India on the Path to Disaster Resilience

NDMA Tableau during Republic Day Parade, 2009

GENESIS                                                                                                                   ...
Mainstreaming disaster management into developmental planning process.
vplace a streamlined institutional techno-legal f...
Structural Measures                                                                                                       ...
  Component-A: Improvement of early warning dissemination system.                                                       ...
Mock Drills and Exercises
v been coordinating mock exercises in the States, in cooperation with State Governments and othe...
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  1. 1. India on the Path to Disaster Resilience NDMA Tableau during Republic Day Parade, 2009 Designed & Printed by Pamm Advertising & Marketing National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) AN R M AGE TE AN R M AGE National Disaster Management Authority M TE S EN M AL DISA S EN AL DISA T AUTHOR NDMA Bhawan, A-1, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi-110029, India T AUTHOR Government of India ON ON TI IT TI IT NA Y Phones: +91-11-26701700 Fax: +91-11-26701729 NA INDIA Y SEP 2009 INDIA NDMA Control Room: +91-11-26701728
  2. 2. GENESIS NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY On 23rd December 2005, the Government of India took a defining step by piloting the enactment of the Disaster CHAIRMAN Management Act 2005, which envisaged the creation of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), VICE CHAIRMAN headed by the Prime Minister of India, State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by the Chief Ministers, and District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed by District Collectors and Co-chaired by the elected representatives of the local authorities, to spearhead and implement a holistic and integrated approach to disaster LT GEN(Retd) Dr. J R BHARDWAJ MEMBER Shri B BHATTACHARJEE MEMBER Dr MOHAN KANDA MEMBER Prof N V C MENON MEMBER Smt. P JYOTI RAO MEMBER Shri M S REDDY MEMBER Shri K M SINGH MEMBER Shri J K SINHA MEMBER • Chemical • Nuclear • National Policy • Earthquakes • Community • Cyclones • NDRF • Civil Defence management. • Biological • Radiological & Plans • Tsunami • Urban Flooding • Awareness • Fire Services RESPONSIBILITIES Preparedness • Floods • Medical Preparedness • Early Warning & • NGOs • Risk Transfer Generation (Media) • Incident Command System • Avalanches & • Minimum Standards (Insurance) Composition of NDMA • Psycho-Social Care Communications • GIS & IT Landslides • Drought of Relief • Micro Financing • Mitigation Reserve • NCC, NSS & NYKS • Mock Drills Exercises • Microzonation • Corporates Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan West Bengal Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Bihar Gujarat Uttarakhand Punjab Maharashtra Kerala Karnataka Orissa Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh STATES & UTs Delhi Haryana Dadra & Nagar Haveli Sikkim Puducherry Lakshadweep Goa N. E. States A & N Islands Chhattisgarh Chandigarh Daman & Diu Jharkhand Chairman: Shri Anil Bhushan Prasad SECRETARY NDMA Shri Suresh Kumar Sepuri Dr. G.S.G. Ayyangar Advisor (Operations and Communications) Shri Amit Jha Shri Sunil Kumar Kohli Advisor (Policies & Plans) Advisor (Mitigation Projects) (Not Yet Posted) Joint Secretary (Admn. & Capacity Building) Financial Advisor The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was enacted to provide the requisite institutional mechanisms for formulating and monitoring the implementation of the disaster management plans, ensuring measures by various wings of the Government for preventing and mitigating the effects of disasters and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated and prompt response to any disaster situation. National Vision Dr. Manmohan Singh The National Vision is to build a Safer and Disaster Resilient India by developing a Holistic, Proactive, Multi-hazard Hon'ble Prime Minister of India and Technology-Driven strategy for disaster management. This will be achieved through a culture of Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness to generate a prompt and efficient response at the time of disasters. The entire process will centre-stage the communities and will be provided momentum and sustenance through collective efforts of all Vice Chairman: government agencies and non-governmental organizations. Mandate of NDMA v Policy and Guidelines. To lay down v Approve National Disaster Management (DM) Plan and DM Plans of Ministries and Departments of GOI. v To coordinate enforcement and implementation of Policies and Plans. v Superintendence, Direction and Control (including Administrative