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INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

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INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

  1. 1. UNIT I ANCIENT INDIA 4 INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION: CULTURE AND PATTERN OF SETTLEMENT. ARYAN CIVILIZATION – THEORIES AND DEBATES OF ORIGIN ORIGINS OF EARLY HINDUISM VEDIC CULTURE - VEDIC VILLAGE AND RUDIMENTARY FORMS OF BAMBOO AND WOODEN CONSTRUCTION ORIGINS OF BUDDHISM AND JAINISM.
  2. 2. B.Arch I Second Semester Early civilization of Ancient India
  3. 3. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and now is Pakistan. The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo-Daro, was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj.Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.
  4. 4. Civilization defined • The stage of human social development and organization which is considered most advanced. DEFINITION • The society, culture and lifestyle of people in a particular area. OR SIMPLY
  5. 5. REGIONAL SPREAD • Sites cover most of the modern Pakistan and northwestern India • Area covered is about 1.3 million square miles • The largest among the old world civilizations • Over 1050 sites; scattered across the area
  6. 6. This earliest known civilisation in India, the starting point in its history, dates back to about 3000 BC. Discovered in the 1920s, it was thought to have been confined to the valley of the river Indus, hence the name given to it was Indus Valley civilisation. Features: •Mohenjodaro and Harappa, represent the high watermark of the settlements. •Spread to a wide area in northwestern and western India. •Thus this civilisation is now better known as the Harappan civilisation. •Mohenjodaro and Harappa are now in Pakistan and the principal sites in India include Ropar in Punjab, Lothal in Gujarat and Kalibangan in Rajasthan.
  7. 7. Planned Cities on the Indus • Flat plain formed by two rivers – the Indus and the Ganges • Natural barriers of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush mountains offered protection (Except Khyber and Bolan Pass) • Seasonal winds called monsoons • Unpredictable floods, Wet and Dry Seasons • India is a sub-continent, jutting into the Indian Ocean
  8. 8. MOHENJODARO - Place /Mound of the Dead • Mohenjo Daro, or "Mound of the Dead" • 2600 and 1900 BCE. • Probably abandoned around 1700 BC • The site close to 4 Sq. Kms. was discovered in the 1920s and lies in Pakistan's Sindh province. Urban Planning • Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. The city was divided into two parts, • Citadel- public bath,residential structures (5000)and large assembly halls • Lower City.
  9. 9. The city had planned cities and buildings and roughly housed 5ooo Citadel: the most important administrative components of the City • Granary • Great Bath • Stupa • Assembly hall • Fortifications
  10. 10. The Citadel is the smaller component of the City • The Streets are not aligned to the cardinal points as in the lower town • Consists of ramparts and fortified structures • The stupa was a later addition in 500 AD • The city was divided into two parts, • • the Citadel included an elaborate tank or bath created with fine quality brickwork and drains; this was surrounded by a verandah. Also located here was a giant granary, a large residential structure, and at least two aisled assembly halls.
  11. 11. •Mohenjo-Daro was carefully planned, laid out in an irregular grid of streets oriented north/south and east/west. •Massive perimeter walls of mud brick, sometimes faced with fired brick or stone, surrounded the city. • Gateways provided controlled access into the settlements. •Major streets in Mohenjo-Daro varied between 4.5 and 9 meters (15- 30 feet) in width providing two-way ox cart traffic •Smaller streets were for one-way traffic, only 2-3 m (6.5-10 ft) wide. •The gateways into the city were only 2.5 m (8 ft) wide, to control traffic in and out. •Fired brick-lined drains were located along the edges of the streets, some covered ones ran down the center of the road. •The streets weren't paved, but crushed pottery and other materials made up a hard compacted surface.
  12. 12. •Separate walled mounds with suburbs suggest that the city had competing political and socio-economic classes; •no single building or groups of buildings dominants the site. • There doesn't appear to have been a single hereditary ruler, • but rather several elite groups created separate clusters of large buildings and public spaces throughout the town. • One example of this is House VIII in Lower Town. •Stone carvings of seated male figures may represent ancestral leaders of the community, and may not in fact represent priests or kings despite such names as "priest king". •Many other figurines, in the form of human and animal figurines were produced at Mohenjo-daro of terracotta, bronze, faience and shell.
  13. 13. INFERENCE : The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests a high level of social organization. The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. The Citadel – a mud-brick mound around 12 metres (39 ft) high – is known to have supported public baths, a large residential structure designed to house about 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls. The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channelled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of more prestigious inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (known as a hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most houses had inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings had two stories.
