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Radiometry and Photometry by Sumayya Naseem


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Radiometry and Photometry by Sumayya Naseem

  2. 2. AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF TODAY’S LECTURE  How do we measure light, Quantitatively?  What is Radiometry and Photometry?  Some important terms explaining photometry and radiometry.  Its Clinical application.  And Surgical application.
  3. 3. Light: A form of energy, to which human eye is sensitive.Optical radiation:b/w X-rays and microwavesSeven bandsUV-C 200nm to 280nmUV-B 280 to 315nmUV-A 315 to 400nmVisible rad. 400-780nm IR. A 780-1400nmIR. B 1400-3000nmIR. C 3000-10000nm
  5. 5. Light is essentially an electromagnetic wave which travels through space described as quantized particles known as photons. However, only a small band of the spectrum of possible electromagnetic waves are actually visible and perceived by the eye as light. Furthermore, not all frequencies within that band of visible light are detected equally by the eye, as it is sensitive to some wavelengths significantly more than others. In fact, the response is almost more of a bell curve, centered on about a 550nm wavelength. This curve of sensitivity is known as the Visual Response curve What this curve says, roughly, is that given red (750nm), blue (450nm) and green (550nm) lasers of equal power, the eye would perceive the dot from the green one as being far brighter than either the red or blue.
  6. 6. Radiometry &Photometry
  7. 7. RADIOMETRY In radiometry, we measure the radiant energy in absolute terms from any part of electromagnetic spectrum. It is the measurement of radiant power or energy within that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is optical, meaning it is refracted by glass or can be focused by a lens. This includes microwave, infrared, visible and ultraviolet wavelengths approximately in the range of 1 millimeter to 100 nanometers (10-3 to 10-7 meters, or frequencies of 3 x 1011 to 3 x 1016 Hz). Radiometry excludes radio waves, x rays and gamma rays.
  8. 8. PHOTOMETRY In photometry, we measure the energy from the visible part of spectrum, in terms of the visual response it produces.
  9. 9. We basically make 4 types of measurements inradiometry & photometry:1. Radiant flux and luminous flux2. Radiant intensity and luminous intensity3. Irradiance and Illuminance4. Radiance and luminance
  10. 10. Radiant Flux &Luminous Flux
  11. 11. Radiant flux and luminous fluxWhen we measure the total amount of energy, emitted in all directions from the point source, then in radiometry we call it radiant flux.Unit: WattIn terms of response of the eye, i.e. in photometry we call it luminous flux.Unit: Lumens.
  12. 12. Luminous flux
  13. 13. Radiant Intensity &Luminous Intensity
  14. 14. Radiant intensity and luminous intensity Instead of measuring total energy, we measure the energy going in a particular direction, then we call it radiant intensity in radiometry and luminous intensity in photometry. We measure this energy per unit of solid angle, which is known as Steradian.Unit: Watt per Steradian (in radiometry) Lumens per Steradian (in photometry) Lumens per Steradian is known as Candela.
  15. 15. Luminous intensity
  16. 16. Irradiance &Illuminance
  17. 17. Irradiance and Illuminance When we measure energy or light incident or falling on a surface, we call it irradiance in radiometry and Illuminance in photometry.Unit: Watt per square meter (in radiometry) Lumens per square meter or lumens per square foot (in photometry) Lumens per square meter= Lux Lumens per square foot = Foot Candle.
  18. 18. Illuminance
  19. 19. What is this figure showing? I L L U M I N A N C E
  20. 20. An example from practical life
  21. 21. Radiance &Luminance
  22. 22. Radiance and luminance When energy or light is reflected or emitted from a surface then we call it radiance in radiometry and luminance in photometry. Here we measure the amount per solid angle reflected or emitted by a unit area of the surface.Unit: Watt / Steradian /square meter (in radiometry) Lumens / Steradian / square meter (in photometry) Candela / square meter or Candela / square foot 1 / Π Candelas / square meter = Apostilb 1 / Π Candelas / square foot = Foot Lambert
  23. 23. What is this figure showing? Illuminance & Luminance
  25. 25. SUMMARYRadiant Watt= J/sec Luminous Lumens (1 candle emits flux flux 4Π lm) Radiant Watt/Steradian Luminous Candela =1lm/steradianintensity intensityIrradiance Watt / sq.meter Illuminance 1 Lux =1 lm/sq.meterRadiance Watt/Steradian Luminance Apostilb 1/ΠCandelas/sq. met /sq.meter Foot Lambert 1/Π Candelas/sq. foot
  27. 27. The relationships among the five photometric units
  28. 28. Clinical Applications
  29. 29. Clinical Applications (assessment of visual functions) Visual acuity (luminance 220 to < 1 cd/m²) Visual field (background: 31.5 abs., light stimulus: 0.8 to 10,000 abs.) Color vision (FM 100 Hue Test) ERG (Stimulus strength 3.43 & Background illumination 17-34 cd-m-2) VEP (Luminance of stimulus 80 cd. m-2)
  30. 30. VISUAL DRUM
  31. 31. PERIMETER (Visual field testing with aHumphrey Field Analyzer device)
  32. 32. FM 100 Hue Test
  33. 33. ERG
  34. 34. VEP/ VER E - - + +
  35. 35. Surgical Applications
  36. 36. Surgical Applications LASER surgeries (e.g. xenon arc) Ablative surgeries • LASIK • PRK • Radiotherapy