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Skyline engineering contracts (India) pvt. Ltd.
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT
09/06/2016 - 23/07/2016
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
Subm...
1
DECLARATION
I hereby declare that this submission is my own and that to the best of my
knowledge and belief, it contains...
2
Acknowledgements
I would like to acknowledge the contributions made by various people for of the
summer training program...
3
TABLE OF CONTENT
DESCRIPTION PAGE
 Introduction to Company  04
 Machinery used  05
 Introduction to project  07
 ...
4
Introduction to Company
"It was a proud day for me in 1964 when I participated in the launching of skyline
Construction ...
5
Machinery used
Sl.
No.
Particulars of Machinery, Tools, Plant,
Centering and Shuttering etc. owned by
applicant
Quantity...
6
11 Cup-lock Pipe Staging 200000 Rm.
12 Steel Props 20000 Nos.
13 Water Pumps 60 Nos.
14 Electric Motors (4 to 10 HP) 35 ...
7
Introduction to Project
A new neighborhood as it takes shape is all set to redefine contemporary urban
living in Gurgaon...
8
PROJECT DETAILS
Living/ Dining Room
Flooring/ Skirting
Matt finished stain and abrasion resistant vitreous
tiles / polis...
9
Wall Finish
Glazed/Matt finished Ceramic Wall tiles up to
DADO level (approx. 2100 mm).
Oil Bound Distemper on plastered...
10
Counter Polished Indian Granite or Marble.
Fixtures and Fittings
Stainless Steel Sink and mixer of standard makes
and b...
11
Ceiling Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster.
Servant Toilet
Flooring Matt finished Ceramic Tiles
Wall Fin...
12
Wall Finish Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.
Common Passage
Flooring Polished Indian Stone/Indian Marble
Wall Finish Whi...
13
External Wall Finish
External grade anti-fungal / anti-algal paint from
reputed makes and brands
Electrical Wiring And ...
14
Fig. 1.1- Projected Plan
Fig 1.2-front gate
15
Fig 1.3-night aesthetic view
Fig. 1.4- Floor Plan of Tower F
16
BUILDING MATERIALS
A building structure iscomposed of different typesof the materialthesematerials are called as
buildi...
17
It is a combination of clinker and gypsum of good quality. Ordinary Portland
cement
is manufactured by first burning at...
18
should not exceed 7%. When mixing concrete the moisture content must be taken into
consideration.
The price of sand inc...
19
Aggregates
Aggregates is a general term applied to those inert (that chemically inactive) material, which
when bounded ...
20
Fig. 1.5– Reinforcementandother fittings (MS Fan Box, PVCConduit)inslab
Precautions:
Steel bars/rods should be responsi...
21
lower durability, erratic set characteristics and inconsistent colour. The ph of the water
used for mixing of mortar/co...
22
Properties of the reinforced cement concrete:
1) The concrete develops very good bond with the surface of the steel bar...
23
Limit State Method
is a judicious amalgamation of Working Stress Method and Ultimate
Stress Method, removing the drawba...
24
Fig. 1.7-Design Mix of M-40
Properties of Cement concrete
Strength of concrete:-
It should be have high compressive str...
25
Durability of concrete;-The concrete possess a high durability value, as it is not much
affected by atmospheric action....
26
Water cement ratio
Water cement ratio is the ratio of the water in a mix (excluding waterabsorbed
already by the aggreg...
27
Batching of the concrete
After fixing the proportion of different ingredients of concrete for a particular work, the ma...
28
Batch mixer is most commonly used and consisting of a revolving drum with
blades or baffles inside it. In batch mixer, ...
29
ement and to eliminate stonepockets, honeycomb and entrapped air. It should not remove si
gnificant amount of intention...
30
a finishing machine using float blades. This
embeds aggregateparticles just beneath the surface; removes slight imperfe...
31
Demarcation/layout Procedure
The following procedure is recommended for demarcation of a building.
 For layout of a bu...
32
33
Advantages of Layout with the help of Burjis
 It saves time for measuring and setting of point again and again at the ...
34
Disadvantages for doing the work without layout
At some sites of work the contractor brings steel pieces, erects the sa...
35
Concreting of starter will proceed after checking of layout with necessary clearance from
clients.
thick film coated pl...
36
Hessian cloth shall be wrapped around the column/wall for keeping the element wet for
minimum of 14 days.
De-shuttering...
37
Requirement of the formwork
Good forms for concrete structure should satisfy the following requirements; (1) It
should ...
38
above 4.5 m 14 days span, bottom of the beams up to 6 m span, and bottom of
arch ribs up to 6 m span(f) Bottom of beams...
39
decided. In case of major break down of the Batching plant, the additional
Construction joint may be left. The location...
40
Curing
The curing shall be started immediately after thumb set of the concrete laid.
Hessian clothe /Plastic shall be c...
41
Fig
42
43
BRICKWORK
Bricks can be of two types. These are:
1) Traditional Bricks-The dimension if traditional bricks vary from 21...
44
ONGOING WORK
Layout of the Floor Partitions- Tower F 19th Floor Layout
Fig. 1.10– Layout for Partition Wall
Masonry Wal...
45
The durability and strength of masonry wall construction depends on the type and
quality of material used and workmansh...
46
CONCLUSION
Under the guidance of Mr. Kapil Bhardwaj (Sr. Manager - Projects) as a mentor, we have got
opportunity to un...
47
Bibliography
 Internet
 http://www.slideshare.net/AbhishekSingh892/an-internship-report-on-
residential-building-cons...
