Chapter 23 bread improevrs


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Chapter 23 bread improevrs

  1. 1. Chapter 23: BREAD IMPROVERS We refer to flour as being either strong or weak. The strength of flour varies according to its strength and also according to factors such as starch content, sugar content, the water absorption power (WAP) of the flour and even the color. These aspects will affect the final outcome. In order to make good bread, it is not always possible to use the right type of flour as the availability may vary. It becomes necessary therefore to add something to the dough in order to bring the product to a pre determined standard. This addition should be with discretion on knowledge, otherwise, the quality of the bread instead of improving, may actually worsen. Bread improvers are substances, which when added to dough, enables the baker to produce an improved loaf with better keeping qualities, finer textures, softer crumb, added bloom and enhanced flavor. There are three main types of bread improvers: 1. Mineral additives 2. Yeast foods 3. Enriching agents MINERAL ADDITIVES Mineral bread improvers are used during the milling of wheat flour. They are commonly used by the baker during production as well. They will include: - Perusulphates – used by the miller at the rate of ¼ to ½ oz per 280 lbs (one sack). The perusulphates used are pottassium and ammonium. Flour treated with perusulphates will take on more water and an increased yield is obtained.
  2. 2. - Glyceral Mono Stearate - The mono glyceral ester of stearic acid which has remarkable emulsifying power, is used as an emulsion stabiliser and as a crumb softener in bread. - Potassium Bromate – It is used by the miller at the rate of 1 lb per sack (280 lbs). Bromate increases the stability on the gluten to extend. Bromate has an astringent action on gluten thereby increasing the use of water in the dough. It also increases the gas retaining properties of the gluten, thus improving loaf volume. - Phosphates – Acid calcium phosphates and ammonium phosphates both have a tightening action on gluten and since phosphates are a necessary constituent of yeast food, they are both fermented stimulants. Acid calcium phosphate (ACP) is used at the rate of 1 lb per sack(280lbs) which can be increased to 2 lbs per sack to inhibit the development of rope. A phosphate is added at the rate of 8 oz per sack. - Lime Water – Lime water was used to retard the fermentation of the dough in hot weather climates. In addition, it has astringent action on the gluten. As lime is alkaline, it reduces the acidity of the dough and thus slows the rate of the fermentation. It is used at the rate of 1 quart per sack. - Organic acid – Organic acids are natural constituents of fermented dough. They are added to get the dough better conditioned. Lactic acid can be added at the rate of 8 oz per sack. Sussinic acid is added at the rate of 2-4 oz per sack.
  3. 3. YEAST FOODS Yeast foods indirectly affect the bread in a number of ways by their effect on fermentation. Malt not only provides food directly to the yeast but manufactures further supplies as and when needed whilst simultaneously mellowing and softening the gluten of the flour. There are two types of malt: diastatic and non diastatic. Diastatic malt add to the flavor, it increases the sugar content in the dough and provides diastatic sugar for the fermentation process. Diastatic enzymes also contain proolytic enzymes which modify gluten. Non Diastatic malt serves the dual purpose of providing sugar as well as adding to the flavor. Flour contains natural sugar. Principally, this is sucrose in varying amounts. Normally, it is 2.5 –3%. This amount is not sufficient for satisfactory fermentation. There must be sufficient sugar present for the production of gas that will give the loaf the required volume and to allow for the caramelization of the crust during baking. As sugar contains no nitrogen, they cannot be considered complete foods for yeast, but they produce material from which CO2 can be produced. Demerara sugar and even treacle can be used in brown breads as they are excellent for imparting flavor and retaining color.
  4. 4. ENRICHING AGENTS Enrichment is a way of increasing nutritional value of the bread along with improvements in volume, texture and the keeping quality of the bread Fats - Fats have a physical rather than a chemical effect on dough. As fat is a shortening agent, it reduces toughness, thus making the product more mellow. It is particularly valuable for use with strong flour with a tough and harsh gluten content. Fats can be used in small quantities to give optimum effect. Fat also increases food value. They add to the moistness in bread thereby retarding staling. They also impart flavor to the bread. Milk and Milk Products - Whole milk added to dough has the effect of adding fat as well as sugar, besides calcium salts and casein. Eggs – The incorporation of eggs in a bread dough results in many improvements. Egg adds to the increased volume, better texture and better oven spring. It is economical to use as it contributes immensely to improved quality and volume of the product. Vernon Coelho Ihm Mumbai 2008-09