Control) of the NDRF rest with the NDMA. v To take Measures for Ø Prevention Ø Preparedness Gen N C Vij Ø Development Capacity Ø Mitigation PVSM UYSM AVSM (Retd) Ø Generation Awareness Ø Rehabilitation and Recovery Ø National Executive Committee (NEC) will coordinate the Response on behalf of NDMA. In case Response: of grave disasters, this will be done by the National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) headed by the Cabinet Secretary. NDMA will cover the gaps and coordinate the entire effort. v Areas: Additional The Vice Chairman of the Authority Ø Recommend provision of Funds for the purpose of Mitigation (At National and State Level). has the status of a Union Cabinet Ø Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)- To function under broad guidelines of the NDMA. National Minister and the Members of the Objectives of NDMA Authority have the status of Union The National Vision on DM envisions a paradigm shift from erstwhile Response-Centric approach to the Holistic Management of disasters with emphasis on Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation. Flowing from the National Vision Ministers of State of the Government and the Mandate, as spelt out by the Disaster Management Act 2005, the objectives of NDMA are: of India. v policy and guidelines. Laying down v the plans prepared by Central Ministries and Departments. Approving v the culture of prevention and preparedness. Promoting With the then Hon'ble President of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam v Institutionalizing mitigation measures. 2
  3. 3. v Mainstreaming disaster management into developmental planning process. vplace a streamlined institutional techno-legal framework and ensuring its compliance. Putting in v appropriate early warning systems backed by fail-safe communications and IT support. Developing v partnership with all stakeholders to create greater public awareness on disaster management. Promoting v Ensuring prompt and efficient response with a caring and humane approach. v Ensuring post-disaster reconstruction as an opportunity to build disaster resilient structures, and v recovery to bring back the community to a better and safer level than the pre-disaster stage. Undertaking Paradigm Shift in Disaster Management NDMA has initiated several pioneering steps to bring about a paradigm shift from the, hitherto, post-disaster relief- centric regime to strengthening pre-disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures and coordinating Release of Cyclone Guidelines by the then Release of Biological Disasters Guidelines by the prompt and efficient emergency response. Union Minister for Earth Sciences Shri Kapil Sibal then Union Home Minister Shri Shivraj V. Patil National Disaster Management Policy NDMA has prepared a "National Disaster Management Policy" which has been submitted to the Government of India for approval and release. This Policy document has been circulated to Ministries and Departments of Government of India and State Governments and is likely to be released shortly. National Disaster Management Guidelines Guidelines issued by NDMA v of Civil Defence – December 2006. Revamping v for NIDM – April 2006. Guidelines v – May 2007. Earthquakes Release of the Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies Release of National Guidelines on Landslides and v (Industrial) Disasters – May 2007. Chemical Guidelines by the National Security Advisor Snow Avalanches by Union Minister for v of State DM Plans – August 2007. Formulation Shri M.K. Narayanan Mines Shri B.K. Handique v Medical Preparedness and Mass Casualty Management – November 2007. Guidelines in Progress vJanuary 2008. Floods – v – April 2008. Cyclones By December 2009 v Disasters – August 2008. Biological v Psycho-Social and Mental Health Care. v Tsunami. v Radiological Emergencies (Part I) – February 2009. Nuclear and v Based Disaster Management. Community vManagement System. Incident v and Snow Avalanches - 23 June 2009. Landslides v Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies (Classified). v Drought. v (Terrorism) Disasters Management - 4th August 2009. Chemical Before June 2010 v Role of NGOs in Disaster Management. vPost-Disaster Reconstruction. v of Heritage Monuments. Protection v Disaster Management in Education Curricula. Integrating v Disaster Communication and IT Network. National v Standards of Relief. Minimum v Urban Flooding. Preparation of Plans Based on these Guidelines, the Plans are being prepared at all three levels, i.e. National, State and District levels. The Plans prepared by the Central Ministries will be approved by the NDMA and the State Plans by the respective State Disaster Management Authorities. Release of Earthquake Guidelines by the then Release of National Disaster Management Guidelines - At