48
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Construction of residential building

  1. 1. Skyline engineering contracts (India) pvt. Ltd. SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT 09/06/2016 - 23/07/2016 RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Submitted by : SUMIT SINGH Civil engineering department 4rth year Roll.no. 1309000107
  2. 2. 1 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this submission is my own and that to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no matter previously published or written by neither person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of my other degree or diploma of the university and other institution of higher learning except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text. Signature: NaME:- SUMIT SINGH ROLL NO:- 103000107
  3. 3. 2 Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge the contributions made by various people for of the summer training programme and project report submission as a part of curriculum for the degree of Bachelor of Technology, Civil Engineering and for providing me a helping hand in the making of this particular project. Firstly I would like to thank, Mr. Dheerendra Kumar Singh (HOD of Civil Engg., IEC-CET) for meticulously planning academic curriculum in such a way that students are not only academically sound but also industry ready by including such industrial training patterns. I would also like to acknowledge and my heartfelt gratitude to my civil department faculties and my dear friends who continuously supported me in every possible way, from initial advice to encouragement till this date. I would like to mention the work and hard work put in by our Mentor: Mr. SAKTI GUPTA( Snr. ENGINEER) & Mr. ATUL PANT( JUNIOR ENGINEER) for his support and guidance. Also I would like to thank Mr. DHURENDERA SINGH( PROJECT MANEGER) who has given me this opportunity to carry out the training program. I am also thankful to the Engineering Staff of Skyline engineering contracts (India) pvt. Ltd. present on the site for providing me full assistance on the site. Finally I would like to thanks my parents who have always supported , encouraged and helped me all through my life
  4. 4. 3 TABLE OF CONTENT DESCRIPTION PAGE  Introduction to Company  04  Machinery used  05  Introduction to project  07  Project details  08  Building materials  16  Batching of concrete  26  Demarcation /layout procedure  31  Rcc slab & beam casting  38  Staircase construction  40  Brickwork  43  Ongoing work  45  Conclusion  47  Bibliography  48
  5. 5. 4 Introduction to Company "It was a proud day for me in 1964 when I participated in the launching of skyline Construction Company by my late father Sri Jugal Kishore Guliani. It was then the beginning of a very strong belief and conviction that Skyline and my own destinies will be inextricably linked. After I graduated from IIT (Delhi), I officially joined Skyline. Now Forty years later as The Managing Director of Skyline Engineering Contracts (India) Pvt. Ltd. as the company is now Known, I'm Proud that we have grown into a well-known and well-respected construction company that has many rich traditions along with a proud heritage. Not only do we have a past that we can be proud of, but, we hold dear to our hearts, the future hopes and aspirations of the professionals who guide this company. Without doubt we have the people and the resources to lead this company to a bright future. We have reached thus far owing to hard work, dedication and determination of the team that drives this organization. We have earned the trust and respect of the giants of Indian industry and I'm confident, that we will grow from strength to strength in our endeavor to make this company into one that delivers value and satisfaction to our growing base of valued clients.
  6. 6. 5 Machinery used Sl. No. Particulars of Machinery, Tools, Plant, Centering and Shuttering etc. owned by applicant Quantity 1 Concrete Batching Plant (Capacity 30 m3 per Hr.) 6 Nos. 2 Concrete Mini Batching Plant (Universal/Gamzen make) (Capacity 15 m3 per Hr.) 20 Nos. 3 Concrete Pump (Capacity 30 m3 per Hr.) 12 Nos. 4 Transit Mixers. 10 Nos. 5 Concrete Mixers (Full bag capacity) 45 Nos. 6 Concrete Mixers (Half bag capacity) 12 Nos. 7 Concrete Vibrators 100 Nos. 8 Tower Cranes 4 Nos. 9 Builder Hoists 20 Nos. 10 Shuttering Plates 45000 S.q.m.
  7. 7. 6 11 Cup-lock Pipe Staging 200000 Rm. 12 Steel Props 20000 Nos. 13 Water Pumps 60 Nos. 14 Electric Motors (4 to 10 HP) 35 Nos. 15 Gas Cutters 25 Nos. 16 Welding Machines 20 Nos. 17 Drilling Machines 40 Nos. 18 Diesel Generators (125 KVA) 15 Nos. 19 Diesel Generators (62 KVA) 20 Nos. 29 Floor Grinding Machines 30 Nos. 21 Tremix Vacuum De-watering System 15 Nos. 22 Hydraulic Excavator - (0.9m3 bucket capacity). 4 Nos. 23 JCB Excavator/ Loader. 6 Nos. 24 Dumpers – 9 MT. 15 Nos. 25 Crane – 90 MT capacity. 02 Nos.
  8. 8. 7 Introduction to Project A new neighborhood as it takes shape is all set to redefine contemporary urban living in Gurgaon. Assotech blith is an elegant compilation of the finest set of high- rise residences that are a perfect blend of comfort and convenience. Ambitious, iconic & dynamic, these residential towers provide a unique mix of style and perfection. With excellent connectivity to NH-8 & IGI Airport and also the proximity of a Metro station ensures your home at Assotech blith is never too far from anything. Spread over 11 Acres of carefully crafted landscape the complex ensures an ecological twist to your urban living. The premium residences are available in a choice of 2, 3 & 4 bedroom homes. Every home in Universal Aura has been created with your needs in mind, with spacious living room, large windows that allow maximum natural light and present stunning views of the landscape around. With only 4 apartments on each floor, you can be rest assured of your privacy. Each home affords itself with a secure car park as well. Imagine an iconic central plaza, just a few steps across your home – the club house at Assotech blith is the perfect place to entertain your family with a range of facilities like kids' play area, swimming pool, gymnasium, spa and several outdoor sports facilities. Apart from the superior facilities of the clubhouse, there is a super market, all offering a convenient and comfortable lifestyle. With 24X7 power back-up and a 3 tier security system built as an integral part of the complex, you can be assured that you are never left in the dark and you & your family is always safe. For those who appreciate a lavish lifestyle surrounded by abundance of natural beauty, Assotech blith offers an unparalleled value and choice.
