicken.
Sauce: Bechamel sauce flavored with tarragon and lightly
colored with tomato puree or lobster butter in case of fish.
Oeufs: Julienne of hard boiled eggs in allemande sauce with grated
Cheese and browned under the salamander
Fruits: Cold dessert, made from fruits in season on strawberry
ice cream with a Zabaione (sabayon) sauce flavored with Curacco.
Turkish for father. It is generally acknowledged that the
invention of the cake Baba au rhum belongs to the King
Stanislaus of Russia. The king used to read the tales of a
100 nights and has named this after his favourite hero - Alibaba.
Baba au Rhum: A light yeast dough batter, sweetened and
enriched with butter and eggs. While still hot, it is dipped in
hot sugar syrup, strongly flavoured with rum, whipped cream
is piped on top of the cake.
Baba au kirsch as above using kirsch instead of rum.
Brittle, fight, battle array or Batailey – a chateau of the
Potatoes: cut in ½” square and deep fried in fat.
The name of a family of German counts which died out about 1314.
The title was revived in 1851.
Batterburg cake: A lattice pattern of pink, yellow and chocolate
Genoise cake encased in rich almond paste.
A Bavarian cream, Bavarian style.
Example of Bavarian creams: Flavoured custard using double the
volume of ceam (in relation to milk)
Sauce: Rich hollandaise sauce flavored with cray fish puree and
The city in Spain was famous for its ham and pork and products.
It is said mayonnaise was first spelled bayonnaise, and Spain claims
mayonnaise as one of her culinary creations.
Canapé: a circle of rye toast heaped with minced ham.
Poulet sauté: young chicken fried with chopped ham,
stewed in brown sauce and served with boiled rice.
From the province of Bearn in the French Pyrenees.
Sauce: Bearnaise is named by the chef of Henry IV
at St. Germain who first introduced this sauce .Yolks of eggs
warmed in double boiler, with chopped shallots and herbs, with
added piece by piece until the sauce is as thick as mayonnaise,
lemon juice and cayenne pepper added.
Chauteaubriand: Double fillet of beef, brushed with olive oil,
broiled, garnished, with watercress and served with sauce
Marquis de Bechamel, a courtier in the service of the king
Louis XIV said to have invented Bechamel sauce.
Lobster: diced and mixed with béchamel returned to shell and
Sauce: Rich creamy white sauce made of flour and butter roux and
milk, seasoned with salt, pepper, mace and bay leaf.
Artichokes: boiled artichokes served with béchamel sauce.
22. BELLE HELENE
Presumably named for the opera, ‘Belle Helene’ by Offenbach
and produced 1864.
Tournedos de boeuf: small fillets of, grilled and garnished with
straw potatoes, watercress and artichoke bottoms filled with
Desserts: fresh fruits like pears, peaches stewed in vanilla
flavored sugar syrup. When cold placed on ice cream and
covered with rich glossy chocolate sauce garnished with
whipped cream and nuts.
23. BEL PAESE
A rich creamy cheese of Italian origin having a mild flavor,
weighing 2-3lbs each.
It is a suburb and market of Paris
Potage: Puree of spring turnips thickened with cream and egg yolk.
Sauce: Thin, meat glaze with chopped shallots reduced in white
wine and enriched with fresh butter, lemon juice and chopped
Sole: Rolled fillets of fish, cooked under cover in butter with
chopped shallots, mushroom liquor, white wine and chopped parsley
masked with bercy sauce.
A bitter Seville orange from Spain.
Canard sauvage: wild duck served with orange salad and sauce
Sauce: Gravy from duck, reduced with fine shreds of orange and
flavoured with orange juice and little red currant jelly.
In the style of Bologna, a city in Italy famous for its
Spaghetti: cooked in salted water, strained combined with
diced/minced beef tossed in butter with minced onions
moistened with veal stock, flavored with garlic and tomato.
27. BONNE FEMME
(Good Woman) - Housewife style.
Potage; Thick white bean and chicken soup with julienne of
vegetables (leeks, sorrel, carrots and turnips)
Sauce: creamy white sauce made with finely chopped mushrooms
and shallots, blended with butter, seasoned and thickened with
cream and egg yolk and flavored with white wine.
Sole: Poached fillets of sole, cooked with chopped shallots,
mushroom, parsley, fish stock and white wine. Masked with fish
veloute and browned.
Poulet sauté: young chicken sautéed with rich gravy reduced with
white wine, garnished with diced bacon and button onions.
28. BORDELAISE (a la)
In the style of the city of Bordeaux.
Sauce: Rich brown sauce, reduced with red wine and chopped
shallots, tarragon, and parsley.
29. BOUDIN NOIR
Traditional grilled, blood sausage for the festivities
on Christmas Eve in Germany (Alsace).
30. BOUILLI A BAISSE
A Provencal word indicates to boil and then stop.
Bouillabaise - A Mediterranean fish stew of several kinds of
fish cut in to small pieces and tossed in oil with chopped herbs
and onions moistened with white wine seasoned with saffron,
tomatoes and garlic,garnished with chopped parsley. Very
popular with fishermen on the water front in Marseillaise who
prepare this for a late breakfast with the leftovers of morning
31. BOUILLON (Stock)
Broth, principally of beef
32. BOUQUETIERE (A LA)
In the manner of flower girls, usually a garnish consisting
Of small fine vegetables dressed in small heaps around the meat
Name of a family of French Rulers.