the National level, the National Response Plan is being prepared by the (NEC) Ministry of Home Affairs, the Union Home Minister Shri Shivraj V. Patil and Management of Chemical (Terrorism) Disaster by Mitigation Plans by the respective Ministries and the National Capacity Building Plan by the National Institute of Union Minister for Earth Sciences Shri Kapil Sibal Union Minister of Defence Shri A.K. Antony Disaster Management (NIDM). All this effort will be guided by the NDMA. Assistance will be provided to Central Ministries and States to engage Knowledge Centres to assist them in the preparation of Plans. Mainstreaming of Disaster Management in Development Planning Approach v Ministries/Departments and the States are now preparing Disaster Management Plans in accordance All Central with the Guidelines. v The measures for prevention or mitigation arising out of these plans will be funded from the annual/ five year plans. v also form part of the National Mitigation projects being drawn up by NDMA. They may Process Release of Flood Guidelines by the then Release of Chemical (Industrial) Disaster Guidelines by Union Minister for Water Resources the then Minister of State for Labour and Employment Disaster management is being mainstreamed into the developmental planning process through: Prof. Saifuddin Soz (Independent Charge) Shri Oscar Fernandes (a) Structural Measures, (b) Non Structural Measures and (c) Mitigation Projects. 3 4
  4. 4. Structural Measures All these tasks are being performed with good results. NDRF units are also being deployed proactively in anticipation of In the structural measures, disaster management concerns are addressed in three ways: disasters. While the handling of natural disasters rests with all the NDRF battalions, four battalions are being equipped and v All new projects/programmes would be revisited to build in disaster management concerns to ensure disaster resilience. trained to respond to situations arising out of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies. This training will v of ongoing projects/programmes will also similarly be audited, and Projects/Programmes already The design be extended to all Battalions subsequently. During the Kosi floods in Bihar in 2008, NDRF personnel were the first ones to completed would be revisited selectively on priority to address DM concerns. be deployed and they rescued and evacuated over 100,000 people. The performance of NDRF during Orissa and Assam v reduction measures will also be incorporated into developmental programmes involving construction of Disaster risk floods in 2008, the Cyclone Aila in West Bengal and Bagmati floods in Bihar in August 2009 was commendable. buildings etc., such as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Indira Awas Yojana, Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission etc. Community Preparedness Programmes by NDRF Non-structural Measures NDRF teams are conducting community capacity building and public Non-structural measures would include legislation and other such instruments as building bye-laws, land use awareness programmes in a major way in almost all the states in the regulations which create the enabling regulatory environment. country. During the last two years upto June 2009, the NDRF teams have Mitigation Projects trained 3,20,000 persons under this programme. The target group under Mitigation projects both at the National and State levels will be carried out to improve level of preparedness (Details on this programme include villagers, school children and volunteers the following pages). selected by the State administration. The programme aims at providing exposure to the emergency first aid, basics of search and rescue, flood 11th Five Year Plan preparedness and use of improvised equipment for life saving. The Eleventh Five Year Plan aims at consolidating the process by earmarking plan funds to projects and programmes which not only include the mitigation projects but also projects/schemes on IEC programme, Microzonation of major cities, Project preparation, Facility/Research Programme Studies, Vulnerability Assessment schemes, International Cooperation, NDRF Personnel undergoing Heli-slithering Training at Para Bn of Army Infrastructure of NDRF Battalions, Revamping of Civil Defence and Upgradation of NIDM and other institutions. Introduction of Disaster Management into Educational Curricula Whereas, it has already been done in the schools, NDMA is now working on the modalities with the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoH & FW) and other agencies concerned to ensure that the subject of DM is included in the curricula of all Higher, Technical & Medical Education. Scientific and Technological Initiatives The Risk Assessment and Vulnerability Analysis of the country's exposure