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HTML Basics
HTML, Text, Images, Tables
Table of Contents
© Sun Technologies Inc. 2
1. Introduction to HTML
How the Web Works?
What is a Web Page?
My First HTML Page
Basic Tags: Hyperlinks, Images, Formatting
Headings and Paragraphs
2. HTML in Details
The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration
The <head> Section: Title, Meta, Script, Style
Table of Contents (2)
© Sun Technologies Inc. 3
2. HTML in Details
• The <body> Section
• Text Styling and Formatting Tags
• Hyperlinks: <a>, Hyperlinks and Sections
• Images: <img>
• Lists: <ol>, <ul> and <dl>
3. The <div> and <span> elements
4. HTML Tables
5. HTML Forms
How the Web Works?• WWW use classical client / server architecture
• HTTP is text-based request-response protocol
4
Page request
Client running a
Web Browser
Server running
Web Server
Software (IIS,
Apache, etc.)
Server response
HTTP
HTTP
© Sun Technologies Inc.
What is a Web Page?
• Web pages are text files containing HTML
• HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language
• A notation for describing
• document structure (semantic markup)
• formatting (presentation markup)
• The markup tags provide information about the page content
structure
5© Sun Technologies Inc.
Creating HTML Pages• An HTML file must have an .htm or .html file
extension
• HTML files can be created with text editors:
• NotePad, NotePad ++, PSPad
• Or HTML editors (WYSIWYG Editors):
• Microsoft FrontPage
• Macromedia Dreamweaver
• Netscape Composer
• Microsoft Word
• Visual Studio
6© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML Basics
Text, Images, Tables, Forms
HTML Structure
• HTML is comprised of “elements” and “tags”
• Begins with <html> and ends with </html>
• Elements (tags) are nested one inside another:
• Tags have attributes:
• HTML describes structure using two main sections:
<head> and <body>
8
<html> <head></head> <body></body> </html>
<img src="logo.jpg" alt="logo" />
© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML Code Formatting• The HTML source code should be formatted to
increase readability and facilitate debugging.
• Every block element should start on a new line.
• Every nested (block) element should be
indented.
• Browsers ignore multiple whitespaces in the
page source, so formatting is harmless.
• For performance reasons, formatting can be
sacrificed
© Sun Technologies Inc. 9
First HTML Page
10
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>My First HTML Page</title>
</head>
<body>
<p>This is some text...</p>
</body>
</html>
test.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>My First HTML Page</title>
</head>
<body>
<p>This is some text...</p>
</body>
</html>
First HTML Page: Tags
11
Opening
tag
Closing
tag
An HTML element consists of an opening tag, a closing tag and the content
inside.
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>My First HTML Page</title>
</head>
<body>
<p>This is some text...</p>
</body>
</html>
First HTML Page: Header
12
HTML
header
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>My First HTML Page</title>
</head>
<body>
<p>This is some text...</p>
</body>
</html>
First HTML Page: Body
© Sun Technologies Inc. 13
HTML body
Some Simple Tags
• Hyperlink Tags
• Image Tags
• Text formatting tags
© Sun Technologies Inc. 14
<a href="http://www.telerik.com/"
title="Telerik">Link to Telerik Web site</a>
<img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" />
This text is <em>emphasized.</em>
<br />new line<br />
This one is <strong>more emphasized.</strong>
Some Simple Tags – Example
© Sun Technologies Inc. 15
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>Simple Tags Demo</title>
</head>
<body>
<a href="http://www.telerik.com/" title=
"Telerik site">This is a link.</a>
<br />
<img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" />
<br />
<strong>Bold</strong> and <em>italic</em> text.
</body>
</html>
some-tags.html
Some Simple Tags – Example (2)
16
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>Simple Tags Demo</title>
</head>
<body>
<a href="http://www.telerik.com/" title=
"Telerik site">This is a link.</a>
<br />
<img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" />
<br />
<strong>Bold</strong> and <em>italic</em> text.
</body>
</html>
some-tags.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Tags Attributes• Tags can have attributes
• Attributes specify properties and behavior
• Example:
• Few attributes can apply to every element:
• id, style, class, title
• The id is unique in the document
• Content of title attribute is displayed as hint when the element is
hovered with the mouse
• Some elements have obligatory attributes
17
<img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" />
Attribute alt with value "logo"
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Headings and Paragraphs
• Heading Tags (h1 – h6)
• Paragraph Tags
• Sections: div and span
18
<p>This is my first paragraph</p>
<p>This is my second paragraph</p>
<h1>Heading 1</h1>
<h2>Sub heading 2</h2>
<h3>Sub heading 3</h3>
<div style="background: skyblue;">
This is a div</div>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Headings and Paragraphs – Example
19
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head><title>Headings and paragraphs</title></head>
<body>
<h1>Heading 1</h1>
<h2>Sub heading 2</h2>
<h3>Sub heading 3</h3>
<p>This is my first paragraph</p>
<p>This is my second paragraph</p>
<div style="background:skyblue">
This is a div</div>
</body>
</html>
headings.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head><title>Headings and paragraphs</title></head>
<body>
<h1>Heading 1</h1>
<h2>Sub heading 2</h2>
<h3>Sub heading 3</h3>
<p>This is my first paragraph</p>
<p>This is my second paragraph</p>
<div style="background:skyblue">
This is a div</div>
</body>
</html>
Headings and Paragraphs – Example (2)
20
headings.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Introduction to HTML
HTML Document Structure in Depth
Preface
• It is important to have the correct vision and attitude towards
HTML
• HTML is only about structure, not appearance
• Browsers tolerate invalid HTML code and parse errors – you should
not.
22© Sun Technologies Inc.
The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration• HTML documents must start with a document
type definition (DTD)
• It tells web browsers what type is the served
code
• Possible versions: HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0
(Transitional or Strict), XHTML 1.1, HTML 5
• Example:
• See http://w3.org/QA/2002/04/valid-dtd-list.html for a
list of possible doctypes
23
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
© Sun Technologies Inc.
The <head> Section
• Contains information that doesn’t show directly on
the viewable page
• Starts after the <!doctype> declaration
• Begins with <head> and ends with </head>
• Contains mandatory single <title> tag
• Can contain some other tags, e.g.
• <meta>
• <script>
• <style>
• <!–- comments -->
24© Sun Technologies Inc.
<head> Section: <title> tag• Title should be placed between <head> and
</head> tags
• Used to specify a title in the window title bar
• Search engines and people rely on titles
25
<title>Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010
</title>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<head> Section: <meta>
• Meta tags additionally describe the content
contained within the page
26
<meta name="description" content="HTML tutorial"
/>
<meta name="keywords" content="html, web design,
styles" />
<meta name="author" content="Chris Brewer" />
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="5;
url=http://www.telerik.com" />
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<head> Section: <script>
• The <script> element is used to embed scripts
into an HTML document
• Script are executed in the client's Web browser
• Scripts can live in the <head> and in the <body>
sections
• Supported client-side scripting languages:
• JavaScript (it is not Java!)