Consomme: Chicken consommé thickened with tapioca garnished
with truffles cut into fancy shapes (hearts, diamonds, crescent
and finely chopped chervil.
Burgundy style: As a rule dishes in the preparation of which
burgundy wine is added
Sauce Espagnole: Sauce flavored with finely minced shallots,
Thyme, parsley, tarragon and mace. Burgundy wine is usually
Garniture for joint (roasts) – Button mushrooms and onions
tossed in butter with small dices of lean bacon and burgundy wine.
Style of Bresse the French Provencal District famous for its
fattened chicken. Poulardes des Bresse.
Crème: cream of pumpkin soup, garnished with mezzanelli
(italian pasta) and enriched with cream.
36. BRILLAT- SAVARIN
Noted French gastronome and author of French works, chiefly
famous for his book “La Physiologie du Gout” (the physiology
of taste). The well known light, spongy yeast cake made in
ring form is named after him.
Brunoy a district in France celebrated for its spring vegetables
Diced cooked root vegetables for a consommé garnish.
Consommé: a rich beef consommé garnished with small diced
carrots, Leeks, onion, turnip and celery, all browned in a little
butter cooked in consommé.
The highest dignitary in the Roman Catholic Church, after the
As a cardinal wears a distinctive scarlet dress and a scarlet cap,
the kitchen term stands for any dish of that color .Usually lobster
coral plays an important part in fish dishes.
Consommé: Chicken consommé flavored with tomato puree
garnished with finely cut julienne of vegetable strips of truffles
and lobster dumplings.
Lobster: Cubed lobster mixture mixed with Sauce Americaine and
filled in lobster shells, sprinkled with cheese and breadcrumbs and
browned in the oven.
Sauce: rich, white fish sauce blended with pounded lobster coral to
give it a correct colour, flavored with essence of anchovies and
Garniture for fish: diced lobster, truffle, shrimps or prawn and
Dessert: Strawberries, peaches or pears poached in syrup and
dressed on strawberry or raspberry ice cream with raspberry or
strawberry sauce and sprinkled with sliced roasted almonds and
little pistachio nuts.
Antoine Careme (1784-1833) Chef to King George IV and later the
Austrian emperor Francis II and the Russian Czar, Alexander I and
author of many culinary works. Many dishes are named after this
most famous chef.
a) Carmen Sylva was the nom de plume of Elizabeth, Queen of
Romania, born 29th December 1843.
b) Star role in the opera of the same name by Bizet which was first
produced in Paris at the Opera Comedie on 3rd
Consommé-- clear beef consommé well colored with tomato puree
garnished with star shapes of pimento, boiled rice and chervil.
Charlotte mould (tall, straight sided mould) lined with over lapping
and filled with strawberry or raspberry cream, mixed with a little
gelatin and cream.
The Celestines were recognized as a branch of the Benedictines.
Celestine being a monk so named after Pope Celesten. Several
dishes bear this name and are of an exquisite character. St.
Celestine is commemorated on 6th
April each year.
Consommé .Clear broth garnished with shredded pancakes and
City and district of France, famous for its rich cream and fine
Sauce: (a) Hot, rich béchamel sauce blended with lightly whipped
(b)Cold mayonnaise sauce blend with whipped cream
flavored with lemon juice.
In the manner of Pork butcher’s style.
Sauce: Demi glaze mixed with chopped shallots, julienne of
gherkins reduced with white wine, lemon juice, sugar and with
parsley and mustard to finish.
The convent, known as La Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble,
France, former seat of the Carthusian monks. These monks who
were strict vegetarians invented a vegetable composition (liqueur)
usually made and cooked in moulds in a very elaborate way. When
the monks were driven from France, they settled in Spain. From
then, all manner of dishes were given this title including Chartreuse
of meat, game, and poultry. Strictly speaking all dishes bearing the
name Chartreuse should have a vegetable liqueur It is a sweet
liqueur made in Voirens in France, until the monks were turned out
and now made in Spain .The secret of the recipe is closely guarded
Colours: Yellow and Green.
A Chaser, a hunter, hunter’s style from the famous chasseurs of
Light Infantry or cavalry regiments who hunted for their food in
the forest or on mountain heights.
Consommé: a rich clear game soup garnished with game quenelles
made from as many varieties of game as possible.
Sauce: Minced shallots and mushrooms sautéed and reduced with
white wine and demi glaze, chopped parsley.
Poulet sauté : chicken sauté and finished in a casserole in the oven
with tomatoes, brown chicken sauce, sliced mushrooms, chopped
shallots and sprinkled with chopped parsley.
Castle, feudal fortress, stronghold; also wine growing
establishments with vineyards.
Chateau potatoes are quartered potatoes with all sharp corners
rounded off and cooked for a few minutes in butter in a sauce pan
and then roasted in an oven used extensively to garnish roast
Vicomte Francois Auguste Chateaubriand was born at St. Malo on
14.9.1763 died 4thjuly 1848. French author and a great gourmet.
The favorite dish of a double fillet steak or the head of the
tenderloin, is named after him. Chef Montmireil (chef to Vicomte
de Chateaubriand) formed a pocket in a thick tenderloin steak to
stuff it with chopped shallots and bone marrow. English cooks
would sandwich their rump steaks with sliced shallots .The double
fillet of beef is now served in so many different ways. The original
Chateubriand as invented by Chef Montmireil was slit and filled
with chopped shallots tossed in a pan with bone marrow to which
was added meat glaze chopped chives, seasoned with cayenne and
Sauce: Rich brown sauce made with well reduced stock to half glaze
enriched with butter and flavored with lemon juice, red currant
jelly, cayenne pepper and chopped parsley.
