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Computers are machines that perform tasks or calculationsaccording to a set of instructions, or programs. The first fullye...
The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies,automated calculation and programmability, but no...
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However, in spite of the many advantages of computers, there are some disadvantages thatcannot be ignored. First and forem...
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One of the most powerful uses of artificialintelligence thus far is in the world of speechrecognition. This powerful techn...
Robot technology has also come a long way, butit still has a long way to go. Robots in thefuture are unlikely to take huma...
Quantum computers are also likely totransform the computing experience, forboth business and home users. Thesepowerful mac...
Nanotechnology is another important part of thefuture of computers, expected to have aprofound impact on people around the...
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 A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is acollection of hardware components and computers interconn...
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Computers

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Computers

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  2. 2. Computers are machines that perform tasks or calculationsaccording to a set of instructions, or programs. The first fullyelectronic computers, introduced in the 1940s, were hugemachines that required teams of people to operate.Compared to those early machines, todays computers areamazing. Not only are they thousands of times faster, theycan fit on your desk, in your lap, or even in your pocket.Computers work through an interaction of hardware andsoftware. Hardware refers to the parts of a computer that youcan see and touch, including the case and everything insideit. The most important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangularchip inside your computer called the central processing unit(CPU), or microprocessor.2
  3. 3. The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies,automated calculation and programmability, but no single device can beidentified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistentapplication of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning though,like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successfuland survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator,like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC[4] of which adescendant won a speed competition against a modern deskcalculating machine in Japan in 1946,[5] the slide rules, invented in the1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including tothe moon[6] and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism,an ancient astronomical computer built by the Greeks around 80 BC.[7]The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built amechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and wasoperated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might beconsidered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanismperformed which actions and when.[8] This is the essence ofprogrammability.3
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  27. 27. However, in spite of the many advantages of computers, there are some disadvantages thatcannot be ignored. First and foremost, sitting for long hours in front of the PC will affecteyes and hamper the activity level. The easy access to information via Internet has madestudents lazy in terms of their education since they are able to download informationwithout exploring their topic of research. .But some experts alert the danger of the computer addiction disorder. Especially for thechildren, they can be easily hooked on the computer games. Instead of doing homework,studying or playing with friends, they seclude and just play computer untill late at night.so they can concentrate the teachers words and it destroys their schooling.There is another problem of computer. Because of anonymity, some people can deceiveother people and it might be a fraud. For example, there is a website where the people canpost the advertisement and sell certain products. Throught that site, you paid for onedictionary. But when you recieve and open it, there is a brick, not the dictionary.Nowadays, the electronic commerce is getting popurlar, so it might happen like uppersituaion.When you use the computer a lot, it attacks your eye sight. The experts warn not to usethe computer longer than 1 hour and after using it, you have to take a rest for your eyes.But people mostly use the computer longer than one hour and for the children, they canteasily refuse the temtation of computer.Besides these, there are a lots of disadvantages such as illegal downloading andbecomming violent. But the worst thing is that the computer addicts dont know what todo and they dont know how dangerous it is.27
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  32. 32. One of the most powerful uses of artificialintelligence thus far is in the world of speechrecognition. This powerful technology isalready in place in call centers, banks,brokerage centers, insurance companies andother businesses throughout the world. Whilespeech recognition is still imperfect, it hasimproved greatly in recent years, and in thefuture many routine, and even non-routine,phone calls and telephone inquiries may behandled completely without humanintervention.32
  33. 33. Robot technology has also come a long way, butit still has a long way to go. Robots in thefuture are unlikely to take human form, expectin a few specialized applications. Instead,robots are likely to do a great deal of work thatis simply too dangerous for humans toaccomplish. From spaceflight applications tosearch and rescue, robots are likely tocontinue down the learning curve they havealready entered, further enhancing humanlives and providing valuable services for afraction of the cost of todays robot helpers.33
  34. 34. Quantum computers are also likely totransform the computing experience, forboth business and home users. Thesepowerful machines are already on thedrawing board, and they are likely to beintroduced in the near future. The quantumcomputer is expected to be a giant leapforward in computing technology, withexciting implications for everything fromscientific research to stock marketpredictions.34
  35. 35. Nanotechnology is another important part of thefuture of computers, expected to have aprofound impact on people around the globe.Nanotechnology is the process wherebymatter is manipulated at the atomic level,providing the ability to “build” objects from theirmost basic parts. Like robotics and artificialintelligence, nanotechnology is already in usein many places, providing everything fromstain resistant clothing to better suntan lotion.These advances in nanotechnology are likelyto continue in the future, making this one ofthe most powerful aspects of future computing.35
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  37. 37.  A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is acollection of hardware components and computers interconnected bycommunication channels that allow sharing of resources andinformation.[1] Where at least one process in one device is able tosend/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remotedevice, then the two devices are said to be in a network. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety ofcharacteristics such as the medium used to transport the data,communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizationalscope. Communications protocols define the rules and data formats forexchanging information in a computer network, and provide the basisfor network programming. Well-known communications protocols areEthernet, a hardware and Link Layer standard that is ubiquitous in localarea networks, and the Internet Protocol Suite, which defines a set ofprotocols for internetworking, i.e. for data communication betweenmultiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats.37
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