  9. 9. 8 PROJECT DETAILS Living/ Dining Room Flooring/ Skirting Matt finished stain and abrasion resistant vitreous tiles / polished vitrified tiles. Wall Finish Acrylic Emulsion on plaster. Ceiling Oil bound distemper on plaster. Lighting Standard makes and brands. All Bedrooms Flooring/ Skirting Matt finished stain and abrasion resistant vitreous tiles / polished vitrified tiles. Wall Finish Acrylic Emulsion on plaster. Ceiling Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster. Toilets Flooring Matt Finished / Anti-Skid ceramic tiles.
  10. 10. 9 Wall Finish Glazed/Matt finished Ceramic Wall tiles up to DADO level (approx. 2100 mm). Oil Bound Distemper on plastered surfaces above DADO level. Ceiling Finish Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster. Sanitary Ware Wash basin and European water closet (EWC) of standard makes & brands. Accessories Health Faucet along with necessary angle valves etc. of standard makes and brands. All toilet floors provided with suitable and adequate water proofing treatment. Provision for Installation. Kitchen Modular Kitchen Standard makes and brands. Flooring/Skirting Matt finished ceramic tiles. Wall Finish 2’ high Ceramic Tiles dado above counter. Oil Bound Distemper over Plaster in remaining area. Ceiling Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster.
  11. 11. 10 Counter Polished Indian Granite or Marble. Fixtures and Fittings Stainless Steel Sink and mixer of standard makes and brands Provision for installation of Geysers. Balconies Flooring Matt finished/anti-skid Ceramic Tiles. Wall Finish Exterior grade paint on plaster. Ceiling Finish Exterior grade paint on plaster. Handrail and Parapets Combination of parapet walls and M.S. Handrails as per the functional and elevation requirements. External Wall Finish External Wall Finish External grade Anti-Fungal / Anti algal paint from reputed makes & brands. Servant room Flooring Matt finished ceramic tiles. Wall Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster.
  12. 12. 11 Ceiling Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster. Servant Toilet Flooring Matt finished Ceramic Tiles Wall Finish Dado of glazed / matt finished Ceramic Wall Tiles. (Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plastered surfaces above dado level for remaining areas. Ceiling Finish Whitewash / Oil Bound Distemper on plaster. Sanitary Ware Wash basin and Indian water closet (IWC / Orissa pan) of standard makes. C.P. Fittings & Accessories Bib cock. Pillar Cock, Ablution tap along with necessary angle valves etc. of standard makes and brands. Staircase Flooring Polished Indian Stone/Indian Marble on Treads, Risers and Landings Railing Painted M.S. Handrails and balustrades
  13. 13. 12 Wall Finish Oil Bound Distemper on Plaster. Common Passage Flooring Polished Indian Stone/Indian Marble Wall Finish Whitewash / oil bound distemper on plaster Ceiling Finish Whitewash / oil bound distemper on plaster Doors And Windows Main Entrance Door Polished Hardwood frame with Polished flush Door Shutters Internal Door Painted Hardwood frame with painted Flush Doors Hardware Locks, Handles and Knobs (Mortise & Cylindrical Locks) from reputed makes and brands. High quality Steel / Brass Hardware. Windows & External Glazing Powder Coated Aluminum Frame or UPVC frame Windows with clear glass. External Wall Finish
  14. 14. 13 External Wall Finish External grade anti-fungal / anti-algal paint from reputed makes and brands Electrical Wiring And Installation Fixtures and Fittings IS Compliant Modular Switches / Sockets, Distribution Boxes and Circuit breakers from standard makes and brands. Wiring IS Compliant Copper wiring in Concealed conduits. Adequate provision for light points, fan points, receptacles and power in all rooms. Points Electrical points for Exhaust Fans in Kitchen & Toilets Electrical points for Air-conditioners provided in appropriate locations in Bedrooms and Living Room. Plumbing IS Compliant CPVC water supply pipes with standard valves and accessories IS Compliant PVC waste pipes and traps. UPVC pipes are also used for solid waste & drain water pipe.
  15. 15. 14 Fig. 1.1- Projected Plan Fig 1.2-front gate
  16. 16. 15 Fig 1.3-night aesthetic view Fig. 1.4- Floor Plan of Tower F
  17. 17. 16 BUILDING MATERIALS A building structure iscomposed of different typesof the materialthesematerials are called as building materials. The materials used in the building are on basis of the availability and cost. To construct a buildingthe essentialbuildingmaterialare asfollows: Cement:-The cement, often called the magic power is a fine ground material consisting of compound of lime, silica, alumina and iron. When mixed with water it forms a paste which hardened and bind the aggregates (sand, gravel, crushed rock, etc.)together to form a durable masscalled asconcrete. Cement is the binder that holds concrete and mortars together. That is why it plays the most critical role in giving strength and durability to the building. Cement used for residential building isbasically of three types: Portland Slag Cement:-Conforming to IS:455, it is a combination of good quality blast furnace slag from the iron steel industry with clinker. Portland Pozzolana Cement:-Conforming to IS: 1489, it is a combination of fly ash (from thermal power plant) with clinker and gypsum. Pozzolana cement is prepared by grinding Portland cement clinker with pozzolana. This type of cement is largelyused in marine structure. Ordinary Portland Cement: 33 grade conforming to IS: 269, 43 grade conforming to IS: 8112 and 53 grade conforming to IS: 12269. The grade number indicates the minimum compressive strength of cement sand mortar in N/mm2 at 28 days, as tested by above mentioned procedure.