  14. 14. CITADEL
  15. 15. Great Bath: • The bath measures 12m x 7m x 2.4m • 2 wide staircases lead down from the N and S and there are 2 small sockets at the edge of the stairs which might have held wooden treads or planks • A small brick edging extends for the entire width of the bath • The floor is made water tight by the use of bricks on edge with gypsum plaster • Water proofing-thick layer of bitumen or tar along the edges and the floor too • A series of rooms are located on the eastern edge of the building • In one room is a well that may have supplied water to the tank • There are no inlet points
  16. 16. GREAT BATH
  17. 17. • BATH AREA WELL
  18. 18. INTERNAL STREETS DRAINS
  19. 19. PUBLIC WELLS
  20. 20. Lower Town: •grid system with 4 avenues running from north to south and four running from east to west. •The avenues are several metres wide and have drains running down the middle or side of the road. •The avenues divide the Lower Town into many blocks. Alleyways and lanes further divided these blocks. •it was probably where most of the people in the city lived and worked
  21. 21. Homes: •Most of the homes are made of baked bricks in a standard size of 5.5”x5.5”x11”. •The houses generally have several rooms built around a courtyard. •The doorways to the outside usually open onto side alleys rather than onto the avenues. Archaeological evidence, such as the remains of stairways, seems to suggest that many of the buildings had 2 storey. •Roofs were probably made of wooden beams covered with reeds and packed clay. •Many homes had specific rooms for bathing. •These rooms had floors made from baked bricks or tiles and drains which emptied into the drains in the street outside. •People had access to clean water either from wells within their homes or from public wells in the streets. Over 700 public and private wells have been found at Mohenjo-daro.
  22. 22. Materials used: •Structures constructed of • bricks of baked mud 5.5”x5.5”x11” •sun dried bricks and • burned wood. •At its height the city probably had around 35,000-40,000 residents. •It had an advanced drainage system, a variety of buildings up to two stories high, and an elaborate bath area. •The bath area was very well built and had a layer of natural tar, to keep it from leaking. •Being an agricultural city, it also featured a large well, granary, and central marketplace. •Perhaps most unexpected, it even had a building with an underground furnace (hypocaust) possibly for heated bathing. Standard Brick
  23. 23. LIVELIHOOD Most of the people must have been TRADERS or ARTISANS – Different types of seals and standardized weights suggest a system of trade – The advanced detailing in the astonishing artefacts show that there were great artisans among them – Materials brought in from distant regions were found
  24. 24. POTTERY – CLAY AND TERRACOTTA
  25. 25. SEALS REFLECTING THE NATURE OF USAGE
  26. 26. RELIGION • Seals bearing depiction of gods, goddesses and animals point towards Buddhism and Hinduism • The seated human like figure shown is the so called “proto-shiva” (Hindu god) • The religion to which the evidences point emerged in the late 1000 BC • No evident religious buildings but some structures do serve to the ambiguity being what looks as remains of temples • Buried human bodies: evidence of a cemetery • Burial urns with ashes: evidences of cremation The religious beliefs among the dwellers of this civilization remain uncertain until specific evidence is found
  27. 27. The popular God – Pashupathi/Shiva The dancing god The goddess of Fertility Goddess of Mothers The ritual for Gods and Goddesses
  28. 28. • Necklace from Mohenjo-Daro made from gold, agate, jasper, steatite and green stone. • The gold beads are hollow and the pendant agate and jasper beads are attached with thick gold wire. • Steatite beads with gold caps serve to separate each of the pendant beads.
  29. 29. GAMES PLAYED BY EARLY INDUS PEOPLE
  30. 30. Burial of woman and infant, Harappa. This burial was disturbed in antiquity, possibly by ancient Harappan grave robbers. Besides the fact that the body is flipped and the pottery disturbed, the left arm of the woman is broken and shell bangles that would normally be found on the left arm are missing. The infant was buried in a small pit beneath the legs of the mother.
  31. 31. The body was placed inside a wooden coffin (which later decayed) and entombed in a rectangular pit surrounded with burial offerings in pottery vessels. The man was buried wearing a necklace of 340 graduated steatite beads and three separate pendant beads made of natural stone and three gold beads. A single copper bead was found at his waist.
  32. 32. • 4000 symbol-bearing objects have been discovered, some as far afield as Mesopotamia.
  33. 33. LIVING STANDARD • Some houses larger than others BUT most of them similar in size and build • The society is an example of egalitarianism • Low wealth concentration though clear social levelling • Access to water supplies and drainage facilities • Granaries • Ornaments made out of gold and ivory • No large monument except “THE GREAT BATH” - a public bath probably for religious rituals • Hygiene and cleanliness were among the high priorities of the society • Evidence of quality municipal planning and efficient municipal government
  34. 34. TECHNOLOGY • Measurements Great accuracy in measurement in measuring mass length and time ― MASS: ― standard weights hexahedron in shape were found weights in the ratio 5:2:1 (0.1,0.2,0.5 ; 1,2,5 ; 10 20 50 units) ―Each unit measuring about 28 grams ―Same as present day English imperial ounce system ― LENGTH: ―a scale with a precision of 1.704 mm was found near lothal ―The smallest in the bronze age
  35. 35. TECHNOLOGY • Metallurgy The people knew unconventional techniques of metallurgy and produced ―Brass ―Copper ―Bronze ―Ivory These materials were used in the making of ornaments utensils seals and artefacts etc
  36. 36. TECHNOLOGY • Knowledge of dentistry In 2006 it was announced that the oldest evidence of drilling teeth in a living human was found in Mehrgarh (IVC) This claim was made on the basis of finding eleven drilled teeth in nine men excavated from what supposed to be a graveyard.