• VBScript
• JScript
27
© Sun Technologies Inc.
The <script> Tag – Example
28
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>JavaScript Example</title>
<script type="text/javascript">
function sayHello() {
document.write("<p>Hello World!</p>");
}
</script>
</head>
<body>
<script type=
"text/javascript">
sayHello();
</script>
</body>
</html>
scripts-example.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<head> Section: <style>• The <style> element embeds formatting
information (CSS styles) into an HTML page
29
<html>
<head>
<style type="text/css">
p { font-size: 12pt; line-height: 12pt; }
p:first-letter { font-size: 200%; }
span { text-transform: uppercase; }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<p>Styles demo.<br />
<span>Test uppercase</span>.
</p>
</body>
</html>
style-example.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Comments: <!-- --> Tag• Comments can exist anywhere between the
<html></html> tags
• Comments start with <!-- and end with -->
30
<!–- Telerik Logo (a JPG file) -->
<img src="logo.jpg" alt=“Telerik Logo">
<!–- Hyperlink to the web site -->
<a href="http://telerik.com/">Telerik</a>
<!–- Show the news table -->
<table class="newstable">
...
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<body> Section: Introduction
• The <body> section describes the viewable portion
of the page
• Starts after the <head> </head> section
• Begins with <body> and ends with </body>
31
<html>
<head><title>Test page</title></head>
<body>
<!-- This is the Web page body -->
</body>
</html>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Text Formatting
• Text formatting tags modify the text between the
opening tag and the closing tag
• Ex. <b>Hello</b> makes “Hello” bold
<b></b> bold
<i></i> italicized
<u></u> underlined
<sup></sup> Samplesuperscript
<sub></sub> Samplesubscript
<strong></strong> strong
<em></em> emphasized
<pre></pre> Preformatted text
<blockquote></blockquote> Quoted text block
<del></del> Deleted text – strike through
32
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Text Formatting – Example
33
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<title>Page Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Notice</h1>
<p>This is a <em>sample</em> Web page.</p>
<p><pre>Next paragraph:
preformatted.</pre></p>
<h2>More Info</h2>
<p>Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional.<br />
Next line.</p>
</body>
</html>
text-formatting.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Text Formatting – Example (2)
34
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<title>Page Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Notice</h1>
<p>This is a <em>sample</em> Web page.</p>
<p><pre>Next paragraph:
preformatted.</pre></p>
<h2>More Info</h2>
<p>Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional.<br />
Next line.</p>
</body>
</html>
text-formatting.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Hyperlinks: <a> Tag
• Link to a document called form.html on the same
server in the same directory:
• Link to a document called parent.html on the same
server in the parent directory:
• Link to a document called cat.html on the same
server in the subdirectory stuff:
35
<a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a>
<a href="../parent.html">Parent</a>
<a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (2)
• Link to an external Web site:
• Always use a full URL, including "http://", not just
"www.somesite.com"
• Using the target="_blank" attribute opens the link in
a new window
• Link to an e-mail address:
36
<a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a>
<a
href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=Bug+Report">
Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (3)• Link to a document called apply-now.html
• On the same server, in same directory
• Using an image as a link button:
• Link to a document called index.html
• On the same server, in the subdirectory english
of the parent directory:
37
<a href="apply-now.html"><img
src="apply-now-button.jpg" /></a>
<a href="../english/index.html">Switch to English
version</a>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Hyperlinks and Sections• Link to another location in the same
document:
• Link to a specific location in another
document:
38
<a href="#section1">Go to Introduction</a>
...
<h2 id="section1">Introduction</h2>
<a href="chapter3.html#section3.1.1">Go to Section 3.1.1</a>
<!–- In chapter3.html -->
...
<div id="section3.1.1">
<h3>3.1.1. Technical Background</h3>
</div>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Hyperlinks – Example
39
<a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br />
<a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br />
<a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> <br />
<a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a> <br
/>
<a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=Bug
Report">Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a>
<br />
<a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg”
/></a> <br />
<a href="../english/index.html">Switch to English version</a> <br
/>
hyperlinks.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br />
<a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br />
<a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> <br />
<a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a> <br />
<a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=Bug Report">Please
report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a>
<br />
<a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg” /></a>
<br />
<a href="../english/index.html">Switch to English version</a> <br />
hyperlinks.htmlHyperlinks – Example (2)
40© Sun Technologies Inc.
Links to the Same Document – Example
41
<h1>Table of Contents</h1>
<p><a href="#section1">Introduction</a><br />
<a href="#section2">Some background</A><br />
<a href="#section2.1">Project History</a><br />
...the rest of the table of contents...
<!-- The document text follows here -->
<h2 id="section1">Introduction</h2>
... Section 1 follows here ...
<h2 id="section2">Some background</h2>
... Section 2 follows here ...
<h3 id="section2.1">Project History</h3>
... Section 2.1 follows here ...
links-to-same-document.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Links to the Same Document –
Example (2)
42
<h1>Table of Contents</h1>
<p><a href="#section1">Introduction</a><br />
<a href="#section2">Some background</A><br />
<a href="#section2.1">Project History</a><br />
...the rest of the table of contents...
<!-- The document text follows here -->
<h2 id="section1">Introduction</h2>
... Section 1 follows here ...
<h2 id="section2">Some background</h2>
... Section 2 follows here ...
<h3 id="section2.1">Project History</h3>
... Section 2.1 follows here ...
links-to-same-document.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
 Inserting an image with <img> tag:
 Image attributes:
 Example:
Images: <img> tag
src Location of image file (relative or absolute)
alt Substitute text for display (e.g. in text mode)
height Number of pixels of the height
width Number of pixels of the width
border Size of border, 0 for no border
<img src="/img/basd-logo.png">
<img src="./php.png" alt="PHP Logo" />
© Sun Technologies Inc.
43
Miscellaneous Tags
• <hr />: Draws a horizontal rule (line):
• <center></center>: Deprecated!