  18. 18. 17 It is a combination of clinker and gypsum of good quality. Ordinary Portland cement is manufactured by first burning at a very high temperature the mixture of calcar eous (mainly calcium carbonate) and argillaceous (mainly clay) and then grinding the product (i.e. clinker) with small amount of gypsum into a fine power known as Ordinary Portland Cement.  Ordinary Portland Cement of grade 43 has been used in all the works at the skyline site.  Sand:- These are cohesionless aggregates of either, rounded sub rounded, angular, subang ular or flat fragments of more or less unaltered rock of minerals consisting of 90% of particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less than 2 mm. Alternatively, these are coarse grained cohesion less particles of silica derived from the disintegration of rock. Thesiltcontent in sand sample shouldbe lessthanorequalto8%.Theseareof three types: Coarse sand:-It isonewhich contains90%of particles of size greaterthan0.6mm and less than 2mm Medium sand:-It is one, which contains 90 & of particles of particles size greater than 0.2 mm and less than 0.6 mm Fine sand:-It is one, which contains 90% of particles of size greater than 0.06 mm and less than 0.2 mm. Proper selection of sand is critical in the durability and performance of concrete mixture. It should be: Clear, angular and hard, free from clay, mica and soft, flaky material graded, which means it should be a mix of fine, medium and coarse sand free from contaminates.Contaminantssuchasseasaltareconsistentinmoisture(water)contentwhich
  19. 19. 18 should not exceed 7%. When mixing concrete the moisture content must be taken into consideration. The price of sand includes three or four components-base cost, transportation handling and number of Intermediaries. Procuring sand in bulk directly from the source will be cheaper. Your neighborhood dealer in this case is likely to be costlier, except when you need smaller quantities. Building Stone:-Building stones are obtained from the rocks occurring in nature. The stones are used into construct the foundation, super structure and many of the building components.The variousstonesderivedfrom these typesof rocksare as follows: Principal stones from igneous rocks:-Granite, Basalt andTrap. Principal stones from sedimentary rocks:-Sand stone, Shale, Lime stone. Principal stones from metamorphic rocks:-Quartzite, slateand marble. Properties or requirement of good building stone: a good building stone should possess several characteristics such as high strength (crushing strength>1000kg/cm ) ,high durability, sufficient hardness (coefficient of hardness>14) , high resistance to wear , good fire resistance ,specific gravity more than 2.7 , crystalline structure, high impact value(toughness index> 13) low water absorption (percentage absorption after 24hourless than 0.6), weather resistance and betterappearance.
  20. 20. 19 Aggregates Aggregates is a general term applied to those inert (that chemically inactive) material, which when bounded together by cement, form concrete. Most aggregates used in this country are naturallyoccurringaggregatessuch as sand, crushed rockand gravel. Aggregatesforconcrete are divided into three categories: Fine Aggregates: Most of which passes through 4.75 mm I.S. sieve and retained on150 micron. Coarse Aggregates: Most of which passes through 63 mm I.S. sieve and retained on 4.75micron. Reinforcement Steel Reinforcing steel contributes to the tensile strength of the concrete. Concrete has low tensile, but high compressive strength. The tensile deficiency is compensated by reinforcing the concrete mass through insertion of twisted mild steel bars. Both branded and unbranded bars are available. It is wise to buy good brands the names of which are marked on the steel. During construction make sure that steel reinforcement is provided exactly as the engineeringdesign specification.
  21. 21. 20 Fig. 1.5– Reinforcementandother fittings (MS Fan Box, PVCConduit)inslab Precautions: Steel bars/rods should be responsibly clean and free of rust. Bars that cannot be easily bent manually or mechanically should be rejected. Optimum length bars must not be chosen to reduce wastage in cutting .To avoid laps, shorterbarsmust not be acceptedWelded length of the bars should not be accepted Fe 500 reinforcement steel has been used at skyline site. Water Thestrengthanddurabilityofconcretedependsalsoontheamountofwatermixedwithit.Too muchortoolittleWatercanadverselyaffectthestrengthofconcrete.After concrete is cast, water is used to cure it so that the temperature is controlled and concrete matures slowly. It is very important to use clean, potable water in quality concrete production. Brackish or salty water must never be used. Contaminated water will produce concrete mortars with
  22. 22. 21 lower durability, erratic set characteristics and inconsistent colour. The ph of the water used for mixing of mortar/concrete should not have pH less than 6. REINFORCED CEMENT CONCRETE Plain concrete is very strong in compression but its tensile strength is only about 1/10 of the strength in the compression. So, the use of the plain concrete is limited to the structure in pure compression. Steel being equally strong in compression and tension, is, therefore, used to reinforce the concrete in a suitable way so that it can be used to build supporting structure where tension also develops. Concrete, thus reinforced is known asreinforced concrete .Thiscombination ismade becauselongsteelbarscandevelopsitsfull strength where it cannot carry equal amount of compressive force due to itsbuckling which is caused by the sle nderness. Thus, the combination of concreteand steel bars has proved to be ideal, as the two materialare used to resistthe stressesforwhich theyare most suitable. Fig. 1.6-Columns of RCC at the Skyline Site
  23. 23. 22 Properties of the reinforced cement concrete: 1) The concrete develops very good bond with the surface of the steel bars and, therefore the stressesare transferred from one materialto theother which cannot resist individually. 2) The steel possesses a high tensile strength, a high modulus of elasticity and same coefficients of expansion and contraction as concrete. Due to equally near coefficients, no internal stresses are set up within reinforced concrete due to variation in temperature. 3) The coating of cement grout or paste on the surface of the reinforcement protects it from corrosion and at the same time it doesnot chemically react with the reinforcement. Advantages of the reinforcement cement concrete: It is overall economical in ultimate cost. Its monolithic character provides more rigidity to the structure. It is highly durable and fire resisting. It is not affected by the vermins termites fungus or such other insects. Well-compacted R.C.C. structure is impermeable to moisture penetration.CareandcostofmaintenanceofR.C.C.structurearealmostnegligible.Thefluidity of the concrete and flexibility of reinforcement make it to possible to mould the R.C.C. members into variety of shapesdesired. Design philosophy R.C.C. design of building is being carried out mainly by three methods of design. They are namely: (1) Working stress method (2) Ultimate load method and (3) Limit state method. The Limit state method is now is vogue in all government design office sand premier private consulting firms. The B.I.S. have published I.S.: 456-2000 incorporating the use of the Limit state method of design. The designer should therefore get well versed with the theory of Limit statemethod.