  37. 37. HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION - LOTHAL
  38. 38. HARAPPA 2600 – 1500 BCE Harappa grew on the floodplains of a rich and life-giving river, the Indus. The original cities and many of the towns seemed to have been built right upon the shores of the river. •The Harappans were an agricultural people whose economy was almost entirely dominated by horticulture.Had around 40,000 people •Massive granaries were built at each city, and there most certainly was an elaborate bureaucracy to distribute this wealth of food. •Bricks that they built their cities with were fired bricks •In addition, many of the Harappan seals have pictures of animals that imply a wet and marshy environment, such as rhinoceroses, elephants, and tigers. •The Harappans also had a wide variety of domesticated animals: camels, cats, dogs, goats, sheep, and buffalo.
  39. 39. Gateway At Harappa: Indus Valley Civilization
  40. 40. INFERENCE : Mohenjo-daro had no series of city walls, but was fortified with guard towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south.Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, it is postulated that Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, but the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear. Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction
  41. 41. DECLINE • It was proposed by Sir Mortimer Wheeler in 1953 that the reason for the decline of the IVC was the invasion by an Indo-European tribe “ARYANS” • Rejected because no evidence of war or fights were found • Actually, people abandoned the region because of: ― IMIGRATION of new people (Aryans) in the area ― Decline in trade ― Climatic changes- Indus valley got cooler and drier with the course of time ― Decrease in rainfall and thus inadequate supply of water for irrigation ― Changes in the course of the river • many elements of its culture were found in the later cultures
  42. 42. Four Theories of Collapse • Archaeologists have offered four explanations for the collapse of the Harappan “Civilization”. • Three are based on ecological factors: intense flooding, decrease in precipitation, and the desiccations of the Sarasvati River. • The fourth hypothesis is that of the Aryan Invasion, proposed by Sir R. E. Mortimer Wheeler and Stuart Piggott.
  43. 43. POINT TO WONDER Sir John Marshall is known to have reacted with surprise when he saw the famous statuette known as “the dancing girl” He said: “when I first saw them I found it difficult to believe that they were prehistoric. Modeling such as this was unknown in the ancient worlds up to the age of Greece, I thought that these figures had found their way into levels some 3000 years older to which they properly belonged”
  44. 44. VEDIC AGE 1500 – 800 BCE- The Vedic Period was a direct result of the Aryan Movement The main feature in this period is the total absence of the highly skilled construction and planning of the previous civilisation the Indus Valley Civilisation It was like a return to the aboriginal roots No architectural examples of this period are surviving. The Aryans built no colossal monuments. So what is the importance of this period? It was early Aryan architectural forms that were translated into the architecture of India for thousands of years. The Main Contribution of the Vedic Period is the influence it had on all the subsequent periods in Indian Architecture The caves of Ajanta and Ellora, much of Buddhist architecture, were directly influenced by the simple village structures of the Aryan villages.
  45. 45. After the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, another glorious civilization flourished in India. The people who were responsible for the evolution of this civilization called themselves Aryas or Aryarns. Arya’ literally means the man of ‘noble character’, and the “free-born”. They belonged to the group of people known as Indo-Europeans. They entered into India from the north-west. •European Origin •Migration from Southern Russia: •Indian Origin
  46. 46. Society and economy •Vedic society was characterized by a nomadic lifestyle, with cattle rearing being the chief occupation. •Agriculture grew more prominent with time as the community settled down. Money was unknown, and bartering with cattle and other valuables replaced financial commerce. •Families were patriarchal, and people prayed for abundance of sons. •Society was strictly organized in a system of caste. •The four major Varnas were Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. Those who are outside these caste structure are known as Adivasis
  47. 47. Political organization The grama (village), vis and jana were political units of the early Vedic Aryans. A vish was probably a subdivision of a jana, and a grama was probably a smaller unit than the other two. The leader of a grama was called gramani and that of a vish was called vishpati. Another unit was the jana whose head was a jyeshta (elder). The rashtra (state) was governed by a rajan (king). The king is often referred to as gopa (protector) and samrat (supreme ruler). He governed the people with their consent and approval. It is possible that he was sometimes elected. The sabha and samiti were popular councils.