to natural and man-made disasters are being integrated with basic tools of science and technology for holistic management of disasters. The major initiatives are in the following fields: v of India at Required Scales (1: 10,000 and 1:2,000) and Contour Intervals of 0.5m. Digital Maps v of Upgraded Hazard Maps showing Mutli Hazard Prone Districts in India. Preparation Rescue & Relief Works by NDRF Personnel Community Capacity Building Programme by during Kosi Flood of Bihar, 2008 NDRF towards Flood Preparedness v Development of Geographical Information System platform over the Digital Base Maps for All Multi - Hazard Prone Districts of the country (GIS for remaining districts to follow). Civil Defence v Seismic Microzonation (based on Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), coupled with Geo-technical Civil Defence personnel will contribute by providing assistance in response, training the community, and also in Investigations) of Indian Land Mass (Microzonation with respect to other hazards to follow). assisting state administration in logistics. Having realized the potential of the Civil Defence to provide assistance to the v Risk Assessment and Vulnerability Analysis of different parts of the Country with respect to various hazards. district administration during disasters, the Government of India has decided to revamp Civil Defence in India and v Development of Knowledge-Based National Disaster Management Information System (NDMIS) to generate expand its scope and presence to cover the entire country. A High Power Committee headed by Shri K M Singh, informed decisions/Decision Support System (DSS) for various stakeholders at different levels of administration. Member, NDMA prepared a “National Policy Approach Paper” which was accepted by the Government of India. The v from Science and Technology community for better understanding of all natural disasters leading to Assistance Civil Defence Act, 1968 has been amended to include disaster management in the charter of work of Civil Defence improved modelling for Advance Forecasting Capability and faster Capacity Building (in terms of both Human personnel. The Government of India has sanctioned a project of Rs. 100 Crores in the first phase to revamp Civil Resource Development and Infrastructure Development). Defence in 100 districts of the country. National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) The Civil Defence is being converted into a district-centric organisation from its earlier role as a town-centric For the purpose of specialised response to a threatening disaster organisation. Civil Defence training institutions are being strengthened and a revised curriculum has been prepared. situation or disasters/ emergencies, both natural and man-made such Their training at National Civil Defence College, Nagpur is commencing shortly. NDMA is also working out the as those of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear origin, a modalities for distance education through setting up of virtual classrooms to reach large numbers of people getting National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) has been constituted. enlisted as Civil Defence volunteers. NDRF is a dedicated stand-alone Force with personnel on Mitigation Projects deputation. This Force is being trained and equipped with state-of- the-art life saving equipment. Presently, the NDRF comprises eight NDMA has commenced the preparation of Detailed Project Reports on a number of mitigation projects to be carried battalions and further expansion by another two Battalions stands out during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period. Following mitigation projects are being taken up on priority at the approved by the Government. The primary tasks of NDRF include: National level. (i) training of the community, National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) (ii) imparting training to the State Disaster Response Forces, It has been drawn up with World Bank Assistance for about USD 350 million to cover all 13 Cyclone –prone Coastal (iii) deployment in case of impending disasters and States & Union Territories. The main objectives are to strengthen the structural and non-structural cyclone mitigation (iv) provide specialised response in case of disasters. efforts and it has three main components: 5 6