• <font></font>:
44
<hr size="5" width="70%" />
<center>Hello World!</center>
<font size="3" color="blue">Font3</font>
<font size="+4" color="blue">Font+4</font>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Miscellaneous Tags – Example
45
<html>
<head>
<title>Miscellaneous Tags Example</title>
</head>
<body>
<hr size="5" width="70%" />
<center>Hello World!</center>
<font size="3" color="blue">Font3</font>
<font size="+4" color="blue">Font+4</font>
</body>
</html>
misc.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
a. Apple
b. Orange
c. Grapefruit
Ordered Lists: <ol> Tag
• Create an Ordered List using <ol></ol>:
• Attribute values for type are 1, A, a, I, or i
46
1. Apple
2. Orange
3. Grapefruit
A. Apple
B. Orange
C. Grapefruit
I. Apple
II. Orange
III. Grapefruit
i. Apple
ii. Orange
iii. Grapefruit
<ol type="1">
<li>Apple</li>
<li>Orange</li>
<li>Grapefruit</li>
</ol>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Unordered Lists: <ul> Tag• Create an Unordered List using <ul></ul>:
• Attribute values for type are:
• disc, circle or square
47
• Apple
• Orange
• Pear
o Apple
o Orange
o Pear
 Apple
 Orange
 Pear
<ul type="disk">
<li>Apple</li>
<li>Orange</li>
<li>Grapefruit</li>
</ul>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Definition lists: <dl> tag
• Create definition lists using <dl>
• Pairs of text and associated definition; text is in
<dt> tag, definition in <dd> tag
• Renders without bullets
• Definition is indented
48
<dl>
<dt>HTML</dt>
<dd>A markup language …</dd>
<dt>CSS</dt>
<dd>Language used to …</dd>
</dl>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Lists – Example
49
<ol type="1">
<li>Apple</li>
<li>Orange</li>
<li>Grapefruit</li>
</ol>
<ul type="disc">
<li>Apple</li>
<li>Orange</li>
<li>Grapefruit</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dt>HTML</dt>
<dd>A markup lang…</dd>
</dl>
lists.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML Special Characters
£&pound;British Pound
€&#8364;Euro
"&quot;Quotation Mark
¥&yen;Japanese Yen
—&mdash;Em Dash
&nbsp;Non-breaking Space
&&amp;Ampersand
>&gt;Greater Than
<&lt;Less Than
™&trade;Trademark Sign
®&reg;Registered Trademark Sign
©&copy;Copyright Sign
SymbolHTML EntitySymbol Name
50
© Sun Technologies Inc
Special Characters – Example
51
<p>[&gt;&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;Welcome
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;&lt;]</p>
<p>&#9658;I have following cards:
A&#9827;, K&#9830; and 9&#9829;.</p>
<p>&#9658;I prefer hard rock &#9835;
music &#9835;</p>
<p>&copy; 2006 by Svetlin Nakov &amp; his team</p>
<p>Telerik Academy™</p>
special-chars.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Special Chars – Example (2)
52
<p>[&gt;&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;Welcome
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;&lt;]</p>
<p>&#9658;I have following cards:
A&#9827;, K&#9830; and 9&#9829;.</p>
<p>&#9658;I prefer hard rock &#9835;
music &#9835;</p>
<p>&copy; 2006 by Svetlin Nakov &amp; his team</p>
<p>Telerik Academy™</p>
special-chars.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Using <DIV> and <SPAN>
Block and Inline Elements
Block and Inline Elements
• Block elements add a line break before and after them
• <div> is a block element
• Other block elements are <table>, <hr>, headings, lists, <p> and etc.
• Inline elements don’t break the text before and after them
• <span> is an inline element
• Most HTML elements are inline, e.g. <a>
54© Sun Technologies Inc.
The <div> Tag
• <div> creates logical divisions within a page
• Block style element
• Used with CSS
• Example:
55
<div style="font-size:24px; color:red">DIV example</div>
<p>This one is <span style="color:red; font-
weight:bold">only a test</span>.</p>
div-and-span.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
The <span> Tag
• Inline style element
• Useful for modifying a specific portion of text
• Don't create a separate area (paragraph) in the
document
• Very useful with CSS
56
<p>This one is <span style="color:red; font-
weight:bold">only a test</span>.</p>
<p>This one is another <span style="font-size:32px; font-
weight:bold">TEST</span>.</p>
span.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML Tables
HTML Tables
• Tables represent tabular data
• A table consists of one or several rows
• Each row has one or more columns
• Tables comprised of several core tags:
<table></table>: begin / end the table
<tr></tr>: create a table row
<td></td>: create tabular data (cell)
• Tables should not be used for layout. Use CSS floats
58
© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML Tables (2)
• Start and end of a table
• Start and end of a row
• Start and end of a cell in a row
59
<table> ... </table>
<tr> ... </tr>
<td> ... </td>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Simple HTML Tables – Example
60
<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">
<tr>
<td><img src="ppt.gif"></td>
<td><a href="lecture1.ppt">Lecture 1</a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><img src="ppt.gif"></td>
<td><a href="lecture2.ppt">Lecture 2</a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><img src="zip.gif"></td>
<td><a href="lecture2-demos.zip">
Lecture 2 - Demos</a></td>
</tr>
</table>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">
<tr>
<td><img src="ppt.gif"></td>
<td><a href="lecture1.ppt">Lecture 1</a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><img src="ppt.gif"></td>
<td><a href="lecture2.ppt">Lecture 2</a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><img src="zip.gif"></td>
<td><a href="lecture2-demos.zip">
Lecture 2 - Demos</a></td>
</tr>
</table>
Simple HTML Tables – Example (2)
61© Sun Technologies Inc.
Complete HTML Tables
• Table rows split into three semantic sections: header, body and
footer
• <thead> denotes table header and contains <th> elements, instead of
<td> elements
• <tbody> denotes collection of table rows that contain the very data
• <tfoot> denotes table footer but comes BEFORE the <tbody> tag
• <colgroup> and <col> define columns (most often used to set column
widths)
62© Sun Technologies Inc.
Complete HTML Table: Example
63
<table>
<colgroup>
<col style="width:100px" /><col />
</colgroup>
<thead>
<tr><th>Column 1</th><th>Column 2</th></tr>
</thead>
<tfoot>
<tr><td>Footer 1</td><td>Footer 2</td></tr>
</tfoot>
<tbody>
<tr><td>Cell 1.1</td><td>Cell 1.2</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cell 2.1</td><td>Cell 2.2</td></tr>
</tbody>
</table>
header
footer
Last comes the body
(data)
th
columns
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<table>
<colgroup>
<col style="width:200px" /><col />
</colgroup>
<thead>
<tr><th>Column 1</th><th>Column 2</th></tr>
</thead>
<tfoot>
<tr><td>Footer 1</td><td>Footer 2</td></tr>
</tfoot>
<tbody>
<tr><td>Cell 1.1</td><td>Cell 1.2</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cell 2.1</td><td>Cell 2.2</td></tr>
</tbody>
</table>
Complete HTML Table:
Example (2)
64
table-full.html
Although the footer
is before the data in
the code, it is
displayed last
By default, header
text is bold and
centered.