  48. 48. The main duty of the king was to protect the tribe. He was aided by two functionaries, the purohita (chaplain) and the senani (army chief; sena: army). The former not only gave advice to the ruler but also practiced spells and charms for success in war. Soldiers on foot (patti) and on chariots(rathins), armed with bow and arrow were common. The king employed spasa (spies) and dutas (messengers). He often got a ceremonial gift, bali, from the people. The Aryans did not settle into the well-planned cities of the Harappan culture, and instead preferred to clear forests around the riverbanks of the Gangetic plain and settle in small villages
  49. 49. The Vedic grama could have a pur, or a fort-like structure within it. The Vedic hymns speak of "purs" made of stone and metal. The Vedas have many words for houses. It appears that the main distinction was between chhardis ( house with a thatched roof), harmyam (a house of brick and stone that had a courtyard in the middle), and gotra (a multi-dwelling complex with sheds for animals). THE 3 STAGES OF THE VEDIC HOUSE
  50. 50. VEDIC AGE 1500 – 800 BCE- The basic unit was the hut. For building material, the abundant forest provided ample raw stock. The Aryan hut, in its most basic shape, was •Circular in plan, • Thatched roof over a bamboo network of ribs. This was later elongated to become rectangular in plan, with roofing of bamboo as well, curved in the shape of a barrel. • Clusters of these huts formed a courtyard, much like huts in Indian villages even today. •The better-off citizens roofed them with planks of wood or tiles, and used unbaked bricks for the walls. •To maintain the barrel shape of the roof, a thong or string, perhaps of animal hide, was stretched across the end of the bamboo.
  51. 51. For protection against wild animals, a palisade fence of wood and bamboo surrounded the whole settlement. This fence was made of upright posts of bamboo with horizontal members threaded into holes in posts. At one point, the fence was extended forward to form a sort of gate. These forms - the barrel vaulted roof, the tie-cord, and the palisade fence and railing, formed important motifs for future Indian Architecture. In fact, huts in modern Orissa, one of the poorest Indian states, are still carrying traces of this influence, with symbolism dating back to Vedic times.
  52. 52. VEDIC AGE 1500 – 800 BCE- Groups of small villages banded together, and small 'cities' began to take shape. A palisade wall inevitably protected these and the buildings within were also made almost entirely of wood. Upright posts - Thaba and 3 horizontal bars- suchi or needles threaded through holes The Vedic carpenters developed skill in timber construction of a very high standard. It is not surprising, therefore, that in later ages timber construction techniques were employed even though the material of construction was radically different
  53. 53. Vedic Cities: In general, the cities of the Vedic period were rectangular in plan and divided into four quarters by two main thoroughfares intersecting at right angles, each leading to a city gate. One of these quarters contained the citadel and another housed the residential area. A third quarter was reserved for the merchants, and the last for tradesmen who could display their wares.
  54. 54. THE VEDIC CULTURE: THE RIGVEDIC AGE Aryans
  55. 55. Aryans • Most civilized & cultured races of the world. They were tall & fair- complexioned people with sharp features, & strong physique • Indians, English, Germans, Spanish, French & Persians pride themselves to be the true descendents of the Aryans. • They came to India during the second millennium B.C. This age is called the Vedic Age • The Aryans appeared in India a little earlier than 1500 B.C. The earliest Aryans settled down in eastern Afghanistan, Punjab, and fringes of Uttar Pradesh. • The Rig-Veda mentioned the names of some rivers of Afghanistan such as the river Kubha, and the river Indus and its five branches. The earliest settlements of Aryans were confined to the valleys of the river Sindh and its tributaries and of the Saraswati and the Drishadvati.
  56. 56. • Indians, English, Germans, Spanish, French & Persians • pride themselves to be the true descendents of the Aryans. • They came to India during the second millennium B.C • This age is called the Vedic Age • Some of them think they are original inhabitants of India • Some regard them as invaders who destroyed the superior civilization of the original inhabitant’s whom they drove beyond the Vindhyas. Historians agree that the original home of the Aryans was in central Asia in regions around the Caspian sea. They might have been forced to migrate due to shortage of food and fodder to seek settlement in other lands. Aryans who came to India are called ‘Indo-Aryans’.
  57. 57. Original home of the Aryans Historians agree that the original home of the Aryans was in central Asia in regions around the Caspian sea. They might have been forced to migrate due to shortage of food and fodder to seek settlement in other lands. Aryans who came to India are called ‘Indo-Aryans’.
  58. 58. After the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, another glorious civilization flourished in India. The people who were responsible for the evolution of this civilization called themselves Aryas or Aryarns. Arya’ literally means the man of ‘noble character’, and the “free-born”. They belonged to the group of people known as Indo-Europeans. They entered into India from the north-west. •European Origin •Migration from Southern Russia: •Indian Origin
  59. 59. Spread of Aryans in India Aryans first settled in Punjab Founded their first settlements on the banks of the rivers Indus [Sindu] & Saraswathi [which has since dried up] While driving the ‘Dasyus’ beyond the Vindhyas and thus gained the occupation of more and more land in the eastern & northern parts of the country –they renamed it as ‘Aryavarta’ [abode of the Aryans]
  60. 60. The Vedas: The Vedas form the oldest literary works of the Aryans and occupy a very distinguished place in the history of the world literature. Vedas have been looked upon as the revealed words of God by millions of Hindus. In course of many centuries Vedas had grown up and was orally handed down from generation to generation. The Vedas were probably authored during 1800 BC and 600 BC. It consists of three successive classes of literary production.
