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Lecture by Prof. Sabino Bufo

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Use of Multispectral and Hyperspectral data

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Lecture by Prof. Sabino Bufo

  1. 1. HVHV--UAVUAV multispectral compared tomultispectral compared to hyperspectralhyperspectral data collection as applieddata collection as applied to vegetation indexesto vegetation indexes calculationcalculation Prof. Sabino Aurelio Bufo*, Dott. Massimo Bavusi* and Gennaro Mecca*** *Dipartimento di Scienze – Università degli Studi della Basilicata – sabino.bufo@unibas.it ** Terralab S.r.l. – info@terralab.eu – www.terralab.eu DIPARTIMENTO DI SCIENZE ** Terralab S.r.l. – info@terralab.eu – www.terralab.eu *** Tab Consulting S.r.l. – info@tabconsulting.it – www.tabsrl.com Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 1
  2. 2. ContentsContents Assessing the robustness of Vegetation Indices (VIs) to estimate Durum Wheat grown (precision agriculture). Comparing satellite remote sensing (multispectral reflectance) and hyperspectral measurements (first year) Comparing UAV multispectral vs field hyperspectral data collection (second year) 2 collection (second year) Working in progress for environmental applications Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  3. 3. FirstFirst YearYear MAPRE ProjectMAPRE Project Regional Project on ‘Advanced Precision Agriculture Tools to Reduce the Environmental Impact of Wheat Cropping (Triticum Durum, Desf.)’. Funded by P.S.R. Basilicata (European Fund for Regional Development) 2007/2013. 3 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 Experimental Field (10 ha)
  4. 4. MethodMethod Remote sensing: The RapidEye Satellite Constellation http://blackbridge.com/rapideye/products/ortho.htm 4 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 Multispectral reflectance values, monitored by satellite, were used to determine specific indices of plant health. Spectral bands Blue: 440-510 nm (B) Green: 520-590 nm (G) Red: 630-685 nm (R) Red Edge: 690-730 nm (RE) NIR: 760-850 nm
  5. 5. MethodMethod Mostly used indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), or structural index (canopy development) Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE), or chlorophyll index 5 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 NDVI = NDRE = NIR – Red NIR + Red NIR – Red Edge NIR + Red Edge Spectral bands Blue: 440-510 nm (B) Green: 520-590 nm (G) Red: 630-685 nm (R) Red Edge: 690-730 nm (RE) NIR: 760-850 nm
  6. 6. MethodMethod Other indices: • Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index (CCCI) or Nitrogen uptake index: CCCI = NDRE/NDVI • Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) or water stress index: (NIR-BLUE)/(NIR+BLUE) 6 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 Spectral bands Blue: 440-510 nm (B) Green: 520-590 nm (G) Red: 630-685 nm (R) Red Edge: 690-730 nm (RE) NIR: 760-850 nm stress index: (NIR-BLUE)/(NIR+BLUE) • Meris Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI), or chlorophyll assessment index: (NIR-RedEdge)/(RedEdge-RED).
