#
TRACHOMABy: Sumayya NaseemInternee Optometrist
What is trachoma?• Trachoma (Ancient Greek: "rough eye")• Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness  worldwide...
Causes• Trachoma is caused by the bacterium  Chlamydia trachomatis And it is spread by:•   Direct contact with eye dischar...
#
#
5 F’s & 5 D’s      5 F’s                         5 D’s      Flies                     Discharge                           ...
Symptoms• Mild itching and irritation of the eye• Watering• Mucopurulent Discharge from the eyeAs the disease progresses, ...
SignsConjunctiva:•   Follicular conjunctivitis (tarsal conj, fornices)•   Conjunctival scarring•   Limbal follicles•   Her...
Normal Tarsal Conjunctiva                            #
Follicular Conjunctivitis                            #
Trachomatous Inflammation                            #
Conjunctival Scarring                        #
Herbert’s Pits                 #
Cornea:• Keratitis (corneal ulcer)• Corneal opacity (end stage)                                #
Corneal Opacity                  #
Lids:• Entropion• Trichiasis               #
Trichiasis             #
Entropion            #
WHO Grading (FISTO)• TF trachomatous follicles (5 sub tarsus)• TI trachomatous inflammation (50% tarsal  vessels covered)•...
Clockwise from top left: follicles of trachoma (TF), intenseinflammation of trachoma (TI), trichiasis of trachoma (TT),Con...
Complications•   Scarring of the inner eyelid•   Entropion•   Trichiasis•   Corneal scarring or cloudiness•   Partial or c...
#
Treatment• Tetracycline, topical (2 months) and oral (3 weeks)• Oral azithromycin                                         ...
PreventionProper hygiene practices, which include:• Face washing. (especially childrens)• Controlling flies.• Proper waste...
SAFE Strategy•   Surgery for correction of trichiasis•   Antibiotics•   Face cleaning•   Environmental improvement        ...
Some Important Terms• Follicles:  These are enlarged nodules of lymphoid tissue under the  Conjunctival epithelium (fornix...
#
Trachoma By Sumayya Naseem
Trachoma By Sumayya Naseem
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Trachoma By Sumayya Naseem

4,305 views

Published on

0 Comments
33 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,305
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
14
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
522
Comments
0
Likes
33
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Trachoma By Sumayya Naseem

  1. 1. #
  2. 2. TRACHOMABy: Sumayya NaseemInternee Optometrist
  3. 3. What is trachoma?• Trachoma (Ancient Greek: "rough eye")• Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In the poorest countries in Africa, prevalence among children can reach 40 percent. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 8 million people worldwide have been visually impaired by trachoma.• Trachoma is a preventable cause of blindness and, if treated early, the prognosis for people with trachoma is excellent. #
  4. 4. Causes• Trachoma is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis And it is spread by:• Direct contact with eye discharge• Fomites such as towels and/or cloths• Poor personal and family hygiene.• Lack of water• Absence of latrines or toilets• Poverty in general• Flies• Close proximity to cattle• Crowding #
  5. 5. #
  6. 6. #
  7. 7. 5 F’s & 5 D’s 5 F’s 5 D’s Flies Discharge (eyes) Filth Dust (dirt, waste) Faeces Dryness (human) Fingers Dung (animals) Fomites Density(handkerchief, pillow) (over crowding) #
  8. 8. Symptoms• Mild itching and irritation of the eye• Watering• Mucopurulent Discharge from the eyeAs the disease progresses, later trachoma symptoms include:• Marked light sensitivity (photophobia)• Blurred vision• Eye pain #
  9. 9. SignsConjunctiva:• Follicular conjunctivitis (tarsal conj, fornices)• Conjunctival scarring• Limbal follicles• Herberts pits (after resolution of follicles) #
  10. 10. Normal Tarsal Conjunctiva #
  11. 11. Follicular Conjunctivitis #
  12. 12. Trachomatous Inflammation #
  13. 13. Conjunctival Scarring #
  14. 14. Herbert’s Pits #
  15. 15. Cornea:• Keratitis (corneal ulcer)• Corneal opacity (end stage) #
  16. 16. Corneal Opacity #
  17. 17. Lids:• Entropion• Trichiasis #
  18. 18. Trichiasis #
  19. 19. Entropion #
  20. 20. WHO Grading (FISTO)• TF trachomatous follicles (5 sub tarsus)• TI trachomatous inflammation (50% tarsal vessels covered)• TS trachomatous scarring• TT trachomatous trichiasis• CO corneal opacity #
  21. 21. Clockwise from top left: follicles of trachoma (TF), intenseinflammation of trachoma (TI), trichiasis of trachoma (TT),Conjunctival scarring of trachoma (TS) #
  22. 22. Complications• Scarring of the inner eyelid• Entropion• Trichiasis• Corneal scarring or cloudiness• Partial or complete vision loss #
  23. 23. #
  24. 24. Treatment• Tetracycline, topical (2 months) and oral (3 weeks)• Oral azithromycin #
  25. 25. PreventionProper hygiene practices, which include:• Face washing. (especially childrens)• Controlling flies.• Proper waste management.• Properly disposing animal and human waste can eliminate breeding grounds for flies.• Improved access to water.• Improved sanitation and living conditions. #
  26. 26. SAFE Strategy• Surgery for correction of trichiasis• Antibiotics• Face cleaning• Environmental improvement #
  27. 27. Some Important Terms• Follicles: These are enlarged nodules of lymphoid tissue under the Conjunctival epithelium (fornix & tarsal conj.).• Herbert’s Pits: Follicles may occur at limbus, become scarred and shrink to form little pits. These are called Herberts pits.• Entropion: Severe scarring of the tarsal conjunctiva distorts the eyelid, So, the margin of the eyelid turns inwards against the eyeball. This is called entropion.• Trichiasis: Misdirected eyelashes (inward turned) #
  28. 28. #

×