  61. 61. VEDAS ARE CLASSIFIED AS : three classes are: (i) The Samhitas or Mantras—these are collections of hymns, prayers, charms, litanies, sacrificial formulas. (ii) The Brahmanas—a kind of Primitive theology and philosophy of Brahmanas. (iii) The Aranyakas and Upanishads—they are partly included in the Brahmanas or attached thereto and partly exist as separate work. They contain philosophical meditations of the hermits and ascetics on soul, God, world & man.
  62. 62. There are four Samhitas which are different from one another. These are: The Rigveda Samhita: A collection of hymns. It has ten mandalas with a total of 1028 ‘Suktas’ or ‘stutis” (ii) Samaveda Samhita: A collection of songs mostly taken from Rig Veda. It contained 1549 stutis (iii) Yajur Veda Samhita: A collection of sacrificial formula. It has 40 mandals. (iv) Atharva Veda Samhita: A collection of songs and spells. It has twenty mandalas with 731 ‘stutis’. It deals with magic, hypnotism, enslavement through mantra. Every work belonging to the second and third classes of Vedic literature viz, the Brahmanas, the Arayakas and the Upanishads, is attached to one or
  63. 63. Different Vedas are • Evidence of the Aryans are found in the ‘Vedas’ • ‘Vedas’-means knowledge • Rigveda – most ancient • Yajurveda • Samaveda • Atharvaveda
  64. 64. Social life • Family life • Food • Games & Amusements • Dress • The Varnas /Castes
  65. 65. Family life Lived in joint families They followed the patriarchal family Grihapati- eldest male member in the family who exercised full authority over all the members.
  66. 66. Family life It was his duty to perform sacrifices or Yajnas Women also occupied a position of honour – their presence was essential at all religious ceremonies. They were given right education & some even composed the Rigvedic hymns Simple but nourishing Wheat and barley cakes, milk & milk products like butter, ghee, curd, Cheese.
  67. 67. Games & Amusements Found leisure for enjoyment Fond of merry-making & pastimes Favorite amusement – horseracing, chariot racing, hunting Fascination for gambling with dice [this game has been referred to in the Rigveda as leading to ruins and slavery]. Loved music & played on a flute which resembled the ‘Vina’
  68. 68. Dress Simple & generally consisted of 3 parts – Undergarment nivi/dhoti Garment vasa/shirt Over-garment adhivasa /mantle/cloak of cotton & wool Turbans were also commonly used by them Adorned their persons with gold & silver ornaments garlands & wreaths of flowers jewels etc. Ornaments were worn by men & women
  69. 69. The Varnas /Castes Divided into 4 Varnas Brahmanas priests were learned people who performed sacrifices Kshatriyas ruling class or warriors Vaishyas trading class- farmers, goldsmiths, weavers, potters etc Shudras descendants of Dasyus –serve the 3 higher varnas
  70. 70. Economic life: their occupations • Agriculture • Domestication of animals • Trade • Discovery of Iron • Other occupations and Industries
  71. 71. Agriculture Primary occupation was cultivation of land Agricultural products – barley, wheat, rice, cotton, oilseeds Source of irrigation water – wells, canals, sometimes from lakes People depended upon rains Fields cultivated by a pair of oxen.
  72. 72. Domestication of animals Domestication of animals was another important occupation Wealth and prosperity depended on the possession of a large number of animals [especially cows – which was held in great esteem] Other animals domesticated bulls, oxen, horses, sheep, goats, asses, & dogs.
  73. 73. Trade They were not indifferent to trade & commerce. Barter system – exchange of articles was in vogue Cow was regarded as the standard of value. [value of things was measured in terms of cows] Coinage known as “Nishka” was also prevalent Trade was mainly carried on by road. Trade by sea was not quite unknown
  74. 74. Discovery of Iron Greatest contribution of the civilization is discovery of iron Iron was – a hard & tough metal hence better suited for making tools & weapons compared to copper or bronze Iron was used in making axe-heads – used for clearing jungles and making land fit for cultivation Other products made were sickles, hoes, plough-heads Led to the development of various arts & crafts like carpentry, black-smithy, tannery etc.
  75. 75. Discovery of Iron Iron tools helped sculptor in creating exquisite specimens of sculptures and rock-cut temples. Different rulers equipped their armies with different weapons such as swords, shields, arrow-heads, spear-heads etc.- laid the foundation of vast empires. Indulged in many other professions & occupations Chief industries referred to in the Rigveda – carpenters, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, weavers, leather’s, potters & physicians. All work for the benefit of the people as a whole No profession was inferior & below dignity
  76. 76. Government or political life Status of the King Ministers and the King The Sabha & Samiti Mode of warfare
  77. 77. Status of the King Rigvedic Aryans lived in tribes called ‘Janas’ Each Jana had its own ruler called ‘Rajan” Kingship was generally hereditary. Elected monarchies were not unknown People could select a worthy monarch of their own choice from among the members of the royal family or the nobility when situation demanded
  78. 78. Ministers and the King King was assisted by a number of ministers like Purohita religious adviser Senani leader of the army & helped king against his enemies. All ministers & officials were all men of high character & exercised a sort of great check on the autocracy of the king King was helpless without ministers as a bird without its wings.