  7. 7. MethodMethod Field measurements (walking): 7 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 FieldSpec® HandHeld 2: Hand-held Vis-NIR Spectroradiometer, working in the 325 nm – 1075 nm spectral range, with an accuracy of ±1 nm and a resolution of <3 nm at 700 nm, equipped with GPS accessory
  8. 8. ResultsResults 8Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Cultivars C= Core T= Tirex S= Simeto NDVI, March, 2013 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 NDVI, March, 2013
  9. 9. ResultsResults Cultivars C= Core T= Tirex S= Simeto 9 NDVI, April, 2013 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 NDVI, April, 2013
  10. 10. ResultsResults 10Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE) Cultivars C= Core T= Tirex S= Simeto 10 NDRE, March, 2013 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 NDRE, March, 2013
  11. 11. ResultsResults 11Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE) NDRE, April, 2013 Cultivars C= Core T= Tirex S= Simeto Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 NDRE, April, 2013
  12. 12. ResultsResults 12Meris Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) MTCI, March, 2013 Cultivars C= Core T= Tirex S= Simeto Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 MTCI, March, 2013
  13. 13. ResultsResults 13Meris Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) MTCI, April, 2013 Cultivars C= Core T= Tirex S= Simeto Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 MTCI, April, 2013
  14. 14. ResultsResults 14Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) MDWI, March, 2013 Cultivars C= Core T= Tirex S= Simeto Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 MDWI, March, 2013
  15. 15. ResultsResults 15Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) MDWI, April, 2013 Cultivars C= Core T= Tirex S= Simeto Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 MDWI, April, 2013
  16. 16. FirstFirst YearYear MAPRE ProjectMAPRE Project Regional Project on ‘Advanced Precision Agriculture Tools to Reduce the Environmental Impact of Wheat Cropping (Triticum Durum, Desf.)’. Funded by P.S.R. Basilicata (European Fund for Regional Development) 2007/2013. 3 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 Experimental Field (10 ha)
  17. 17. SecondSecond YearYear FRUINDEX ProjectFRUINDEX Project Regional Project on ‘Reduction of environmental impact in the production of durum wheat by means of fertilization based on reflectance measurements and related vegetation indices’. 17 related vegetation indices’. Also funded by P.S.R. Basilicata (European Fund for Regional Development) 2007/2013. Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  18. 18. InstrumentationInstrumentation andand techniquestechniques Field Spec HandHeld2 Spectroradiometer SenseFly Ebee Multispec 4c 18 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 •Spectral range: 325 nm – 1075 nm •Accuracy :±1 nm •Resolution: <3 nm at 700 nm Resolution: 1.2 Mp x 4 Ground resolution at 100m:10 cm/px Sensor size: 4.8 x 3.6 mm per sensor Pixel pitch: 3.75 um Image format: RAW Upward looking irradiance sensor
  19. 19. UAVUAV 19 UAV: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synonymous and variants: RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft), RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft), SAPR (Sistemi Aerei a Pilotaggio Remoto), APR (Aeromobile a Pilotaggio Remoto); Autonomous Aircraft Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  20. 20. The vectorThe vector Hardware Weight (inc. supplied camera): Approx. 0.69 kg (1.52 lbs) Wingspan: 96 cm (38 in) Material: EPP foam, carbon structure & composite parts Propulsion: Electric pusher propeller, 160 W brushless DC motor Battery: 11.1 V, 2150 mAh Camera (supplied) : WX (18.2 MP) Cameras (optional), S110 RGB, thermoMAP, Carry case dimensions, 55 x 45 x 25 cm (21.6 x 17.7 x 9.8 in) Operation Maximum flight time: 50 minutes Nominal cruise speed: 40-90 km/h (11-25 m/s or 25-56 mph) Radio link range: Up to 3 km (1.86 miles) Maximum coverage (single flight): 12 km² / 4.6 mi² (at 974 m / 3,195 ft altitude AGL) Wind resistance: Up to 45 km/h (12m/s or 28 mph) Ground Sampling Distance (GSD): Down to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) per pixel Relative orthomosaic/3D model accuracy 20 55 x 45 x 25 cm (21.6 x 17.7 x 9.8 in) Relative orthomosaic/3D model accuracy 1-3x GSD Absolute horizontal/vertical accuracy (w/GCPs) Down to 3 cm (1.2 in) / 5 cm (2 in) Absolute horizontal/vertical accuracy (no GCPs) 1-5 m (3.3-16.4 ft) Multi-drone operation : Yes (inc. mid-air collision avoidance) Automatic 3D flight planning: Yes Linear landing accuracy: Approx. 