  5. 5. v Component-A: Improvement of early warning dissemination system. v also proposed two pilot projects: NDMA has v Component–B: Investments on mitigation measures, such as construction of cyclone shelters, roads and bridges, Ø Mobile hospitals for Mass Casualty Management at Disaster Sites. Project for saline embankments, shelterbelt plantation, mangrove regeneration etc. Ø of two model CBRN Casualty Treatment Centres at Delhi, one in a large Civil Hospital and another in Creation v Component-C: Technical assistance for hazard risk management and capacity building. the Army Hospital (Research & Referal). National Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project ( NERMP) v NDMA played an active role in the Governmental effort in the management of Influenza A (H1N1) India. NDMA has issued the following Documents and Guidelines: It covers 22 high seismic risk States and Union Territories with over 229 districts in seismic zones IV and V for structural measures; and for capacity building, all the districts in zones II to V will be covered. NERMP aims at creating greater Ø on Swine Flu - 28/04/2009 Directions earthquake preparedness in the country through training and capacity building of over 90,000 engineers, 25,000 Ø Prevention and Management of Influenza A (H1N1) - 01/05/2009 architects and over 300,000 lead masons and masons, launching public awareness campaigns on earthquake risk and Ø Management of H1N1 Pandemic - 05/05/2009 vulnerability, strengthening the techno-legal regime and carrying out structural safety audit of critical lifeline Ø Guidelines on Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic Preparedness for Business Continuity in Non-Health infrastructure and seismic strengthening and retrofitting of one hospital building in each district in zones IV and V. Sectors - 19/05/2009 National Disaster Information and Communication Network (NDICN) v A “Workshop on the Pandemic Preparedness for Business Continuity in Non-Health Sectors” was hosted and conducted by NDMA in coordination with Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Health & Family Welfare on 1st It aims at providing fail safe communication channels with multiple redundancy and last mile connectivity for assured June 2009. Various issues related to preparedness in health as well as non health sectors were discussed. information and IT dissemination to disaster-prone communities/districts. vcollaboration with Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR), MOH & FW has initiated the preparation NDMA in National Disaster Response Reserves of syllabus and training modules for Medical Officers in the field of Disaster Management. These are proposed to cater for the emergency relief needs of 400,000 persons, including 150,000 persons in the hilly Urban Flooding regions in the wake of grave disasters. v conceptualized Urban Flooding as a separate subject, delinking it from riverine floods in rural areas for NDMA has National School Safety Pilot Project the first time, keeping in view their increasing frequency and significant impact in India. Direct inputs were obtained It is proposed to be launched to strengthen the earthquake preparedness of schools in high seismic risk districts in zones for the first time from various countries by organizing a joint Indo-US Workshop (NDMA and USAID) in January 7-9, 2009. IV and V. Herein it is proposed to formulate a National School Safety Policy and prepare manual with checklists and Search and rescue efforts in the urban areas also require specialized training. State Governments/UTs concerned formats for school safety, carry out training and capacity building of critical stakeholders on school safety, and should accord priority for improving drainage systems and other areas of concern. undertake structural safety audit of all school buildings from the selected districts and carry out retrofitting of selected Preparedness Activities in the States school buildings, etc. It also lays down emphasis on non-structural measures like evacuation drills etc. v the vulnerability profile and multi-hazard proneness of the North Eastern states, preparedness activities Considering National Landslide Risk Mitigation Project (NLRMP) have been initiated in the region by the NDMA in concert with eight State Governments and the North-Eastern In order to evolve a comprehensive strategy for landslide hazard risk mitigation, NDMA has drawn up a National Council. Sensitization workshops have also been held in 25 states with a view to explain to them the nuances of the Landslide Risk Mitigation Project (NLRMP). Important activities under NLRMP encompass developing a strategy and Disaster Management Act and the Envisaged Paradigm Shift. The roles and responsibilities of NDMA and State plan for mapping and assessing landslides, proposing a monitoring mechanism for active landslides, modalities for Disaster Management Authorities have also been discussed. assessment of loss including compiling and evaluating information on economic impacts of landslide hazards etc. The v It is also planned to develop eight districts as Model Districts in multi-disaster prone states of the North East, West other components will include capacity development and awareness generation among the