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Nested Tables• Table data “cells” (<td>) can contain nested
tables (tables within tables):
65
<table>
<tr>
<td>Contact:</td>
<td>
<table>
<tr>
<td>First Name</td>
<td>Last Name</td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
nested-tables.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
 cellpadding
 Defines the empty
space around the
cell content
 cellspacing
 Defines the
empty space
between cells
Cell Spacing and Padding• Tables have two important attributes:
66
cell cell
cell cell
cell
cell
cell
cell
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Cell Spacing and Padding – Example
67
<html>
<head><title>Table Cells</title></head>
<body>
<table cellspacing="15" cellpadding="0">
<tr><td>First</td>
<td>Second</td></tr>
</table>
<br/>
<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="10">
<tr><td>First</td><td>Second</td></tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
table-cells.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Cell Spacing and Padding – Example (2)
68
<html>
<head><title>Table Cells</title></head>
<body>
<table cellspacing="15" cellpadding="0">
<tr><td>First</td>
<td>Second</td></tr>
</table>
<br/>
<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="10">
<tr><td>First</td><td>Second</td></tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
table-
cells.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
 rowspan
 Defines how
many rows the
cell occupies
 colspan
 Defines how
many columns
the cell occupies
Column and Row Span• Table cells have two important attributes:
69
cell[1,1
]
cell[1,2]
cell[2,1]
colspan="
1"
colspan="
1"
colspan="
2"
cell[1,1]
cell[1,2
]
cell[2,1
]
rowspan="
2"
rowspan="
1"
rowspan="
1"
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Column and Row Span – Example
70
<table cellspacing="0">
<tr class="1"><td>Cell[1,1]</td>
<td colspan="2">Cell[2,1]</td></tr>
<tr class=“2"><td>Cell[1,2]</td>
<td rowspan="2">Cell[2,2]</td>
<td>Cell[3,2]</td></tr>
<tr class=“3"><td>Cell[1,3]</td>
<td>Cell[2,3]</td></tr>
</table>
table-colspan-rowspan.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
<table cellspacing="0">
<tr class="1"><td>Cell[1,1]</td>
<td colspan="2">Cell[2,1]</td></tr>
<tr class=“2"><td>Cell[1,2]</td>
<td rowspan="2">Cell[2,2]</td>
<td>Cell[3,2]</td></tr>
<tr class=“3"><td>Cell[1,3]</td>
<td>Cell[2,3]</td></tr>
</table>
Column and Row Span –
Example (2)
71
table-colspan-rowspan.html
Cell[2,3]Cell[1,3]
Cell[3,2]
Cell[2,2]
Cell[1,2]
Cell[2,1]Cell[1,1]
© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML FormsEntering User Data from a Web
Page
HTML Forms
• Forms are the primary method for gathering data
from site visitors
• Create a form block with
• Example:
73
<form></form>
<form name="myForm" method="post"
action="path/to/some-script.php">
...
</form>
The "action" attribute tells where
the form data should be sent
The “method" attribute tells
how the form data should be
sent – via GET or POST request
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Form Fields• Single-line text input fields:
• Multi-line textarea fields:
• Hidden fields contain data not shown to the
user:
• Often used by JavaScript code
76
<input type="text" name="FirstName"
value="This is a text field" />
<textarea name="Comments">This is a multi-line
text field</textarea>
<input type="hidden" name="Account"
value="This is a hidden text field" />
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Fieldsets• Fieldsets are used to enclose a group of
related form fields:
75
<form method="post" action="form.aspx">
<fieldset>
<legend>Client Details</legend>
<input type="text" id="Name" />
<input type="text" id="Phone" />
</fieldset>
<fieldset>
<legend>Order Details</legend>
<input type="text" id="Quantity" />
<textarea cols="40" rows="10"
id="Remarks"></textarea>
</fieldset>
</form>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Form Input Controls
• Checkboxes:
• Radio buttons:
• Radio buttons can be grouped, allowing only
one to be selected from a group:
76
<input type="checkbox" name="fruit" value="apple" />
<input type="radio" name="title" value="Mr." />
<input type="radio" name="city" value="Lom" />
<input type="radio" name="city" value="Ruse" />
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Other Form Controls• Dropdown menus:
• Submit button:
77
<select name="gender">
<option value="Value 1"
selected="selected">Male</option>
<option value="Value
2">Female</option>
<option value="Value 3">Other</option>
</select>
<input type="submit" name="submitBtn" value="Apply
Now" />
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Other Form Controls (2)
• Reset button – brings the form to its initial state
• Image button – acts like submit but image is
displayed and click coordinates are sent
• Ordinary button – used for Javascript, no default
action
78
<input type="reset" name="resetBtn" value="Reset the
form" />
<input type="image" src="submit.gif"
name="submitBtn" alt="Submit" />
<input type="button" value="click me" />
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Other Form Controls (3)
• Password input – a text field which masks
the entered text with * signs
• Multiple select field – displays the list of
items in multiple lines, instead of one
79
<input type="password" name="pass" />
<select name="products" multiple="multiple">
<option value="Value 1"
selected="selected">keyboard</option>
<option value="Value 2">mouse</option>
<option value="Value 3">speakers</option>
</select>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Other Form Controls (4)
• File input – a field used for uploading files
• When used, it requires the form element to have a specific
attribute:
80
<input type="file" name="photo" />
<form enctype="multipart/form-data">
...
<input type="file" name="photo" />
...
</form>
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Labels
• Form labels are used to associate an
explanatory text to a form field using the
field's ID.
• Clicking on a label focuses its associated
field (checkboxes are toggled, radio buttons
are checked)
• Labels are both a usability and accessibility
feature and are required in order to pass
accessibility validation.
81
<label for="fn">First Name</label>
<input type="text" id="fn" />
© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML Forms – Example
82
<form method="post" action="apply-now.php">
<input name="subject" type="hidden" value="Class" />
<fieldset><legend>Academic information</legend>
<label for="degree">Degree</label>
<select name="degree" id="degree">
<option value="BA">Bachelor of Art</option>
<option value="BS">Bachelor of Science</option>
<option value="MBA" selected="selected">Master of
Business Administration</option>
</select>
<br />
<label for="studentid">Student ID</label>
<input type="password" name="studentid" />
</fieldset>
<fieldset><legend>Personal Details</legend>
<label for="fname">First Name</label>
<input type="text" name="fname" id="fname" />
<br />
<label for="lname">Last Name</label>
<input type="text" name="lname" id="lname" />
form.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML Forms – Example (2)
83
<br />
Gender:
<input name="gender" type="radio" id="gm" value="m" />
<label for="gm">Male</label>
<input name="gender" type="radio" id="gf" value="f" />
<label for="gf">Female</label>
<br />
<label for="email">Email</label>
<input type="text" name="email" id="email" />
</fieldset>
<p>
<textarea name="terms" cols="30" rows="4"
readonly="readonly">TERMS AND CONDITIONS...</textarea>
</p>
<p>
<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Send Form" />
<input type="reset" value="Clear Form" />
</p>
</form>
form.html (continued)
© Sun Technologies Inc.
form.html (continued)
HTML Forms –
Example (3)
84© Sun Technologies Inc.
TabIndex
• The TabIndex HTML attribute controls the order
in which form fields and hyperlinks are focused
when repeatedly pressing the TAB key
• TabIndex="0" (zero) - "natural" order
• If X > Y, then elements with TabIndex="X" are iterated
before elements with TabIndex="Y"
• Elements with negative TabIndex are skipped,
however, this is not defined in the standard
85
<input type="text" tabindex="10" />
© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML Frames
<frameset>, <frame> and <iframe>
HTML Frames
• Frames provide a way to show multiple HTML documents in a
single Web page
• The page can be split into separate views (frames) horizontally
and vertically
• Frames were popular in the early ages of HTML development,
but now their usage is rejected
• Frames are not supported by all user agents (browsers, search
engines, etc.)