49. CHAUD –FROID
It is considered that the prototype of chaud-froid was first
introduced by the Marquis de Chaufroix, who called for the cold
bird to be brought back to the table in its congealed sauce and
approved of it in that state.
Sauce (white): This is a masking sauce made with well reduced
veloute blended with sufficient dissolved gelatin or aspic to set the
sauce when cold.
Sauce (brown) well reduced brown meat or game sauce treated as
above .Also available in red (tomato), green (spinach).
Chiffon means rag .Literally vegetables in rags –long shreds of
Leafy vegetables such as cress, lettuce and spinach
Consommé-clarified soup, garnished with finely shredded lettuce
leaves spring onion heads and other such vegetables, seasoned with
mint leaves and tarragon.
Consommé –clear beef consommé garnished with fried onion rings
and custard royale.
Large quantities of this famous Scottish soup were consumed at
the Burns centenary festival at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham in
1859. It is hard to trace the origin of this soup .Some say it
originated from the days of cock fighting, the defeated cock being
thrown in the pot,with leeks to give added flavor .This soup was
then handed around with parts of the bird, to the spectators.
.Another version is that in olden times when the cock had passed
its youth, the last purpose it served was the feast of “ The Cock
A Leekie”. However it was and still is a grand dish .This soup is
also claimed to be from Wales whose emblem is the leek.
Two famous dishes Sole a la Colbert and Consommé a la Colbert are
in constant demand .The sole is named after Charles Colbert De
Croissy, famous French diplomat while the delicious soup is named
after Jean Baptiste Colbert, a statesman of France in the reign of
Louis XIV. The consommé is distinguished by being garnished with
poached eggs while the sole is noted for its stuffing of Maitre d’
hotel butter being placed inside before being sent to the table.
Colbert butter: Maitre d’hotel butter mixed with a little meat
glaze and chopped tarragon/parsley.
Colbert sauce: Rich thin brown sauce and finely chopped herbs and
Consommé: Clear beef soup garnished with lightly poached egg.
Sole: Whole sole carefully opened along centre and backbone
removed .Egg washed, crumbed and fried, stuff space with Colbert
Alexander Etienne Choron, born at Caen, France on 21st
1771, died in Paris 29th June 1834.
A French composer whose name is often confused with Chorin or
Sauce Choron: Bearnaise sauce blended with a good concentrate of
1) Name of some twenty villages in France.
2) Also an old French Family, Prince Louis de Conde.
Dessert fruits like apricots, pineapple, peaches or pears,
poached in syrup, and dressed on a bed of creamed rice,
coated with an appropriate fruit sauce and decorated with
preserved cherries and angelica and served hot or cold .
Was the site of an important battle fought by Napoleon.
City and district of France, use of carrots
Puree: of young carrots thickened with barley.
Consommé: rich beef consommé garnished with julienne of carrots.
Juice of Apple both fermented and unfermented. The flavor and
general quality of all types of cider depends on fruit and skin used
in preparation. Hard cider is that which has been fermented until
the sugars have changed to alcohol. It is a fermented drink with an
apple base; it is refreshing and less alcoholic than wine.
Special apples are used –sweet acid and tart . A good syrup is made
with 1/3 sweet and 2/3 sour and acidic apples.
The name of fine red wines from Bordeaux .The excellence of
claret and the reason why it may rightly claim precedence over all
other red wines is that it is harmonious and natural of all.
59. DAME BLANCHE
1. French white Bordeaux wine
2. “White Lady” - A comic Opera.
3. Dame is the English legal designation, of the wife or the widow
of a baronet.
Only dishes white in color should bear this name.
Bombe - lined outside with vanilla ice cream and inside filled with
almond paste garnished with whipped vanilla cream and spun sugar.
Consommé: chicken consommé garnished with diced chicken breast
and almond flavored royale
Crème – chicken veloute garnished with sago and diced chicken
Ancient term for a Provencal dish of braised meat or poultry.
A ‘pot roast’ or a meat stews, braised en daube, that is, in a stew
pot, more or less hermetically sealed.
The old way was to seal the edges of lid of the pot with stiff dough
of flour and water which when baked was discarded.
Daubiere: A special saucepan in which meat en daube is cooked.
The part of France which comprised the duchy of the kings eldest
son when France was a kingdom, especially under the Valois and
Consommé: Chicken consommé with a garnish of asparagus tips,
tarragon leaves and royale cut in fancy shapes.
Potatoes: Duchesse potatoes mixture mixed choux paste, shaped in
walnut size balls and deep fried.
Foods sprinkled with grated Swiss cheese and butter and baked
63. DIABLE, A LA
Devil – devilled, a slightly spiced dish, sharp highly seasoned and
accompanied with sauce diable
Diablotins: Small Dumplings, strongly spiced mixture with grated
cheese, broiled / browned under grill. Used as an appetizer or soup
Sauce: Chopped shallots sauté, reduce in vinegar, plus demi glaze,
red wine, Worcestershire sauce and cayenne pepper.
Roman goddess of the moon and of hunting, identified with bows
and arrows and crescents. Any game preparation garnished with
crescent shaped croutons.