  24. 24. 23 Limit State Method is a judicious amalgamation of Working Stress Method and Ultimate Stress Method, removing the drawback of both of the method but retaining their good points. It is also based on sound scientific principles and backed by 25 yearofresearch.TheLimitStateMethodhasprovedtohaveanedgeovertheWorkingStress Method from the economic point of view. Consequently we need no stick to Working Stress Method anymore. Besides analyticalpart of the structuraldesign, following factors should also be kept inmind whiledesigningthe structure. a)Strengthof structure. b)Durability of structure. c) Serviceability of structure during construction as well as during design life time of structure. d) Economy in building material and ease of constructions. e) Economy in centering and form work. f)Aesthetics of structure. PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE Plain Cement Concrete is a composite material used for construction of various civil engineering structures. It is obtained by mixing the basic ingredients such as cement, Fine aggregate (normally sand) and coarse aggregate (normally stone pieces) in required proportions. Water is added in the required measure and the mixture is put into a mechanical mixerto achieve concrete PCC ofGrades M-30, M-40 and M-45were usedat the sitewithdifferentdesignmix.
  25. 25. 24 Fig. 1.7-Design Mix of M-40 Properties of Cement concrete Strength of concrete:- It should be have high compressive strength. The tensile and shear strengths are generally about 8 to 12% and 8 To 10% of their compressive strength respectively .The compressive strengthofconcreteisaffectedbyseveralfactorssuchas(a)Qualityofthematerialandgrading of the aggregates (b) Water(c) Water cement ratio (d) Cement content (e) Age of the concrete (f)Method of mixing placing compactingand curing.
  26. 26. 25 Durability of concrete;-The concrete possess a high durability value, as it is not much affected by atmospheric action. On the contrary, with the age, the concrete goes on hardening,therebyincreaseinthestrength.Itisthisproperty,whichgivesthismaterialadistinct place amongthe buildingmaterial. Elasticity of concrete The concrete is not a truly elastic material and elastic modulus is effect by the strength, age, and moisture content of the concrete and the type of the aggregate used. The concrete undergoes an extra strain in addition to instantaneous strain onapplicationofaloadorstress,sufficienttime.Thisextrastrainiscalledcreepofconcreteand is permanent in characternot recovered on the removal of load. Shrinkage of concrete The concrete has a tendencyto shrinkunderfollowing conditions:- (a) There is initial shrinkage of cement concrete, which is mainly due to loss of water through forms, absorption bysurface of forms. (b) The shrinkage of cement concrete occurs as it is hardened. This tendency of shrinkage on one-hand causes cracks in concrete, while on the other, it grips the reinforcement tightly and hence proper bond between concrete and reinforcement when used in R.C.C. work. Fire resistance of concrete:- Concrete is good insulator and has a fairly good fire resistance owing to thepresence of pores and also water. Workability:-Workability is the most elusive property of concrete. A concrete is said to be workable if it can be easily mixed, Handled, transported, placed in position and compacted. A workable concrete should not showanysegregation Orbleeding.
  27. 27. 26 Water cement ratio Water cement ratio is the ratio of the water in a mix (excluding waterabsorbed already by the aggregate) to the weight of cement their-in. water cement ratio is the most importantfactorgoverningthestrengthofconcrete.Thestrengthoftheconcretedependmainly open the amount of cement and the amount of water in it. The correct quantity of water cement ratio required for a particular mix depends upon various factors such as mix proportions, type and grading of aggregate, method of compaction applied and weather condition.On the other hand workability of a concrete mix increases as the water content or water cement ratio of mix increased, because the water lubricate the mixture. But, at the sametime increases in watercontent deceases thestrength. Excessof water,furtherweaken theconcrete,producesshrinkagecracksanddecreasesdensity.Manufacture of the PCC Inthemanufactureofconcrete,itisalmostimportanttoensurethataconcreteofpredetermined proportioniscontinuouslyplacedinpositioninsuchawaythateachbatchalmostliketheother batchesasfaras possible.