stakeholders/affected Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Jammu & Kashmir, Haryana, etc. for DM initiatives. communities. These can be replicated in other districts. National Flood Risk Mitigation Project (NFRMP) IEC Activities NDMA has formulated a National Flood Risk Mitigation Project (NFRMP) as a comprehensive project for strengthening The objective is to create awareness about disaster management using conventional as well as innovative mediums. flood preparedness, mitigation and management in the country. The NFRMP aims to assist the Central Awareness Campaigns on Floods, Earthquakes, Cyclones and other disasters are carried out through audio/ video spots Ministries/Departments and State Govts to address the issues of preparedness and mitigation of floods with a view to and documentaries in radio and TV, news papers, magazines, brochures, exhibition panels etc. In addition, States are minimize vulnerability to floods and consequent loss of lives, livelihood systems, property and damage to also being given financial assistance to carry out IEC campaigns locally. infrastructure and public utilities. Currently, NDMA is engaged in the process of selection of a lead consultant for preparation of DPR for NFRMP. Strengthening Disaster Preparedness Medical preparedness NDMA has taken the following initiatives in the field of medical preparedness: vAn International workshop on “Pandemic Preparedness beyond Health” in April 2008 was held in collaboration with the United Nations Disaster Management Team (UNDMT), Pandemic Influenza Contingency Team (PIC) and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). vTraining programmes on Basic Life Support (BLS) and Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) for the Medical Officers have been conducted on a regular and periodic basis in collaboration with MOH & FW and Trauma Centre, AIIMS. v Medical Preparedness for Emergency Medical Response to CBRN Casualties for Medical Officers has Training on been initiated in collaboration with Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Ministry of Defence (MOD), and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). Mock Exercise on Urban Fire in Kanpur Mock Exercise on Cyclone in Orissa (Cyclone Shelter) 7 8
  6. 6. Mock Drills and Exercises v been coordinating mock exercises in the States, in cooperation with State Governments and other NDMA has Members - NDMA stakeholder groups, to prepare them for efficient response in the event of disasters. These drills also emphasize and ensure the coordination aspects in disaster management. The mock exercises pertain to Earthquakes, Floods, Cyclones, Chemical (Industrial) Disasters, Terrorist attacks including scenarios of Gas Leakage and Firing (like in Metro Stations and Industrial areas) and Urban Fire in high rise buildings/malls. v exercises have been conducted, covering 87 districts, and involving more than 11.18 lakh people from 118 mock various strata of society including local communities. Mock drills and exercises have also been carried out in 26 schools in Delhi and Uttarakhand. This scope will be increased manifold during 2009-2010. Mock exercises have also been carried out in the Delhi and Kolkata metros. Detailed feedback is conveyed to the Central and State Government officials after the exercises. One of the major areas of success has been the creation of DM facilities Lt Gen (Dr.) J. R. Bhardwaj Shri B. Bhattacharjee Dr. Mohan Kanda Prof. N. Vinod Chandra Menon within industries and emphasis on "off-site" evacuation plans (i.e in the immediate vicinity of the plants) jointly by PVSM, AVSM, VSM, PHS (Retd) IAS (Retd) the industry and the respective district administrations. Mock Exercise on Chemical (Industrial) Mock Exercise on Fire in Srinagar Disasters in NOIDA Smt. P. Jyoti Rao Shri M. Shashidhar Reddy Shri K. M. Singh Shri Jyoti K. Sinha IAS (Retd) MLA IPS (Retd) IPS (Retd) Secretary - NDMA Mock Exercise on School Safety Mock Exercise in Delhi Metro vnumber of Table Top and Mock Exercises have been planned during the current year throughout the A large country on various types of disasters. 112 mock exercises are planned in 2009-2010. v planned to encourage district authorities to run these exercises on their own, but under the format as It is also drawn out by the NDMA. This will be attempted through a number of meetings and interactions with them. Road Ahead Shri Anil Bhushan Prasad Right now a very wide variety of activities are in progress to build a solid foundation of disaster preparedness and IAS management. With the launch of the mitigation projects and introduction of disaster management in education curricula, coupled with many other initiatives like mainstreaming of DM in developmental process, India should be on the path to disaster resilience in not too distant future. 9 10