  79. 79. Ministers and the King All ministers & officials were all men of high character & exercised a sort of great check on the autocracy of the king The tribes were further divided into ‘Gramas’ or the villages King also consulted the ‘Gramini’[village headman] Important matters were put before the two assemblies called the Sabha & Samiti. Anybody could give his suggestions in the Samiti Membership of the Sabha was restricted to the elders of the families Group of villages inhabited by the people of a tribe was called the ‘Vish’ hence the king was also known as ‘Vishpati’ [lord of the ‘Vish’]
  80. 80. Mode of warfare They were good warriors developed a high standard of warefare. King & nobles fought on chariots Common people fought on foot Warriors wore a coat of - armour, a helmet, a hand & arm guard. For offence they used swords, spears, axes, lances, bows & arrows [some times poisoned] Helmets, armours & shields were used for defence They never attacked or wounded an unarmed or sleeping enemy It was considered a sin to kill a person who did not take part in a battle
  81. 81. According to historians, the origin of Hinduism dates back to 5,000 or more years. The word "Hindu" is derived from the name of River Indus, which flows through northern India. In ancient times the river was called the 'Sindhu', but the Persians who migrated to India called the river 'Hindu', the land 'Hindustan' and its inhabitants 'Hindus'. Thus the religion followed by the Hindus came to be known as 'Hinduism'. ORIGIN OF EARLY HINDUISM
  82. 82. - The Origins of Hinduism are unknown, going back to the early Bronze or Neolithic period. - Hinduism was not inspired by a single individual or event. It is a combination of several religious beliefs, traditions, & gods of ancient India. - Also known to practitioners as Sanatana Dharma, which means everlasting or eternal religion / truth / rule, Hinduism can best be defined as a way of life based on the teachings of ancient sages and scriptures like the Vedas and Upanishads.
  83. 83. Hindu deities: Brahma, the “Creator” Vishnu, the “Preserver” Siva, the “Destroyer”
  84. 84. Hindu Terms: Dharma – set of religious and ethical duties to which each creature in the universe is subject Karma – the effects of the activities on its atman Atman – the soul of each individual Samsara – reincarnation, the soul passes through a series of bodies Nirvana– release from worldly life and unification with the universal spirit (called Brahman)
  85. 85. Hindu Life Cycle: - Youth; being educated by a Hindu Guru. - Householder; leading your family in the ways of Hinduism. - Reflection; using the teachings in order to break the cycle of bad karma. - Meditation; the atman seeking communion with the universal spirit. - Nirvana; breaking the cycle of life and becoming one with the universal spirit.
  86. 86. - By the 7th century C.E., personal prayer had replaced sacrifice of animals. This led to the building of temples and shrines which housed statues and pictures of gods. Cave are also used. - According to scholars, the evolution of Hinduism may be divided into three periods: - the ancient (6500 BCE-1000 AD), - the medieval (1000-1800 AD), and - the modern (1800 AD to present). - Hinduism is commonly thought to be the oldest religion in the history of human civilization.
  87. 87. HINDUSIM AND ARYANS • The earliest records of Hinduism are Aryan - The Aryans brought their spoken language of Sanskrit to India with them - This language evolved into written form - Aryans also brought a rich collection of myths (tales of their many gods they believed controlled the forces of nature) - Aryan priests memorized long poems and hymns suited to different religious rituals
  88. 88. -These hymns, poems, and rituals were gathered into four collections called Vedas - The Vedas record Indian history from about 1500 to 500 BC---a time period called the Vedic Age
  89. 89. - The oldest and most important Veda is the Rig-Veda - It includes 1,028 hymns of praise
  90. 90. • Around 400 BC, the wisest Hindu teachers tried to interpret and explain the hidden meanings of the Vedic hymns and rituals • Their answers were recorded in a collection of essays called the Upanishads. Upanishads
  91. 91. • A universal spirit is present within all living things— Brahman. This is thought to be the mighty spirit that creates and destroys life – The Brahman is One but expresses itself as Many – Everything in nature is tied together by Brahman – Because all living things are considered a part of Brahman, Hindus forbade the killing of animals The Upanishads teach that….
  92. 92. •One aspect of Brahman is the Self, or the Soul, called Atman – The Atman is everywhere, though you can’t see it • Nothing that lives ever dies entirely – When a living thing dies, it is reborn in another form---a process known as reincarnation
  93. 93. • All wise Hindus must seek to reach a state of perfect understanding called moksha. • At this point the self will disappear and merge with Brahman • The authors of the Upanishads taught that forms of self denial—such as fasting, helped achieve union with Brahman.