In the style of Dieppe, a coastal city of northern France, seafood
Crème: Rich fish veloute, garnished with shrimp tails, mussels,
sliced mushrooms finished with cream.
Garnish: Shrimp tails, mussels and mushrooms rich fish veloute
Poulet sauté Forestiere: chicken jointed and sautéed in butter,
add sliced mushrooms, diced shallots and swill the pan with white
wine and well reduced meat glaze; coat with the sauce and
garnish with rolls of grilled bacon and parmentier potatoes.
67. A LA FRANCAISE
French style – term applied to a number of French dishes cooked
and prepared in a simple manner and chiefly denotes a style of the
district in which the chef or cook originally lived.
a) Sole a la Francaise: whole or filleted sole dipped in milk and
flour, fried and served with tomato and anchovy sauce.
b) Cotelettes d’agneau a la francaise- breaded lamb cutlets, fried
in butter garnished with mixed garden vegetables and sauce
The art of French Hospitality was introduced in France by
Catherine de Medici during the early 16th
century .This art was
soon developed by the French cooks whose imaginative and
creative ability brought some improvements upon the Italians
heavier way of preparing dishes. Most of the French dishes bore
the name of some saint, some mythical God or some Italian event or
celebrity and these show marked evidence of having been created
in some other country other than France. Gradually even actresses,
actors, singers and poets have all been honored by great French
chefs. Dame Nelly Melba has her name perpetuated for all times
by that still popular dish - Peach Melba.
1. Famous Italian patriot born in Nice, 4th
July 1807, died at
Capeira , 2nd
2. Guisieppe Garibaldi an Italian general of world war I,
born in Melbourne , 29th
July 1879. Grandson of the Italian
Consomme Garibaldi – chicken consommé thickened with
cooked spaghetti and garnished with chives cut julienne style.
Serve grated cheese separately.
Sauce Garibaldi- A rich brown sauce flavored with garlic, curry,
capers, mustard and anchovy paste - served with fish or meat.
Pertaining to the Italian city of Genoa. In the style of Genoa as
practiced by the French cooks. It was the name of a sauce served
only with fish coated in court bouillon. In confectionery, cakes
made from a genoise mixture are called “Genoise Sponge”
Greek pertaining to the Greek style as practiced by the fish
cooks, dishes a la grecque should be of Greek origin in the
method of preparation but in practice this is seldom the case
though it sometimes happens that a dish called a la grecque on
a restaurant menu is of Greek origin. More often the name is given
to dishes of French origin
Potage a la Grecque – puree of peas cooked in mutton broth
garnished with vegetables cut julienne style.
Many favorite foods are of German origin specially Frankfurters
and Hamburgers .The Germans are fond of cooking many foods
sweet and sour; a combination of fruit, sugar, and spices. Lemon
and raisins often give the desired sweet and sour flavor .
German cooks are meticulous and often follow their own methods
in preparing and cooking traditional dishes of their country .To
Germany, we owe a way of treating vegetables (especially
cabbage) which makes them palatable and tasty.
1. Name of a long line of Earls and Dukes dating back to 1121.It
would be correct to feature dishes so named on the birthday of
the present duke.
2.A port city and country town - Gloucestershire, England .
Sauce Gloucester: mayonnaise sauce mixed with sour cream,
chopped tarragon and flavored with chilly vinegar, mustard .
Gloucester Royal Pie- This was a pie made in olden times of
These pies were richly decorated with gilded ornaments and often
with banners bearing the Gloucester court of arms .
1. Giovanni Francesco, Italian architect painter and
engraver, born at Bolgna, 18th
2. Joseph Grimaldi, noted actor born 18th
Consomme Grimaldi- clear beef broth flavoured with tomato and
garnished with celeriac cut julienne style.
Sole Grimaldi - rolled or folded fillets, poached and dressed
in a casserole on a bed of cooked spaghetti coated with
Nantua sauce and topped with sliced truffle.
Haggis can be regarded as the national dish of Scotland. When
this dish is served at certain large banquets in Scotland, it is
accompanied by an escort of pipers while paying homage to their
national poet, Robert Burns. The Scots have Haggis served and
presented with due pomp and ceremony .It is carried in to the
room by a servant who is proceeded by a piper and it is
customary to drink whisky, whilst eating .The dish consist of
thymus gland stuffed with a mixture of stuffed offal and oats,
and then baked .
In the early part of the 18th
century France obtained its best beef
from the Triesian plains via Hamburg, a sea port of Germany. The
animals were driven in herds over the roads of Europe. The
delicious hamburger steaks have now become world famous.
Hamburger Steaks: Finely minced beef steak seasoned with salt ,
pepper, nutmeg, mixed with raw egg, shaped like a noisette,
floured and fried in butter, garnished with fried onion and fried
egg placed on top.
77. HOLLANDAISE, A LA
In the style of the Netherlands, as practiced by the French cooks,
Dutch cookery is closely related to that of Belgium. Being a
country of rich pasture land, there is an abundance of high quality dairy
products specially cheese, which represents one of the countries largest
exports. Holland is a country equally devoted to stock farming and
fishing, so the Dutch table features a wide variety of characteristics
and salted and smoked fish. Herring is the staple food of the Dutch
Hungarian, in the Hungarian style as practiced by the French
Dishes prepared a la Hongroise are cooked in a cream sauce
seasoned with paprika.