  28. 28. 27 Batching of the concrete After fixing the proportion of different ingredients of concrete for a particular work, the material C.A., F.A., cement and water measured out in batches for mixing. The process is known as Batching. This processof batchingmaybe carried out byweightorby volume. (i) Weight batching: - The unit of weight, for material of concrete, is usually Kilogram. The batching of material by weight is absolutely straightforward,the cement, sand and coarse aggregate being all weighed directly i n Kilogram. (ii) Volume batching: - In batching by volume, all ingredient i.e. water, cement, sand and coarse aggregate are measured in liters, where the resultingconcrete (being) solid measured in cubicmeters. Mixing of concrete Mixingofconcretemaybecarriedoutbyhandormachine(byusingamechanicalmixture)but the mixingbymachine is always preferred. (i)Mixing by hand: - In this, mixing carried out by hand on a clean, hard and water tight platform .Firstly cement, sand, aggregate are mixed by hand with the help of the shovel and a desired quantity of the wateradded to it and mixproperly. Thistype of mixing carried out in the small workand unimportant work. (ii) Mixing in machine: The machine used for mixing concrete is known asmechanical con crete mixer. There are two main type of concrete mixer iscommonlyuse namely: Continuous mixers are used in massive construction such as dams, bridges, etc., which involve the useof largemassesof concreteand also required the continuousflowof concrete.
  29. 29. 28 Batch mixer is most commonly used and consisting of a revolving drum with blades or baffles inside it. In batch mixer, all the material of desired proportioned mix are fed into the hopper of the revolving drum on being rotated at a certain speed mixes the material withtheaidofaseriesofbladesprovidinginside,theresultingmixisfinallydischargedfromthe drum and conveyed forused. Transporting the concrete Transportingtheconcretemixisdefinedasthetransferringofconcretefromthemixingplantto the construction site. Keep in mind that not all concrete ismixed on the actual construction site and could require some significant travel.This ismost commonforreadymixed concrete.The main objective in transporting concrete is to ensure that the water cement ratio, slump or consistency, aircontent, homogeneity are not modified from there intended states. The concrete is transported commonly by the steel pipes. Placing and finishing of concrete Mixing,transporting,andhandlingofconcreteshouldbecarefullycoordinatedwithplacingand finishing operations. Concrete should not be deposited more rapidly than it can be spread, struck off, consolidation, and bull floated. Concrete should be deposited continuously asnearaspossibletoitsfinalposition.Inslabconstruction,placingshouldbestartedalongthe perimeter at one end of the work with each batch placed against previously dispatched concrete. Concrete should not be dumped in separate piles and then leveled and worked together; nor should the concrete be deposited in large piles and moved horizontally intofinal position. Consolidation In some types of construction, the concrete is placed in forms, and then consolidated by temp. The consolidation compacts fresh concrete to mold it within theforms and around embedded items and reinforc
  30. 30. 29 ement and to eliminate stonepockets, honeycomb and entrapped air. It should not remove si gnificant amount of intentionallyentr-ained air. Vibration Either internal or external is the most widely used method for consolidating concrete. When concrete is vibrated, the internal friction betweenthe aggregate particles is temporarily destroyed and the concrete behave like a liquid; it settles in the forms under the action of gravity and the large entrapped air voids rise moreeasily to the surface. Internalfriction is re-established as soon as vibration stops. Finishing Concrete that will be visible, such as slab like driveway, highway or patios often need finishing. Concrete slabs can be finished in many ways, depending on the intended service use. Options include various colors and textures, such as exposed aggregate or a patterned stamped surface. Some surface may require only strike off and screeding to proper contour and elevation, while for other surface a broomed, floated, or troweled finish may be specified. In slab construction screeding or strike off is the process of cutting off excess concrete to bring the top surface of the slab to proper grade. A straight edge is moved acrossthe concrete with a sawing motion and advanced forward a short distance with eachmovement. Bullfloatingeliminateshighandlowspotsandembedslargeaggregateparticlesimmediately after strike off. This look like a long handled straight edge pulled across the concrete. Joining is required to eliminate unsightly random cracks. Construction joints are made with a groover or by inserting strips of plastic, wood, metal, or performed joints material into the unhardened concrete. Saw cut joints can be made after theconcrete is sufficiently hard or strong enough to prevent the reveling. Afterthe concret e has been jointed it should be floated with a wood or metal handfloat or with
  31. 31. 30 a finishing machine using float blades. This embeds aggregateparticles just beneath the surface; removes slight imperfections, humps, a ndvoids;andcompactsthemortaratthesurfaceinpreparationforadditionfinishingoperations. Where a smooth, hard, dense surface is desired, floating shouldbe followed by steel troweling. Troweling should not be done on a Surface that has not beenfloated;trowelingafteronlybullfloatingisnotanadequatefinishprocedure.Aslipresistant surface can be produced by brooming before the concrete has thoroughly hardened but it should be sufficient hard to retain the scoring impression.
  32. 32. 31 Demarcation/layout Procedure The following procedure is recommended for demarcation of a building.  For layout of a building baseline is marked on the ground either from centre line of the road or from any permanent building nearby. This line helps to mark out the front of a building. Side baseline is also marked with the help of side structure or road or it can be marked with the help of first baseline or boundary of the plot.  Fix temporary pegs at the centre line of walls/columns on both sides of walls and columns in front and back side.  Fix peg at the centre line of walls/columns on both sides of wall and columns in left and right side of front of building.  Check diagonals of the square or rectangle formed after fixing pegs.  Construct Burji or marking pillars with pegs at a distance of 1.5 meter to 2 meters and their top surface should be plastered.  Mark centre line on the top of Burjis with the help of thread (Soot) or with the Thedolite in big projects and the diagonal and other dimension should be checked.  Level Burji on all corners of building and the top level is fixed at a proposed plinth level.  Mark the foundation of walls/columns according to drawing on the ground with the help of centerline marked on the Burji.  Mark foundation trenches on the ground with chalk powder.  Excavate the foundation of the walls /columns up to required level and the excavation must be checked with the help of centre line and level burji to avoid any complication later on.