  94. 94. • Also, they encouraged the practice of yoga— which combines physical and mental exercises to reach a state of tranquility
  95. 95. Reasons for the caste system: - It was an attempt by the upper class to freeze the economic system. - It was imposed by a coalition of priests and warrior-kings to maintain control over the local population. - It was created as an alternative to open slavery.
  96. 96. • Hinduism includes a complicated set of divisions between groups of people known as the caste system - Consists of many varnas, or classes - According to the Rig-Veda, four different groups of people were created from the body of a Hindu god Caste System
  97. 97. The Caste System: Social division of the Caste System: • Brahmins - Priests/Rulers • Kshatriyas - Warriors • Vaishyas - Merchants • Shudras - Farmers • Untouchables; Non-Aryans
  98. 98. • Created from the god’s mouth---they became the priestly class and the highest group in Indian society Brahmin (Not to be confused with Brahman!)
  99. 99. • Created from the god’s arms---they became the rulers and the warriors Kshatriyas
  100. 100. • Created from the god’s legs---they became the landowners, merchants, artisans, and herders Vaishyas
  101. 101. • Created from the god’s feet---they became the laborers, farm workers, and servants Shudras
  102. 102. -The lowest “caste” of untouchables - People who performed jobs considered unclean Pariahs
  103. 103. -Over time, these divisions became more and more defined - Hundreds of sub-castes formed based on occupation within each of the four castes
  104. 104. • A person’s caste was based on birth– born into the same caste as parents - Determined occupation, spouse, dress, etc. - Purity (the meaning of castes) became key to ranking castes---the higher your caste, the purer you were and to associate with someone from a lower class risked contamination to your purity
  105. 105. • Is the caste system explicitly a religious part of the Hindu religion???? No! • HOWEVER, Hinduism played a large part in maintaining the rigid structure - Cycle of birth and reincarnation - Actions in this life determines your fate when born again - If faithful and dutiful in this life, you will have a better fate in the next life - In a previous life, Brahmins had committed no bad deeds while untouchables had
  106. 106. Origins of Jainism Mahāvīra, also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth and last tirthankara- omniscient teacher who preaches the dharma (righteous path) Mahāvīra was the last tirthankara of avasarpani(present descending phase Mahavira was born into a royal family in what is now Bihar, India. At the age of 30, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening.
  107. 107. • For the next twelve and a half years, he practiced intense meditation and severe penance, after which he became omniscient. • He traveled all over South Asia for the next thirty years to teach Jain philosophy. • Mahavira died at the age of 72 and attained nirvana (final release) or moksha (liberation from the cycle of birth and death).
  108. 108. Jainism: The Religion • The Jain community is composed of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen. • There are two distinct religious groups: the Digambaras (the sky- clad) and the Svetambaras (the white clad). • This division probably occurred around 300 B.C. over two issues: the nature of Mahavira and monastic nudity. • Though they both believe in the same doctrines that are important to Jainism, their practices are different.
  109. 109. Jainism: Key Beliefs • Ahimsa - The central Jain belief is an agreement to avoid physical violence and conduct that can be mentally and emotionally damaging to oneself or others. It also involves commitment to all life forms on earth and not engaging in practices which may bring harm. • Karma – the belief that for every action, there is a consequence. • Reincarnation – One’s soul that is reborn into different bodies over the course of many lives. • Proper Conduct - Jains are encouraged to make a vow to conduct themselves according to the following five principles: 1) Non-violence (ahimsa) 2) Truthfulness 3) Non- Stealing 4) Celibacy 5) Non-possession
  110. 110. Jainism: Key Beliefs • Moksha - Results in the elimination of the effects of karma in one’s life (achieved through meditation) • Atomism - Jains believe that every living thing on the planet possesses a soul or “Jiva”. They also believe that people are bound to act more compassionately if they acknowledge that everything is composed of a spirit or soul. • No absolutes - No perspective of any person is wrong, despite the fact that different perspectives have different effects on the specific situation.
  111. 111. Symbol of Jainism • The outline of this picture represents the universe in the Jain description. It is supposed to resemble a person standing on his feet with his feet apart, and the arms are rested on the hips. • The swastika represents the soul in which it can be reborn and reincarnated into during the time it is in the universe. • There are three dots above the swastika. They represent Right Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. The three dots are the three jewels of Jain philosophy in which they believe liberation can be found. • The half moon is where the liberated soul is being kept, and the dot inside of it is the liberated pure soul. • The hand below the swastika is a gesture of blessing and protection. • Inside the hand, there is a wheel of 24 spokes, and this represents Jinas. In the middle of the wheel, a word is inscribed which says: “ahimsa”
  112. 112. • It was all started by Buddha, who was a prince in Lumbini, 2500 years ago. • He was very unhappy in his royal life, so he set off on a 6 year journey, exploring other religions. • After his long journey and much meditation he was finally “enlightened”. • He found the middle path, the key to human happiness. For the rest of his life he wandered Asia, preaching his new religion. • Attained enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India. • Spent rest of his life, teaching others to realize what he himself had discovered. BUDDHISM – GAUTHAMA BUDDHA ( 563 – 483 BCE)
  113. 113. Gauthama Buddha from BodhGaya went to Sarnath ( 5 weeks after enlightenment) Crossed the ganges. In Sarnath his deciples were the Five monk. The earliest school of Budhhism was formed in SARNATH . Which are remarkable in their construction.