• A <noframes> element is used to provide content for non-compatible
agents.
87© Sun Technologies Inc.
HTML Frames – Demo
88
<html>
<head><title>Frames Example</title></head>
<frameset cols="180px,*,150px">
<frame src="left.html" />
<frame src="middle.html" />
<frame src="right.html" />
</frameset>
</html>
frames.html
 Note the target attribute applied to the <a>
elements in the left frame.
© Sun Technologies Inc.
Inline Frames: <iframe>
• Inline frames provide a way to show one website inside another
website:
89
<iframe name="iframeGoogle" width="600" height="400"
src="http://www.google.com" frameborder="yes"
scrolling="yes"></iframe>
iframe-demo.html
© Sun Technologies Inc.

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HTML Basics: Headings, Text Formatting

  • 1. HTML Basics HTML, Text, Images, Tables
  • 2. Table of Contents © Sun Technologies Inc. 2 1. Introduction to HTML How the Web Works? What is a Web Page? My First HTML Page Basic Tags: Hyperlinks, Images, Formatting Headings and Paragraphs 2. HTML in Details The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration The <head> Section: Title, Meta, Script, Style
  • 3. Table of Contents (2) © Sun Technologies Inc. 3 2. HTML in Details • The <body> Section • Text Styling and Formatting Tags • Hyperlinks: <a>, Hyperlinks and Sections • Images: <img> • Lists: <ol>, <ul> and <dl> 3. The <div> and <span> elements 4. HTML Tables 5. HTML Forms
  • 4. How the Web Works?• WWW use classical client / server architecture • HTTP is text-based request-response protocol 4 Page request Client running a Web Browser Server running Web Server Software (IIS, Apache, etc.) Server response HTTP HTTP © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 5. What is a Web Page? • Web pages are text files containing HTML • HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language • A notation for describing • document structure (semantic markup) • formatting (presentation markup) • The markup tags provide information about the page content structure 5© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 6. Creating HTML Pages• An HTML file must have an .htm or .html file extension • HTML files can be created with text editors: • NotePad, NotePad ++, PSPad • Or HTML editors (WYSIWYG Editors): • Microsoft FrontPage • Macromedia Dreamweaver • Netscape Composer • Microsoft Word • Visual Studio 6© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 8. HTML Structure • HTML is comprised of “elements” and “tags” • Begins with <html> and ends with </html> • Elements (tags) are nested one inside another: • Tags have attributes: • HTML describes structure using two main sections: <head> and <body> 8 <html> <head></head> <body></body> </html> <img src="logo.jpg" alt="logo" /> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 9. HTML Code Formatting• The HTML source code should be formatted to increase readability and facilitate debugging. • Every block element should start on a new line. • Every nested (block) element should be indented. • Browsers ignore multiple whitespaces in the page source, so formatting is harmless. • For performance reasons, formatting can be sacrificed © Sun Technologies Inc. 9
  • 10. First HTML Page 10 <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> <p>This is some text...</p> </body> </html> test.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 11. <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> <p>This is some text...</p> </body> </html> First HTML Page: Tags 11 Opening tag Closing tag An HTML element consists of an opening tag, a closing tag and the content inside. © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 12. <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> <p>This is some text...</p> </body> </html> First HTML Page: Header 12 HTML header © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 13. <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> <p>This is some text...</p> </body> </html> First HTML Page: Body © Sun Technologies Inc. 13 HTML body
  • 14. Some Simple Tags • Hyperlink Tags • Image Tags • Text formatting tags © Sun Technologies Inc. 14 <a href="http://www.telerik.com/" title="Telerik">Link to Telerik Web site</a> <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /> This text is <em>emphasized.</em> <br />new line<br /> This one is <strong>more emphasized.</strong>
  • 15. Some Simple Tags – Example © Sun Technologies Inc. 15 <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <title>Simple Tags Demo</title> </head> <body> <a href="http://www.telerik.com/" title= "Telerik site">This is a link.</a> <br /> <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /> <br /> <strong>Bold</strong> and <em>italic</em> text. </body> </html> some-tags.html
  • 16. Some Simple Tags – Example (2) 16 <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <title>Simple Tags Demo</title> </head> <body> <a href="http://www.telerik.com/" title= "Telerik site">This is a link.</a> <br /> <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /> <br /> <strong>Bold</strong> and <em>italic</em> text. </body> </html> some-tags.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 17. Tags Attributes• Tags can have attributes • Attributes specify properties and behavior • Example: • Few attributes can apply to every element: • id, style, class, title • The id is unique in the document • Content of title attribute is displayed as hint when the element is hovered with the mouse • Some elements have obligatory attributes 17 <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /> Attribute alt with value "logo" © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 18. Headings and Paragraphs • Heading Tags (h1 – h6) • Paragraph Tags • Sections: div and span 18 <p>This is my first paragraph</p> <p>This is my second paragraph</p> <h1>Heading 1</h1> <h2>Sub heading 2</h2> <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> <div style="background: skyblue;"> This is a div</div> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 19. Headings and Paragraphs – Example 19 <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head><title>Headings and paragraphs</title></head> <body> <h1>Heading 1</h1> <h2>Sub heading 2</h2> <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> <p>This is my first paragraph</p> <p>This is my second paragraph</p> <div style="background:skyblue"> This is a div</div> </body> </html> headings.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 20. <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head><title>Headings and paragraphs</title></head> <body> <h1>Heading 1</h1> <h2>Sub heading 2</h2> <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> <p>This is my first paragraph</p> <p>This is my second paragraph</p> <div style="background:skyblue"> This is a div</div> </body> </html> Headings and Paragraphs – Example (2) 20 headings.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 21. Introduction to HTML HTML Document Structure in Depth
  • 22. Preface • It is important to have the correct vision and attitude towards HTML • HTML is only about structure, not appearance • Browsers tolerate invalid HTML code and parse errors – you should not. 22© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 23. The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration• HTML documents must start with a document type definition (DTD) • It tells web browsers what type is the served code • Possible versions: HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 (Transitional or Strict), XHTML 1.1, HTML 5 • Example: • See http://w3.org/QA/2002/04/valid-dtd-list.html for a list of possible doctypes 23 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 24. The <head> Section • Contains information that doesn’t show directly on the viewable page • Starts after the <!doctype> declaration • Begins with <head> and ends with </head> • Contains mandatory single <title> tag • Can contain some other tags, e.g. • <meta> • <script> • <style> • <!