1. Entrecote a la Hongroise --- Beef steak cooked in butter,
cooked with hongroise sauce ( veloute blended with sour
cream and white wine flavoured well with paprika ) and garnish
79. INDIENNE A LA
Indian style as practiced by the French cooks
Croquettes a l’indienne: lobster and rice, seasoned with curry
powder shaped into croquettes then fried and served with curry
Potage a l’indienne—Mulligatawny soup with addition of coconut milk
and cooked rice.
Italian style as practiced by the French cooks. A name given to
dishes made of meat, poultry, fish and vegetables .All these
dishes contain finely chopped mushrooms .The name l’italienne is
also given to method of preparing macaroni or other pastas .
Italian cuisine is one of the oldest in Europe .It is derived from
Greek Gourmet tradition, these being derived in their turn from
oriental cuisine .Choose any ordinary Italian dish and it is a
replica of one that was once enjoyed by gourmands reclining on
their balconies in ancient Rome.
Italian Polenta is same as the pulse that the Romans prepared en
route, when they set out to conquer the world .They toasted grains
of wheat, crushed them and made a gruel from the result. The only
difference is the polenta is now made from coarse maize flour.
Italian cuisine is considered the mother of all European cuisines.
Garden gardeners style with a variety of vegetables , name given
to a garnish made of fresh vegetables –carrots and turnips
(shaped with a plain or fluted ball scoop, cut with a hollow tubular
cutter or diced ) green peas, small kidney beans, french beans
diced or cut into lozenges, cauliflower . The vegetables are cooked
separately, some boiled, others glazed .They are arranged around
the main dish in separate groups. This garnish is served with roast,
stewed or braised meats and pot roasted poultry.
Consommé Jardinière: clear soup garnished with a variety of
cooked garden vegetables.
Jean Julich was a noted French chef who first made a clear
vegetable soup in 1785 with vegetables cut in strips .The name is
now applied to all vegetable garnishes cut in this manner.
Made of sheets of fresh dough, Lasagna is an Italian pasta
prepared in any of the ways as given for macaroni and noodles.
Lasagna Lisci and Lasagna Ricci are lasagna with both sides
grooved in waves .The above name are given to soups containing
these pastas as a garnish. Now flavored with spinach (green)
tomato (red/pink) and squid ink (black) lending a wide variety.
A Parisian woman of the better class, a glamorous woman.
Potatoes: Mashed and creamed, mixed with choux pastry, moulded
into crescents and fried in deep fat.
Province of Alsace – Lorraine.
District of high gastronomic repute. Here the connoisseur of good
cooking will savor many succulent dishes and will find white, rose
and red wines all delightful. Though some are more fragrant than
others, the dishes of Lorraine are for the most part substantial;
heading the list of culinary specialties of what was once an ancient
province. The Quiche Lorraine is perhaps its most famous dish.
Lyons , city of France , in the style of pertaining to Lyons .The
Lyonnaise district has an abundance of good quality potatoes as
well as excellent onions such as those of Roanne which are used
in the preparation of a large number of special dishes.
Pertaining to the island of Malta.
Potage Maltaise – A thin veal soup with a garnish diced oranges a
little shredded capsicum, chillies and very small julienne of orange
Ris-de Veau Maltaise — braised with béarnaise sauce decorated
with the Maltese cross in Forcemeat.
Sauce maltaise - hollandaise + blood orange juice
The French form of Mandarin is a small orange from which liqueur
Glace Mandarin—Fill the shells of mandarin oranges with orange ice
topped with Meringue and baked quickly.
North Italian village where the famous battle of Marengo was
fought on 14th
June 1820 between Napoleon Bonaparte and the
Austrians which victory was perpetuated by chef Dunard,
Napoleon’s chef; by his creation of a chicken dish on the battle
field itself .
Poulet sauté Marengo. It is characterized by a garnish of crayfish
tails, poached egg on heart shaped croutons and parsley.
Stock pot , metal or Earthen ware , covered pot with or without
feet depending on whether it is used for cooking in the hearth or
on the stove .
Petit marmite—Name of a clear savory broth , a type of hot pot
cooked and served in an earthenware pot .This broth was
invented in Paris and is much prized by gourmets.
One of the original 13 states of U S A famous for its culinary
Chicken Maryland -- Crumb fried joints, garnished with corn
fritters, bacon rashers, grilled tomato and fried plantains.
Speculation says that this sauce was invented by chef to the Duke
Richelieu after the victory of MAHON ( Mahonnaise). Others are
convinced that Spain should be given credit for its origin.
Mayonnaise is probably a corruption of Moyeeinoise derived from
the old French word Moyeau which means egg yolk.
Basically, it is a cold sauce with the basic ingredients of egg yolks
and oil blended into an emulsion.
Dame Nelly Melba a British Operatic Soprano. Her real name was
Helen Porter Mitchell. She adopted the stage name Melba as she
was a native of Melbourne Australia.
Peach Melba: Scoops of vanilla ice cream topped with poached
peach halves and glazed with raspberry jam/sauce.
Small patisserie made from egg white and sugar. It is said that the
dish was invented in 1720 by a Swiss pastry cook called Gasparine
who practiced his art in Meringham, a small town in the province of
Saxe- Coburg. Until the beginning of the 19th
were shaped in a spoon as the pastry forcing bag had not yet
been invented .
Miller, Miller’s wife’s style
Method of cooking fish which is seasoned lightly, floured and fried
in butter. To serve, squeeze a few drops of lemon juice and cover
it. Sprinkle with parsley and pour on the cooking butter piping hot.
e.g. Sole meuniere.