  114. 114. The first was that life is suffering You can’t live without death, frustration, etc. The second is that suffering is caused by craving and aversion Getting what you want doesn’t guarantee happiness, it deprives you of it The third is that suffering can be overcome, and true happiness attained If we stop craving useless things, and live each day at a time (not living in the future) we will be happy and free. The fourth is that the Noble eight fold path leads to the end of all suffering THE FOUR NOBLE PATHS
  115. 115. The Eight-Fold Path Right Livelihood Right Mindfulness Right Effort Right Conduct Right Speech Right Meditation Right Knowledge Right Resolve Right Mindfulness
  116. 116. "Buddha" means "the awakened one"--that is, someone who has woken up from the dream of being a separate ego in a material universe. Gautama Siddhartha, whom we affectionately, [mistakenly], call the Buddha, taught for forty-five years. In all those years, and in the hundreds of thousands of teaching words that he uttered, his message was simply this: "You are all Buddhas. There is nothing you need to achieve. Just open your eyes.“ Buddha had a vision in which he saw the human race as a bed of lotus flowers
  117. 117. • Dharma is understood as the practice (paripatti) of the truth. To take refuge in the Dharma is to take refuge in Buddha. • Karma is intentional action, physical, verbal or mental. Good karma brings happiness, bad brings suffering. • Avijja and Tanha is ignorance or not knowing the true nature of things and craving are the two root causes of Karma. • Cycle of Rebirth – We are born and reborn in six realms of exhistence based on one’s previous Karma. • Nirvana (Enlightenment) – To go beyond the cycle and achieving blissful state is Nirvana. BELEIFS OF BUDDHISM
  118. 118. • Five Rules to abstain from: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct lying, taking intoxicants such as alcoholic drinks • Meditation: Various types of meditation in various traditions • Chanting: Hymns of homage to Buddha, refuge in Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha etc.
  119. 119. Comparison between the two schools (chart) Theravada (Hinayana) Mahayana Teaching of the elders Spirit of the elders Small vehicle Large (great) vehicle Man as an individual Man involved with others Man on his own in the universe Man is not alone (grace is real) Key virtue: wisdom (bodhi) Key virtue: compassion (karuna) Religion is primarily for monks Religion is for laypersons as well Ideal: the Arhat (lonely saint) Ideal: the Bodhisattva Nirvana- oneself Nirvana + heavens, hells-for all Buddha is a saint or sage Buddha is a savior Avoids metaphysics (speculation) Elaborates metaphysics Avoids ritual Includes ritual Conservative Liberal Pali texts – kamma and dharma Many later texts (Sanskrit)karma,dharma Old wisdom school New wisdom school Escape Samsara, and reach Nirvana Samsara is Nirvana (identity) Ceylon, Burma, etc. (Southern Bism) China, Korea, Japan (N Bism)
  120. 120. Jainism Buddhism Based on The teachings of thirthankaras like Mahavir The teachings of Gautama Buddha Branches/sects Digambara, Svetambara, Terapantha Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana, and so on Notion on soul Believes that soul is a living entity which sticks to different types of non-living matter. They do not believe in the ideas of eternal self or soul (Atman) and eternity. Soul is treated as an ever changing entity. Notion on Karma It is a real substance that is attached with each jiva or body. Not effected from the person’s actions. Is a process, (an impression of karma determines the future). Karma is the direct effect of one’s own action Founder Vardhamâna Gautama Buddha Knowledge Knowledge for liberation Knowledge of purpose of life

Editor's Notes

  • Balochistan in the west to uttar Pradesh in the east
    North eastern Afghanistan in the north to Maharashtra in the south

    Sites have been found as far as turkemanistan
  • The seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods
  • 3. …….It can be said that the later religions borrowed or revived imagery from the IVC.
    No temples… cemetery cremation…. uncertain
  • Egalitarianism: Political doctrine declaring all people in the society as equal
    Access to water supplies
    Ornaments
    The great bath….. Hygiene and cleanliness.. High priorities… efficient municipal planning
  • Proposed Aryans.. Rejected.. Immigrated not invaded.. Trade climatic changes.. Change of course of river
  • We have seen the amazing technology, astonishing planning and remarkable detailing in the artefacts but think, we are talking about a civilization that existed 5000 years ago.. as sir john said ….. It’s the same as a teleporter or for example an iron man suit was to b invented 3000 years from now and someone among us invented it…. Just imagine… wonderful… isn’t it?
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