–- comments --> 24© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 25. <head> Section: <title> tag• Title should be placed between <head> and </head> tags • Used to specify a title in the window title bar • Search engines and people rely on titles 25 <title>Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010 </title> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 26. <head> Section: <meta> • Meta tags additionally describe the content contained within the page 26 <meta name="description" content="HTML tutorial" /> <meta name="keywords" content="html, web design, styles" /> <meta name="author" content="Chris Brewer" /> <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="5; url=http://www.telerik.com" /> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 27. <head> Section: <script> • The <script> element is used to embed scripts into an HTML document • Script are executed in the client's Web browser • Scripts can live in the <head> and in the <body> sections • Supported client-side scripting languages: • JavaScript (it is not Java!) • VBScript • JScript 27 © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 28. The <script> Tag – Example 28 <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <title>JavaScript Example</title> <script type="text/javascript"> function sayHello() { document.write("<p>Hello World!</p>"); } </script> </head> <body> <script type= "text/javascript"> sayHello(); </script> </body> </html> scripts-example.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 29. <head> Section: <style>• The <style> element embeds formatting information (CSS styles) into an HTML page 29 <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> p { font-size: 12pt; line-height: 12pt; } p:first-letter { font-size: 200%; } span { text-transform: uppercase; } </style> </head> <body> <p>Styles demo.<br /> <span>Test uppercase</span>. </p> </body> </html> style-example.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 30. Comments: <!-- --> Tag• Comments can exist anywhere between the <html></html> tags • Comments start with <!-- and end with --> 30 <!–- Telerik Logo (a JPG file) --> <img src="logo.jpg" alt=“Telerik Logo"> <!–- Hyperlink to the web site --> <a href="http://telerik.com/">Telerik</a> <!–- Show the news table --> <table class="newstable"> ... © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 31. <body> Section: Introduction • The <body> section describes the viewable portion of the page • Starts after the <head> </head> section • Begins with <body> and ends with </body> 31 <html> <head><title>Test page</title></head> <body> <!-- This is the Web page body --> </body> </html> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 32. Text Formatting • Text formatting tags modify the text between the opening tag and the closing tag • Ex. <b>Hello</b> makes “Hello” bold <b></b> bold <i></i> italicized <u></u> underlined <sup></sup> Samplesuperscript <sub></sub> Samplesubscript <strong></strong> strong <em></em> emphasized <pre></pre> Preformatted text <blockquote></blockquote> Quoted text block <del></del> Deleted text – strike through 32 © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 33. Text Formatting – Example 33 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>Page Title</title> </head> <body> <h1>Notice</h1> <p>This is a <em>sample</em> Web page.</p> <p><pre>Next paragraph: preformatted.</pre></p> <h2>More Info</h2> <p>Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional.<br /> Next line.</p> </body> </html> text-formatting.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 34. Text Formatting – Example (2) 34 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>Page Title</title> </head> <body> <h1>Notice</h1> <p>This is a <em>sample</em> Web page.</p> <p><pre>Next paragraph: preformatted.</pre></p> <h2>More Info</h2> <p>Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional.<br /> Next line.</p> </body> </html> text-formatting.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 35. Hyperlinks: <a> Tag • Link to a document called form.html on the same server in the same directory: • Link to a document called parent.html on the same server in the parent directory: • Link to a document called cat.html on the same server in the subdirectory stuff: 35 <a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 36. Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (2) • Link to an external Web site: • Always use a full URL, including "http://", not just "www.somesite.com" • Using the target="_blank" attribute opens the link in a new window • Link to an e-mail address: 36 <a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a> <a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=Bug+Report"> Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 37. Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (3)• Link to a document called apply-now.html • On the same server, in same directory • Using an image as a link button: • Link to a document called index.html • On the same server, in the subdirectory english of the parent directory: 37 <a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg" /></a> <a href="../english/index.html">Switch to English version</a> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 38. Hyperlinks and Sections• Link to another location in the same document: • Link to a specific location in another document: 38 <a href="#section1">Go to Introduction</a> ... <h2 id="section1">Introduction</h2> <a href="chapter3.html#section3.1.1">Go to Section 3.1.1</a> <!–- In chapter3.html --> ... <div id="section3.1.1"> <h3>3.1.1. Technical Background</h3> </div> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 39. Hyperlinks – Example 39 <a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br /> <a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br /> <a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> <br /> <a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a> <br /> <a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=Bug Report">Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a> <br /> <a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg” /></a> <br /> <a href="../english/index.html">Switch to English version</a> <br /> hyperlinks.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 40. <a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br /> <a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br /> <a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> <br /> <a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a> <br /> <a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=Bug Report">Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a> <br /> <a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg” /></a> <br /> <a href="../english/index.html">Switch to English version</a> <br /> hyperlinks.htmlHyperlinks – Example (2) 40© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 41. Links to the Same Document – Example 41 <h1>Table of Contents</h1> <p><a href="#section1">Introduction</a><br /> <a href="#section2">Some background</A><br /> <a href="#section2.1">Project History</a><br /> ...the rest of the table of contents... <!-- The document text follows here --> <h2 id="section1">Introduction</h2> ... Section 1 follows here ... <h2 id="section2">Some background</h2> ... Section 2 follows here ... <h3 id="section2.1">Project History</h3> ... Section 2.1 follows here ... links-to-same-document.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 42. Links to the Same Document – Example (2) 42 <h1>Table of Contents</h1> <p><a href="#section1">Introduction</a><br /> <a href="#section2">Some background</A><br /> <a href="#section2.1">Project History</a><br /> ...the rest of the table of contents... <!-- The document text follows here --> <h2 id="section1">Introduction</h2> ... Section 1 follows here ... <h2 id="section2">Some background</h2> ... Section 2 follows here ... <h3 id="section2.1">Project History</h3> ... Section 2.1 follows here ... links-to-same-document.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 43.  Inserting an image with <img> tag:  Image attributes:  Example: Images: <img> tag src Location of image file (relative or absolute) alt Substitute text for display (e.g. in text mode) height Number of pixels of the height width Number of pixels of the width border Size of border, 0 for no border <img src="/img/basd-logo.png"> <img src="./php.png" alt="PHP Logo" /> © Sun Technologies Inc. 43