Pertaining to the Republic of Mexico, in the Mexican style as
prepared by the French chefs.
Potage Mexican - Puree of tomato soup with seasoned consommé.
Poulet sauté Mexicaine: Mushrooms capsicum and tomato (garnish).
Small and delicate
Potatoes: cut thicker than match potatoes (alumettes) and cooked
the same way.
In the style of Milan, an Italian city. The usual garnish is spaghetti
with shredded tongue, truffles and mushrooms blended with a
puree of tomato and sprinkled with grated Parmesan cheese.
Breaded meats have grated cheese mixed with bread crumbs and
served with tomato sauce.
Choufleur Milanese—cooked buds of cauliflower sauté in butter,
with grated cheese, buttered and baked.
Soufflé Milanese: lemon flavored soufflé, coated with biscuit
crumbs and spiked with pistachio nuts.
99. MILLE FEUILLE
“Thousand Leaves” puff paste - a pastry very much in vogue in
Paris. It is made by arranging thin layers of flaky pastry one on top
of the other with layers of cream or some other filling in
between. Mille Feuille can be baked in the form of a large sweet
decorated in various ways; or as in Paris Patisseries in small
individual portions by cutting the flaky pastry in pieces 5cm
wide and laying them one on top of the other sandwiched as
60 seconds – something small or short a la minute - hurriedly
prepared sole and other such fish when filleted are cooked
Minute Tenderloins – These are 4- 5 oz size, cut thin and sautéed
with minced shallots and herbs.
Pommes minute: diced and fried.
Duc de, French Noble Family.
Foundation ingredients of most brown soups, sauces and the first
step in braising, being the preparation of the fat, aromatic
vegetables, herbs etc… sauté to gain a brown color.
1. Phillip De Plessis Mornay, French Protestant, born 5th
2. Name given to a rich creamy sauce loaded with Parmesan
Sole Mornay – Poached and coated with Mornay Sauce and
A town in France
Sauce: Bechamel reduced with rich fish fumet, finished with
crayfish or prawn butter.
Garniture for fish – Crayfish (or Prawns) tails with nantua sauce
and slices of truffle.
Omelets – filled with chicken and truffle salpicon & sauce nantua.
In the style of Naples city of Southern Italy often applied to
dishes containing 3 distinct colors – red, white and green…the
colors of the Italian flag..
Consommé: Clear game soup garnished with shreds of ham and
celery and a generous amount of Macaroni.
Sauce: Brown sauce reduced with claret and red currant jelly
with minced ham shallots grated horseradish flavored with bay
leaf, cloves and thyme.
Glace – Ice cream layered in 3 distinct colors and flavors in
oblong moulds and cut into oblong slices.
Pertaining to the great town of Navarine in Italy, the scene of a
battle on 20th
Navarin Printanier – A rich brown lamb or mutton stew with
carrots, turnips and potatoes.
In the style of Nice, city of southern France.
Consommé – Consommé with vermicelli and peeled tomatoes cut in
small squares. Bring to a boil, serve grated cheese separately
Sauce: Demi glace and tomato Puree.
Garniture for fish - chopped tomatoes sautéed with garlic, Lemon
slices and anchovy fillets topped with capers.
Salad – French beans, tomatoes, potatoes, olives and anchovy
Hazelnut. Also term, applied to small, round, boneless, fatless
pieces of meat such as small loins of lamb, rolled, thin cuts into
a. Butter – Clarified butter browned hazelnut color
b. Sauce – supreme sauce, noisette butter, pounded
c. Potatoes - small hazelnut sized potatoes, sautéed in
butter or fried in deep fat to golden yellow.
In the style of Normandy, north western province of France,
Chief characteristics of fish dishes being mussels, oysters and
shrimps with apples featured in most meat, poultry and game
Sauce: white sauce finished with egg yolks and butter flavored
with lemon juice reduced cream.
Potatoes: Sliced, cooked in casserole with milk, onions and leeks
browned on top under a grill.
Pertaining to the Oriental, Eastern Style.
Consommé: Carrots and turnips shaped like half moons, boiled,
served hot in consommé with plain boiled rice.
Sauce: Sauce Americaine, with diced onion sauté lightly and
flavored with curry.
Bernard van Orly, noted Flemish painter. Fish or meat coated
with rice egg batter, fried in deep fat and usually served with
tangy tomato sauce.
Sauce – rich white sauce blended with meat extract and loaded
with tomato puree.
Pertaining to Palus, the low lying vine yards of Gironde is France
producing the cheaper types of carrots.
Sauce – Bearnaise sauce with an infusion of fresh mint.
In the style of Paris, dishes usually dressed elaborately
a. Consommé – Garnish of vegetables white leeks and
b. Sauce – Rich brown sauce with chopped parsley and
shallots, Madeira and meat glaze with fresh butter
c. Potatoes – Marble size potatoes, sautéed in butter
sprinkle and chopped herbs.
Chicken Sauté – jointed chicken sautéed in butter, seasoned with
done, cooked in tomato sauce with fresh sliced mushrooms for 2
minutes. Serve Chicken dressed on a platter cover with sauce and
garnish with Macaroni in cream.
Antoine Augustin (1737-1813) French agriculturist, writer and
food expert. In 1786, he introduced the potato to France and
created many styles of cooking this tuber.