5 m (16.4 ft) Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  21. 21. UAV in AgricultureUAV in Agriculture Index variations Patterns in canopy height, vigour, colour, density Developing erosion channels Damage observations Plant statistical variations & comparisons to other data (e.g. planter data) Patterns in dry soil vs. wet soil Determine relative location of drainage tile & 21 Determine relative location of drainage tile & whether functioning/broken Disaster management Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  22. 22. UAV in AgricultureUAV in Agriculture Platform Cost Time consumption Spatial resolution Spectral resolution Cloud sensitivity Coverage Ondemand services Satellite high low 2-30 m 4 or more high Square kilometers No 22 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 Satellite high low m more bands high kilometers No UAV low low 3 -20 cm 4 bands low Up to 10 Km2 Yes Field low high Dependingon thestep Hyperspectral ability low few hectares Yes
  23. 23. Fruindex project: locationFruindex project: location 23 Location: Genzano di Lucania (Basilicata, Italy) Coordinates: 40°49'15.35"N, 16° 4'43.96"E Soc. Coop. Agr. LA GENERALE Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  24. 24. Fruindex project: test siteFruindex project: test site Wheat accessions Tirex and Core 6 replicates 24 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 N fertilization: 100 or 150 Kg/ha applied in two rates April and May
  25. 25. Fruindex project:Fruindex project: FlightFlight planplan 25 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  26. 26. Fruindex project: vegetation indexesFruindex project: vegetation indexes NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) NDVI is directly related to the photosynthetic capacity and hence energy absorption of plant canopies NDRE (Normalized Difference RedEdge Index NDRE is sensitive to chlorophyll content CCCI (Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index) (NIR-Red)/(NIR+Red) (NIR-RE)/(NIR+RE) NDRE/NDVI CCCI is sensitive to the chlorophyll content 26 NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index) MTCI (Meris Terrestrial Clorophyll Index) MTCI is sensitive to chlorophyll contentNIR-RE/RE-Red NIR-Blue/NIR+Blue NDWI is sensitive to changes in water content of vegetation canopies VariGREEN Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (Green-Red)/ (Green+Red+Blue) Related to the resistance to adverse climatic conditions Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  27. 27. NDVI: (NIRNDVI: (NIR--Red)/(Red)/(NIR+RedNIR+Red)) FieldSpec - April FieldSpec - May 27 Multispec4c - April Multispec4c - May Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  28. 28. NDRE: (NIRNDRE: (NIR--RE)/(NIR+RE)RE)/(NIR+RE) FieldSpec - April FieldSpec - May 28 Multispec4c - April Multispec4c - May Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  29. 29. CCCI: NDRE/NDVICCCI: NDRE/NDVI FieldSpec - April FieldSpec - May 29 Multispec4c - April Multispec4c - May Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  30. 30. MTCI : NIRMTCI : NIR--RE/RERE/RE--RedRed FieldSpec - April FieldSpec - May 30 Multispec4c - April Multispec4c - May Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  31. 31. NDWI: NIRNDWI: NIR--Blue/Blue/NIR+BlueNIR+Blue FieldSpec - April FieldSpec - May 31 Multispec4c - April Multispec4c - May Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  32. 32. MethodMethod Remote sensing: The RapidEye Satellite Constellation http://blackbridge.com/rapideye/products/ortho.htm 4 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 Multispectral reflectance values, monitored by satellite, were used to determine specific indices of plant health. Spectral bands Blue: 440-510 nm (B) Green: 520-590 nm (G) Red: 630-685 nm (R) Red Edge: 690-730 nm (RE) NIR: 760-850 nm
  33. 33. NDVINDVI vsvs productionproduction 33 Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  34. 34. Advantages of UAV multispectral mappingAdvantages of UAV multispectral mapping Full coverage herbicide Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015 Control of sprayers based on remote sensing data can lead to a reduction of 80 % -90 % of the doses of herbicide. Patch-sprying
  35. 35. Other applicationsOther applications Vegetation and biodiversity monitoring Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  36. 36. Other applicationsOther applications Landslide characterization Executive planning Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015
  37. 37. Many thanksMany thanks for your kind attentionfor your kind attention Summer School of Hydrology Applied Course on UAVs for Environmental Monitoring, Matera, July 27-31, 2015

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