  • 44. Miscellaneous Tags • <hr />: Draws a horizontal rule (line): • <center></center>: Deprecated! • <font></font>: 44 <hr size="5" width="70%" /> <center>Hello World!</center> <font size="3" color="blue">Font3</font> <font size="+4" color="blue">Font+4</font> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 45. Miscellaneous Tags – Example 45 <html> <head> <title>Miscellaneous Tags Example</title> </head> <body> <hr size="5" width="70%" /> <center>Hello World!</center> <font size="3" color="blue">Font3</font> <font size="+4" color="blue">Font+4</font> </body> </html> misc.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 46. a. Apple b. Orange c. Grapefruit Ordered Lists: <ol> Tag • Create an Ordered List using <ol></ol>: • Attribute values for type are 1, A, a, I, or i 46 1. Apple 2. Orange 3. Grapefruit A. Apple B. Orange C. Grapefruit I. Apple II. Orange III. Grapefruit i. Apple ii. Orange iii. Grapefruit <ol type="1"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ol> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 47. Unordered Lists: <ul> Tag• Create an Unordered List using <ul></ul>: • Attribute values for type are: • disc, circle or square 47 • Apple • Orange • Pear o Apple o Orange o Pear  Apple  Orange  Pear <ul type="disk"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ul> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 48. Definition lists: <dl> tag • Create definition lists using <dl> • Pairs of text and associated definition; text is in <dt> tag, definition in <dd> tag • Renders without bullets • Definition is indented 48 <dl> <dt>HTML</dt> <dd>A markup language …</dd> <dt>CSS</dt> <dd>Language used to …</dd> </dl> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 49. Lists – Example 49 <ol type="1"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ol> <ul type="disc"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ul> <dl> <dt>HTML</dt> <dd>A markup lang…</dd> </dl> lists.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 50. HTML Special Characters £&pound;British Pound €&#8364;Euro "&quot;Quotation Mark ¥&yen;Japanese Yen —&mdash;Em Dash &nbsp;Non-breaking Space &&amp;Ampersand >&gt;Greater Than <&lt;Less Than ™&trade;Trademark Sign ®&reg;Registered Trademark Sign ©&copy;Copyright Sign SymbolHTML EntitySymbol Name 50 © Sun Technologies Inc
  • 51. Special Characters – Example 51 <p>[&gt;&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;Welcome &nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;&lt;]</p> <p>&#9658;I have following cards: A&#9827;, K&#9830; and 9&#9829;.</p> <p>&#9658;I prefer hard rock &#9835; music &#9835;</p> <p>&copy; 2006 by Svetlin Nakov &amp; his team</p> <p>Telerik Academy™</p> special-chars.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 52. Special Chars – Example (2) 52 <p>[&gt;&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;Welcome &nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;&lt;]</p> <p>&#9658;I have following cards: A&#9827;, K&#9830; and 9&#9829;.</p> <p>&#9658;I prefer hard rock &#9835; music &#9835;</p> <p>&copy; 2006 by Svetlin Nakov &amp; his team</p> <p>Telerik Academy™</p> special-chars.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 53. Using <DIV> and <SPAN> Block and Inline Elements
  • 54. Block and Inline Elements • Block elements add a line break before and after them • <div> is a block element • Other block elements are <table>, <hr>, headings, lists, <p> and etc. • Inline elements don’t break the text before and after them • <span> is an inline element • Most HTML elements are inline, e.g. <a> 54© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 55. The <div> Tag • <div> creates logical divisions within a page • Block style element • Used with CSS • Example: 55 <div style="font-size:24px; color:red">DIV example</div> <p>This one is <span style="color:red; font- weight:bold">only a test</span>.</p> div-and-span.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 56. The <span> Tag • Inline style element • Useful for modifying a specific portion of text • Don't create a separate area (paragraph) in the document • Very useful with CSS 56 <p>This one is <span style="color:red; font- weight:bold">only a test</span>.</p> <p>This one is another <span style="font-size:32px; font- weight:bold">TEST</span>.</p> span.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 58. HTML Tables • Tables represent tabular data • A table consists of one or several rows • Each row has one or more columns • Tables comprised of several core tags: <table></table>: begin / end the table <tr></tr>: create a table row <td></td>: create tabular data (cell) • Tables should not be used for layout. Use CSS floats 58 © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 59. HTML Tables (2) • Start and end of a table • Start and end of a row • Start and end of a cell in a row 59 <table> ... </table> <tr> ... </tr> <td> ... </td> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 60. Simple HTML Tables – Example 60 <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5"> <tr> <td><img src="ppt.gif"></td> <td><a href="lecture1.ppt">Lecture 1</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="ppt.gif"></td> <td><a href="lecture2.ppt">Lecture 2</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="zip.gif"></td> <td><a href="lecture2-demos.zip"> Lecture 2 - Demos</a></td> </tr> </table> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 61. <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5"> <tr> <td><img src="ppt.gif"></td> <td><a href="lecture1.ppt">Lecture 1</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="ppt.gif"></td> <td><a href="lecture2.ppt">Lecture 2</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td><img src="zip.gif"></td> <td><a href="lecture2-demos.zip"> Lecture 2 - Demos</a></td> </tr> </table> Simple HTML Tables – Example (2) 61© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 62. Complete HTML Tables • Table rows split into three semantic sections: header, body and footer • <thead> denotes table header and contains <th> elements, instead of <td> elements • <tbody> denotes collection of table rows that contain the very data • <tfoot> denotes table footer but comes BEFORE the <tbody> tag • <colgroup> and <col> define columns (most often used to set column widths) 62© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 63. Complete HTML Table: Example 63 <table> <colgroup> <col style="width:100px" /><col /> </colgroup> <thead> <tr><th>Column 1</th><th>Column 2</th></tr> </thead> <tfoot> <tr><td>Footer 1</td><td>Footer 2</td></tr> </tfoot> <tbody> <tr><td>Cell 1.1</td><td>Cell 1.2</td></tr> <tr><td>Cell 2.1</td><td>Cell 2.2</td></tr> </tbody> </table> header footer Last comes the body (data) th columns © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 64. <table> <colgroup> <col style="width:200px" /><col /> </colgroup> <thead> <tr><th>Column 1</th><th>Column 2</th></tr> </thead> <tfoot> <tr><td>Footer 1</td><td>Footer 2</td></tr> </tfoot> <tbody> <tr><td>Cell 1.1</td><td>Cell 1.2</td></tr> <tr><td>Cell 2.1</td><td>Cell 2.2</td></tr> </tbody> </table> Complete HTML Table: Example (2) 64 table-full.html Although the footer is before the data in the code, it is displayed last By default, header text is bold and centered. © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 65. Nested Tables• Table data “cells” (<td>) can contain nested tables (tables within tables): 65 <table> <tr> <td>Contact:</td> <td> <table> <tr> <td>First Name</td> <td>Last Name</td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> nested-tables.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 66.  cellpadding  Defines the empty space around the cell content  cellspacing  Defines the empty space between cells Cell Spacing and Padding• Tables have two important attributes: 66 cell cell cell cell cell cell cell cell © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 67. Cell Spacing and Padding – Example 67 <html> <head><title>Table Cells</title></head> <body> <table cellspacing="15" cellpadding="0"> <tr><td>First</td> <td>Second</td></tr> </table> <br/> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="10"> <tr><td>First</td><td>Second</td></tr> </table> </body> </html> table-cells.