Potatoes – Cut into large diced blanched and cooked in casserole
with butter and chopped parsley.
Cheese made in Parma, Italy, from cow’s milk, very hard, used as
a garnish/topping for many Italian pasta dishes, soup and chicken
for which it is a proper partner.
In the peasant style, farmer’s wife style. Usually dishes prepared
in a pot or casserole with onions, salt pork, and artichoke
Potatoes – Sliced smothered and chopped onions, sorrel, chervil
and baked in the oven with pork drippings.
115. PERIGOURDINE / A LA PERIGORD
Pertaining to Perigord, in France. Dishes finished with truffles
from that district.
Sauce: Perigourdine – Demi glace with foie gras puree. Garnished
with slices of Truffles.
A piquant pepper sauce.
Sauce – a brown pepper sauce, flavored with ham, onions, celery,
bay leaf, and thyme, reduced with vinegar and black pepper.
Polish style as practiced by French chefs.
Sauce – Veloute with sour cream, chopped fennel, lemon juice and
grated horse radish.
Jeanne Antoinette Poison Le Normand D’etrores, Marquis De
Pompadour. Mistress of Louis the XV of France, born 29th
December 1721 had a great influence in the politics of France.
Consommé – Chicken Consommé garnished with turnips and
carrots, pink, green and plain royal, fancily cut.
Salad – Sprigs of cooked cauliflower, sliced potatoes, celeriac,
seasoned with celery salt.
Sauce - Allemande or Veloute with slightly cooked minced
shallots, cream, egg yolks chopped mushrooms and parsley.
Porter House steak – A thick Steak cut from the middle of the
ribs of beef ½” – 2” thick.
Consommé – A rich clear beef soup with stoned and halved
prunes, diced ripe tomatoes and strips of leeks.
Sauce – Tomato sauce reduced with rich veal gravy, flavored with
garlic and onion and chopped parsley.
Garniture – small stuffed tomatoes, chateau Potatoes with
Name of a very popular velvet like sauce made with an egg liaison.
Sauce – rich white sauce flavored with herbs thickened with egg
yolks and fresh butter, finished with lemon juice and chopped
PRINCE, PRINCESSE, PRINCIERRE (Prince, Princess, Princely)
Consommé – Clear chicken broth garnished with diced chicken and
Sauce – White fish sauce, enriched with crayfish, butter, finely
shredded crayfish and truffles.
124. PRINTANIER, A LA PRINTANIERE, PRINTEMPS
Spring like, spring, spring time.
Potage Printanier – Soup made of spring vegetables.
Consommé - A clear soup garnished with spring vegetables which
may be ball shaped or cut finely.
Sauce – Rich Veloute and puree of green vegetables with finely
cubed green vegetables.
Of Provence, formally a maritime province of France. A la
Provencale in the style of that region usually implies that garlic,
olive oil and tomatoes have been used.
The word is believed to stem from Mala tafia, a spirit of liqueur
made from cane sugar. This has taken on certain occasions to
ratify a treaty or agreement. The drink is now a light liqueur with
a slightly bitter almond flavor.
127. RAVIGOTTE, RAVIGOTER:
To revive, refresh
Sauce (hot) white sauce flavored with fine herbs reduced with
white wine and vinegar and finished with butter and cream.
Sauce (Cold) a spicy mayonnaise colored green with spinach puree
mixed with finely chopped chives, parsley and tarragon.
After the style of the famous Reform Club where Alexis Soyer
was the chef.
Garnished for cutlets and entrees – julienne of ham, tongue,
truffles, boiled white of egg, mushrooms, carrots and beetroot
and gherkins + reform sauce.
Sauce: Poivrade sauce diluted with port wine and red currant
Cardinal Armand Jean Du Plessis De Bonn in Paris.
Consommé – beef consommé garnished chicken quenelles julienne
of carrots and turnips with shredded chervil.
Sauce – Rich brown sauce with Madeira wine and meat extract.
Italian Arborio rice, moistened with broth. Seasoned, steamed in
covered pan without stirring. White wine, butter and grated
cheese are then added.
a. Name of one of the earliest kings of France.
b. King of Naples, son of Charles II
i. Sauce – rich brown sauce and chopped sautéed onions
reduced with chilly vinegar, red wine, and prepared
mustard, spicy and pungent.
ii. Potatoes – Sliced and stewed in Robert sauce or
baked, scooped out pulp flavored with chives shaped
into patties and shallow fried.
In the manner pertaining to Rome.
Potage – chicken stock, rice, onions, carrots, celery, cream
French cheese made from Ewe’s milk which has attained a world
wide reputation. The green mottling develops around bread
crumbs that are used in preparing it.
Gironde Antonio famous Italian Opera composer. Born at Pasio,
friend of Cooks and Maitres d’ Hotel in the cosmopolitan
restaurants of Europe.
Tournedos and Filet Mignons
Italian Method: Sautéed in butter, placed on a lightly fried slice of
bread and garnished with asparagus tips braised white Italian
Truffles and small grilled tomatoes; surrounded with demi glaze.
French Method: The boiled tenderloin is topped with sliced foie
gras tossed in butter, masked with Madeira sauce.
135. ROYAL, ROYALE, A LA ROYALE – REGAL – Kingly Style
Custard royal – Seasoned eggs with milk or Consommé steamed cut
into cubes maybe flavored with / or covered variously with puree
of vegetables, poultry or game.