  33. 33. 32
  34. 34. 33 Advantages of Layout with the help of Burjis  It saves time for measuring and setting of point again and again at the time of construction.  It increases the efficiency of mason and foreman for doing their jobs.  Accuracy can be checked at any time at any step.  If any mistake is found, it can be easily be rectified at early stage. It is very difficult to rectify the mistake in later.  Cross check can be done by senior engineer in minimum time.  A qualitative work is maintained.
  35. 35. 34 Disadvantages for doing the work without layout At some sites of work the contractor brings steel pieces, erects the same on the ground and start the work of excavation. In due course these steel pieces are just discarded. Thus no proper reference point is available while doing further jobs.  It involves extra time for measuring the offset again and again.  Accuracy can not be checked at early stage and it will be very difficult to rectify the same in later stage.  It involves wastage of time and money while doing rectification. This also leads to bad quality of work. Materials used during Setting up of Layout 1. Leveling Instrument 2. Balli 3. Long Nails 4. Hammer 5. Right Angle(Guniya) 6. Steel Tape 7. Thin Cotton Thread 8. Bricks 9. Cement 10. Screen Sand 11. Lime Powder 12. Theodolite Method Statement for Columns To provide true line & position of columns/walls we shall provide starter/kicker for each column & shear walls, column wall position shall be marked on raft/slab top for providing starter/kicker. Starters shall be made of 100 mm x 50 mm channel section.
  36. 36. 35 Concreting of starter will proceed after checking of layout with necessary clearance from clients. thick film coated ply with backing angles at the edges and flat at the center about 300C/C both ways. The lift for columns will be of 2.4 m height in general but however this may vary depending on requirement. Vertical reinforcement bars and Stirrups shall be provided as per Drawings & BBS Checked by clients and suitably tied with binding wire. The reinforcement bars shall be held in position rigidly from sway by suitable scaffolding arrangement. Proper cover to the reinforcement shall be ensured by providing adequate numbers of concrete cover blocks. Column shutters shall be erected true to line and plumb and adequate supports shall be provided to keep the same in position during & after concreting. Proper staged platform will be provided for concreting. Concrete pour card as per approved format shall be made and maintained for each pour duly signed by client & Simplex. Columns shall be poured in layers of 300 mm thick and each layer shall be vibrated properly. Adequate numbers of manpower in terms of skilled and unskilled shall be made available to receive the concrete. Proper lighting arrangements shall be made for night works. Construction and expansion joints shall be provided and treated as per instructions/specifications. Any loose deposited concrete afterwards shall be removed & disposed off.
  37. 37. 36 Hessian cloth shall be wrapped around the column/wall for keeping the element wet for minimum of 14 days. De-shuttering shall be done after 12 hours/24 hours after casting of individual pours as per Technical requirements and codal provisions. FORMWORK ‘TemporarySupportingStructures’ are those structures, which are temporarily required in building construction either for supporting the laying of concrete till it gets matured, such as formwork or forms or shuttering . As fresh concrete is in a plastic state, when it is placed for construction purposes, so it becomes necessary to provide some temporary structure to confine and support the concrete, till it gains sufficient strength for self-supporting. The temporary structure is known as Formwork or shuttering. Conventional Shuttering has been used at skyline site Fig. 1.9– Formwork and Shuttering provided at the skyline site
  38. 38. 37 Requirement of the formwork Good forms for concrete structure should satisfy the following requirements; (1) It should be strong enough to resist the pressure or the weight of the fresh concrete and the superimposed loads due to equipment, men etc. This requires careful design of formwork, because the consideration of overloads will affects the economy whereas of under loads may cause failure of the forms work.(2) It should be rigid enough to retain the shape without undue deformation.(3) It must be made or constructed so light that it does not allow the cement paste to leak through the joints.(4) The inside surface of the formwork should be smooth so as to give good appearance to the resulting concrete surface. To achieve this, the inside surface of formwork is usually applied with crude oil or soft soap solution. This also facilitates the removal of the formwork.(5) The entire formwork should be so made that it can be removed easily without causing the least injury to the surface or edges of the concrete.(6) It should be made economical by reducing the cost through proper design, construction and use of formwork. Removal of the formwork The period for which forms should be left in place depends upon the temperature of air, the shape and position of structural member (i.e. horizontal vertical or inclined), the nature of the loads likely to come and the character of the cement and cement paste. Generally, the use of rapid hardening cement, higher temperatures, low water cement ratio and lighter loads, will permit early removal of formwork. Under normal conditions where temperature is above20ºC and ordinary cement is use, forms may be removed after the expiry of the period given below: Particulars of the structural period of member removing of formwork (a) Vertical slides of slabs, beams 24 to 48 hours columns and wall(b) Slabs (props or vertical supporting 3 days member left under)(c) Beams soffits (props left under) 7 days(d) Bottom of slabs up to a span 7 days of 4.5 m.(e) Bottom of slabs
  39. 39. 38 above 4.5 m 14 days span, bottom of the beams up to 6 m span, and bottom of arch ribs up to 6 m span(f) Bottom of beams over 6 m span 21 days and bottom of arch ribs over 6 m span. RCC SLAB & BEAMS CASTING – WORK PROCEDURE Materials and Machinery used  Batching plant.  Transit mixer  Concrete pump  Vibrators  Chute and CI Pipes Scope of the work  Marking the slab  Placing the reinforcement  Form work for slab  Placing the concrete Reinforcement It shall be as per BBS prepared according to approved drawing. The R/F shifting and binding shall be started as soon as shuttering is completed. R/F binding shall continue as formwork and shuttering work is progresses. Concreting Construction joint The construction joint shall be pre decided and fixed prior to start of the concreting. It is planned to have two construction joints for main building as
  40. 40. 39 decided. In case of major break down of the Batching plant, the additional Construction joint may be left. The location of the construction joint shall be at the one-third span. Construction joint shall be straight and have profile of ‘L’shape so that successive layer of concrete shall be perfectly bonded with previous laid layer. Preparation of construction joint shall include roughening, removing all laitance adhering to the joint and application of thick slurry before start of the new concrete. Production and placement of concrete. Stock of material shall be sufficient to start the concrete. It shall be ensured by stores/purchase dept that concreting is not stopped on account of materials. All plant and machinery are checked and made in working conditions. Concrete of grade M-25 shall be produced from our batching plant and directly pumped to the location of concrete placement through the pipeline. The pouring sequence shall be from grid A towards construction joint. Since the grade of concrete for column is M-40 and surrounding concrete is M-25, sufficient offset around column shall be casted with M-40.The offset dimensions shall be provided by PMC. Proper walkways/platforms shall be arranged so that the supports of the pipeline and manpower are not directly stand on reinforcement. Sufficient carpenters along with supervisor shall inspect the behavior of supports below the slab during the casting. Extra Props shall be stocked below slab to provide additional supports in case of any failure of supports.