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 68. Cell Spacing and Padding – Example (2) 68 <html> <head><title>Table Cells</title></head> <body> <table cellspacing="15" cellpadding="0"> <tr><td>First</td> <td>Second</td></tr> </table> <br/> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="10"> <tr><td>First</td><td>Second</td></tr> </table> </body> </html> table- cells.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 69.  rowspan  Defines how many rows the cell occupies  colspan  Defines how many columns the cell occupies Column and Row Span• Table cells have two important attributes: 69 cell[1,1 ] cell[1,2] cell[2,1] colspan=" 1" colspan=" 1" colspan=" 2" cell[1,1] cell[1,2 ] cell[2,1 ] rowspan=" 2" rowspan=" 1" rowspan=" 1" © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 70. Column and Row Span – Example 70 <table cellspacing="0"> <tr class="1"><td>Cell[1,1]</td> <td colspan="2">Cell[2,1]</td></tr> <tr class=“2"><td>Cell[1,2]</td> <td rowspan="2">Cell[2,2]</td> <td>Cell[3,2]</td></tr> <tr class=“3"><td>Cell[1,3]</td> <td>Cell[2,3]</td></tr> </table> table-colspan-rowspan.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 71. <table cellspacing="0"> <tr class="1"><td>Cell[1,1]</td> <td colspan="2">Cell[2,1]</td></tr> <tr class=“2"><td>Cell[1,2]</td> <td rowspan="2">Cell[2,2]</td> <td>Cell[3,2]</td></tr> <tr class=“3"><td>Cell[1,3]</td> <td>Cell[2,3]</td></tr> </table> Column and Row Span – Example (2) 71 table-colspan-rowspan.html Cell[2,3]Cell[1,3] Cell[3,2] Cell[2,2] Cell[1,2] Cell[2,1]Cell[1,1] © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 72. HTML FormsEntering User Data from a Web Page
  • 73. HTML Forms • Forms are the primary method for gathering data from site visitors • Create a form block with • Example: 73 <form></form> <form name="myForm" method="post" action="path/to/some-script.php"> ... </form> The "action" attribute tells where the form data should be sent The “method" attribute tells how the form data should be sent – via GET or POST request © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 74. Form Fields• Single-line text input fields: • Multi-line textarea fields: • Hidden fields contain data not shown to the user: • Often used by JavaScript code 76 <input type="text" name="FirstName" value="This is a text field" /> <textarea name="Comments">This is a multi-line text field</textarea> <input type="hidden" name="Account" value="This is a hidden text field" /> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 75. Fieldsets• Fieldsets are used to enclose a group of related form fields: 75 <form method="post" action="form.aspx"> <fieldset> <legend>Client Details</legend> <input type="text" id="Name" /> <input type="text" id="Phone" /> </fieldset> <fieldset> <legend>Order Details</legend> <input type="text" id="Quantity" /> <textarea cols="40" rows="10" id="Remarks"></textarea> </fieldset> </form> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 76. Form Input Controls • Checkboxes: • Radio buttons: • Radio buttons can be grouped, allowing only one to be selected from a group: 76 <input type="checkbox" name="fruit" value="apple" /> <input type="radio" name="title" value="Mr." /> <input type="radio" name="city" value="Lom" /> <input type="radio" name="city" value="Ruse" /> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 77. Other Form Controls• Dropdown menus: • Submit button: 77 <select name="gender"> <option value="Value 1" selected="selected">Male</option> <option value="Value 2">Female</option> <option value="Value 3">Other</option> </select> <input type="submit" name="submitBtn" value="Apply Now" /> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 78. Other Form Controls (2) • Reset button – brings the form to its initial state • Image button – acts like submit but image is displayed and click coordinates are sent • Ordinary button – used for Javascript, no default action 78 <input type="reset" name="resetBtn" value="Reset the form" /> <input type="image" src="submit.gif" name="submitBtn" alt="Submit" /> <input type="button" value="click me" /> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 79. Other Form Controls (3) • Password input – a text field which masks the entered text with * signs • Multiple select field – displays the list of items in multiple lines, instead of one 79 <input type="password" name="pass" /> <select name="products" multiple="multiple"> <option value="Value 1" selected="selected">keyboard</option> <option value="Value 2">mouse</option> <option value="Value 3">speakers</option> </select> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 80. Other Form Controls (4) • File input – a field used for uploading files • When used, it requires the form element to have a specific attribute: 80 <input type="file" name="photo" /> <form enctype="multipart/form-data"> ... <input type="file" name="photo" /> ... </form> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 81. Labels • Form labels are used to associate an explanatory text to a form field using the field's ID. • Clicking on a label focuses its associated field (checkboxes are toggled, radio buttons are checked) • Labels are both a usability and accessibility feature and are required in order to pass accessibility validation. 81 <label for="fn">First Name</label> <input type="text" id="fn" /> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 82. HTML Forms – Example 82 <form method="post" action="apply-now.php"> <input name="subject" type="hidden" value="Class" /> <fieldset><legend>Academic information</legend> <label for="degree">Degree</label> <select name="degree" id="degree"> <option value="BA">Bachelor of Art</option> <option value="BS">Bachelor of Science</option> <option value="MBA" selected="selected">Master of Business Administration</option> </select> <br /> <label for="studentid">Student ID</label> <input type="password" name="studentid" /> </fieldset> <fieldset><legend>Personal Details</legend> <label for="fname">First Name</label> <input type="text" name="fname" id="fname" /> <br /> <label for="lname">Last Name</label> <input type="text" name="lname" id="lname" /> form.html © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 83. HTML Forms – Example (2) 83 <br /> Gender: <input name="gender" type="radio" id="gm" value="m" /> <label for="gm">Male</label> <input name="gender" type="radio" id="gf" value="f" /> <label for="gf">Female</label> <br /> <label for="email">Email</label> <input type="text" name="email" id="email" /> </fieldset> <p> <textarea name="terms" cols="30" rows="4" readonly="readonly">TERMS AND CONDITIONS...</textarea> </p> <p> <input type="submit" name="submit" value="Send Form" /> <input type="reset" value="Clear Form" /> </p> </form> form.html (continued) © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 84. form.html (continued) HTML Forms – Example (3) 84© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 85. TabIndex • The TabIndex HTML attribute controls the order in which form fields and hyperlinks are focused when repeatedly pressing the TAB key • TabIndex="0" (zero) - "natural" order • If X > Y, then elements with TabIndex="X" are iterated before elements with TabIndex="Y" • Elements with negative TabIndex are skipped, however, this is not defined in the standard 85 <input type="text" tabindex="10" /> © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 87. HTML Frames • Frames provide a way to show multiple HTML documents in a single Web page • The page can be split into separate views (frames) horizontally and vertically • Frames were popular in the early ages of HTML development, but now their usage is rejected • Frames are not supported by all user agents (browsers, search engines, etc.) • A <noframes> element is used to provide content for non-compatible agents. 87© Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 88. HTML Frames – Demo 88 <html> <head><title>Frames Example</title></head> <frameset cols="180px,*,150px"> <frame src="left.html" /> <frame src="middle.html" /> <frame src="right.html" /> </frameset> </html> frames.html  Note the target attribute applied to the <a> elements in the left frame. © Sun Technologies Inc.
  • 89. Inline Frames: <iframe> • Inline frames provide a way to show one website inside another website: 89 <iframe name="iframeGoogle" width="600" height="400" src="http://www.google.com" frameborder="yes" scrolling="yes"></iframe> iframe-demo.html © Sun Technologies Inc.

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