Consommé – Beef Consommé garnished with plain royale custard.
Russians were real gourmets. They knew how to eat and how to
prepare a dish that was always delicious to the palette. Their
Zakuski is a somewhat elaborate overture in a meal. The famous
Russian Caviar is relished on the French table.
Borscht – Beef Soup cooked with red beets, onions, celery,
cabbage, potatoes and carrots. Served with sour cream.
Blinis – pancakes made from Buckwheat flour served with smoked
sturgeon or salmon and caviar, sour cream and melted butter.
Shashlik Moscow – Loin of pork pickled and broiled on a skewer
before an open fire served with cooked or raw vegetables.
Baklava - Original pastry dough made of dough, honey, nuts, and
Russian Rum Baba – A delicious yeast cake flavored with salt,
sugar, spiced with cinnamon and cooked in rum.
An Italian wine cream or egg punch served as dessert sweet in
glasses and eaten with a spoon. Zabaglione or Zabaione in Italian.
Also refers to a thick consistency obtained by beating egg yolks
and sugar vigorously.
138. ST. GERMAINE
Suburb of Paris where a castle was built by Louis VI, Treaty of
St. Germaine – was signed here.
Crème – Puree of peas and onions, with veal stock, enriched with
cream and egg; garnished with sprigs of fresh mint.
Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, peer and marechal of
Sauce: A rich creamy sauce blended with onion puree seasoned
with sugar, salt, pepper, nutmeg.
Spanish food is highly flavored and colorful with the use of
pimentos and tomatoes. Spaniards claim to have first made
mayonnaise and sauce espagnole. A characteristic feature of
Spanish cooking is a mixture of a number of ingredients in one
dish. Most of their cooking is done in oil as butter is expensive.
Sir Henry Morton, famous British explorer of Africa.
Sauce – Rich cream sauce with grated horseradish and curry
A Viennese desert specialty of wafer thin dough in roll form with
chopped apples, pistachios, raisins, sugar, lemon rind, cinnamon.
a. Highest best quality.
b. The best parts of poultry, breast of chicken.
Sauce – Rich white velvet sauce made from well cleared chicken
broth enriched with cream.
Lobster – Diced lobster mixed with chopped olives, hard boiled
eggs, capers, French dressing, chilled and served on a bed of
chilled lettuce, surround alternately with slices of cucumber and
tomato, garnished with lobster claws.
Said to be the name of the lady friend of a V.I.P.; at the end of
century, during whose visit to a humble Parisian cabaret,
the Crepe Suzette were created in her honor by chef Henry
Crepes – Thin pancake doused in a thick sauce of orange juice,
lemon juice, butter, sugar flavored with rind and orange liqueur
flamed with brandy and served hot.
Name given during the French revolution to the 11th
month of the
year in the republican calendar.
Lobster – Roasted Lobster meat in a cream sauce with shallots,
Parsley, Mustard, Tarragon meat, butter. Arranged in the shell
sprinkled with grated cheese ground in oven.
146. TUTTI FRUTTI
An Italian term used in connection with ice cream where various
kinds of candied fruits are used.
In the manner of Tyrol; an Austrian province in the Alps.
Sauce (Cold) – Tomato Mayonnaise Sauce.
Sauce (Hot) – Rich hollandaise with Tomato Puree.
Giuseppe Fortino Francesco – Famous Italian Operatic composer
and singer. Born in 1913
Sole – Folded fillets, poached in wine, dressed on cooked
macaroni mixed with shreds of truffle and lobster coated with
cheese sauce and glazed.
French form of Veronica, characterized by use of seedless
Sole – Rolled, poached fillets dressed with 3-4 grapes (peeled
and piped) on each and coated with a blend of sauce Hollandaise
and sauce Vin Blanc.
Green Meadow – dishes served with fresh green vegetables.
Garnish for chicken consommé. Green Peas, asparagus tips,
French beans, lettuce, chervil, chicory.
City of France, a noted Spa, Vichy Celestine is a practically
flavourless water and may be used as table water.
Potage - Puree of red carrots with cream liaison.
Carrots – glazed with butter, sugar, salt, parsley in Vichy water.
Southern state of USA noted for its food.
Ham – A fine ham, flat and lean of the “Rapos” Black pig, peanut
fed and chicory smoked.
Chicken – Sauté fillets in butter moistened with cream; braise to
finish. Serve on a slice of Virginia ham, and corn fritters garnish.
One of New York’s famous Hotels. The Waldorf Astoria, the old
Waldorf having being names after the village of Waldorf near
Salad – Juliennes of celery, diced apples, mixed with mayonnaise,
set on a bed of lettuce, sprinkled with chopped walnuts.
Eggs – Poached eggs on a canapé spread with foie gras and a
mushroom on top. Served with Madeira sauce and truffles.
Tomato: filled with Waldorf salad.
154. WALEWASKI, WALEVSKA
Polish Countess, the mistress of Napoleon I; bore him a son who
then become Count Walewaski, French politician, diplomat and
Sole - Poached folded fillets, dressed on a ragout of sliced
lobster, mushroom and truffle, blended with lobster sauce,
coated with cheese sauce and glazed under the salamander.
Omelets – Stuffed with diced lobster, truffles, caviar.
Arthur Wellesley, first Duke of Wellington famous for victory
over Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo in June 1815.
Beef – Seasoned beef wrapped in pate, duxelle and puff pastry.
Baked and sliced and served with Madeira sauce.