  41. 41. 40 Curing The curing shall be started immediately after thumb set of the concrete laid. Hessian clothe /Plastic shall be covered over the set concrete to reduce moisture evaporation from the concrete during hardening and thus to minimize shrinkage crazy cracks. These cracks are inheriting property of the concrete specially appears during casting of flat surfaces. Final curing shall be done by ponding and stacking water for minimum period of 7 days. STAIRCASE CONSTRUCTION Staircase is constructed in the same way as columns and slabs.With the help of drawings we will make formwork and reinforcement is done. After that concreting is done. Followed by curing and DE shuttering
  42. 42. 41 Fig
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  44. 44. 43 BRICKWORK Bricks can be of two types. These are: 1) Traditional Bricks-The dimension if traditional bricks vary from 21 cm to 25cm in length,10 to 13 cm in width and 7.5 cm in height in different parts of country .The commonly adopted normal size of traditional brick is 23 * 11.5*7.5 cm with a view to achieve uniformity in size of bricks all over country. 2) Modular Bricks– Indian standard institution has established a standard size of bricks such a brick is known as a modular brick. The normal size of brick is taken as 20*10*10 cm whereas its actual dimensions are 19*9*9 cm masonry with modular bricks workout to be cheaper there is saving in the consumption of bricks, mortar and labour as compared with masonry with traditional bricks. STRENGTH OF BRICK MASONRY The permissible compressive stress in brick masonry depends upon the following factors: 1. Type and strength of brick. 2. Mix of motor. 3. Size and shape of masonry construction. . Fly ash bricks exhibit almostsimilar mechanical properties as brunt clay bricks. Exposed brickwork with precisepointing ispossible if the shapesare perfect. Bricks used for the projectare ofClass A, size 230mm x 115mm x 75mm.
  45. 45. 44 ONGOING WORK Layout of the Floor Partitions- Tower F 19th Floor Layout Fig. 1.10– Layout for Partition Wall Masonry Wall Construction Masonry walls are the most durable part of any building or structure. They provide strength,, durability to the structure and also helps to control indoor and outdoor temperature. It separates a building from outside world. Masonry is the word used for construction with mortar as a binding material with individual units of bricks, stones, marbles, granites, concrete blocks, tiles etc. Mortar is a mixture of binding material with sand. Binding materials can be cement, lime, soil or any other.
  46. 46. 45 The durability and strength of masonry wall construction depends on the type and quality of material used and workmanship. Mortar Ratio used for 4 Inches wall is 1:4 and for 9 Inches wall is 1:6. Fig. 1.11– Masonry Wall Construction
  47. 47. 46 CONCLUSION Under the guidance of Mr. Kapil Bhardwaj (Sr. Manager - Projects) as a mentor, we have got opportunity to understand the technical and managerial aspect of residential housing project. The main aim of studies within this project was to investigate how a structure is constructed within its desired properties. We got to know about the basic & advanced techniques of building construction as well as saw the challenges which a civil engineer have to face during construction i.e. labor problems, cost management, environmental challenges etc. We cleared our many doubts regarding building construction. Overall it must be said that the construction methods and quality control on a residential project needs a very good coordination and large quantities of man power, equipment and funds. During the period of 45 days all the site staff helped us a lot to provide all the information about any query. So we are grateful to Universal Buildwell Pvt. Ltd for giving us the opportunity to learn and grow. A residential area is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas. These include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile homes. Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may totally exclude business and industry. It may permit high density land use or only permit low density uses. This report mainly concerns with the construction of residential building. I have done training at Skyline engineering contracts (India) pvt. Ltd. There were seven towers namely A, B, C, D, E, F & G. I was assigned the B&B’ tower. But my trainer Atul sir went home on a vacation so I was told to go to every tower where ever I want and can learn from any engineer of any tower. Foramens also did help me a lot in gaining practical knowledge. Every tower was erected up to 19- 20 floors.on my arrival. I was on the 19 th floor and I saw how the column was erected. After that shuttering for slab and beams was used . I also saw the shuttering of stair cases used in the buildings . after that concreting pouring of concrete in the buildings. Brickwork was also done along with the construction.
  48. 48. 47 Bibliography  Internet  http://www.slideshare.net/AbhishekSingh892/an-internship-report-on- residential-building-construction?qid=ad32e196-5a77-4394-8500- 7a2bb466e499&v=&b=&from_search=3  Building construction by B.C. PUNAMIA .  Instructions from ATUL PANT sir & ER. SAKTI GUPTA sir .
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