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Types of cnc machines

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Types of cnc machines

  1. 1. TYPES OF CNC MACHINES GUIDED BY RAGHUVAMSHI ASSISTANT PROFESSOR GITAM UNIVERSITY 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 1 Presented by B.V.S.K.SUMANTH MECHANICAL BRANCH 7TH SEMESTER GITAM UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 2 OVERVIEW • WHAT IS CNC • CNC MACHINE TYPES • WORKING OF CNC MACHINES • PROGRAMMING SOFTWARES • TYPES OF CONTROL UNITS • BREIF THEORY OF CNC MACHINES • DIFFERENT AXIS SYSTEM • G &M CODES • ADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES
  3. 3. WHAT IS A CNC MACHINE? In contrast to the conventional Lathe machines where operators give input and control the working, CNC machine is a machine which does machining process with the help of computerized control units which give it instructions regarding: 1. Tool Control: Tool and tool parameters 2. Units, incremental or absolute positioning 3. Feed rate and spindle speed 4. Coordinate System 5. Coolant Control: On/Off, Flood, Mist 6. Coordinates: X,Y,Z 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 3
  4. 4. CNC MACHINES TYPES There are EIGHT different types of CNC machines as follows: 1. CNC Lathe Machine 2. CNC Milling Machine 3. CNC Router Machine 4. CNC Laser Cutting Machine 5. CNC Plasma Cutting Machine 6. 3-D PRINTER 7. PICK AND PLACE MACHINE 8. 5-AXIS MACHINE 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 4
  5. 5. WORKING CNC working principle consists of following steps: • Controlled by G and M codes. • These are number values and co-ordinates. • Each number or code is assigned to a particular operation. • Typed in manually to CAD/CAM by machine operators. • G&M codes are automatically generated by the computer software 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 5
  6. 6. PROGRAMMING SOFTWARE CNC machines use software to perform their work . They can do both 2D and 3D processes on it. These codes are specified to do certain operations on the lathe machines. These codes are arranged together to make a complete program on the CNC machine. These programs then guide the machine to perform the desired processes in an orderly manner. 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 6
  7. 7. PROGRAMMING SOFT WARES For 3D works, we use certain software’s like: 1. Master Cam 2. Dell-Cam 3. Pro E The software Pro E can even perform processes in 4D. The procedure is carried out at first we make a drawing on CAD, convert it into CAM and then the machining is done on the part being manufactured. 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 7
  8. 8. TYPES OF CNC CONTROL UNITS These are the major companies providing control units for the CNC machines to be operated: • SIEMENS • MECH 3 • FANUC • GSK • Pentode 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 8
  9. 9. MILLING MACHINE • Milling machines are often retrofitted with CNC technology. • The milling machines are also known as the multi-tasking machines (MTMs) which are multi-purpose machines capable of milling and turning the materials as well. • The milling machine has got the cutter installed up on it which helps in removing the material from the surface of the work piece. When the material gets cooled down then it is removed from the milling machine. 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 9 ( Retrofitted refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems)
  10. 10. 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 10 The two main configurations of the milling machining operations are the types of milling machines. These are the vertical mill and the horizontal mill. They are further discussed below: 1.Vertical Milling Machines  The vertical mill has a vertically arranged spindle axis and rotate by staying at the same axis. The spindle can also be extended and performing functions such as drilling and cutting. Vertical mill has got two further categories as well: turret mill and bed mill.  The turret mill has got a table that moves perpendicularly and parallel to the spindle axis in order to cut the material. The spindle is, however, stationary. Two cutting methods can be performed with this by moving the knee and by lowering or raising the quill.  The other is the bed mill in which the table moves perpendicular to the axis of the spindle and the spindle moves parallel to its axis. 2.Horizontal Milling Machines  The horizontal mill is also the similar cutter but their cutters are placed on a horizontal arbor.  A lot of horizontal mills have got rotary tables that help in milling in various angles.  These tables are called the universal tables.  Apart from this all the tools that are used in a vertical mill can also be used in the horizontal mill.
  11. 11. • Just like milling machines, lathes are also commonly retrofitted with CNC technology in the exact same way. • Use for facing, turning , reaming, drilling, finishing etc., • Automatically operated with the help of G&M codes LATHE MACHINE 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 11
  12. 12. • CNC Routers are a very common piece of machinery you will see a lot when learning about CNC. • These are machines built exclusively to be operated by CNC technology and typically have no human interface other than through the computer. • Routers are generally for producing larger dimension parts and more commonly built with the idea of cutting wood, plastics and sheet metal in mind. • Routers also are most commonly found in a 3 axis Cartesian coordinate setup (X, Y and Z). • A 3 axis set up will allow cutting of profiles, pocketing and 3 dimensional relief machining. • There are also CNC routers which are 4, 5 or even 6 axis (the additional axes are rotary and used to rotate the tool around the work piece or visa versa), these machines are more suited towards cutting more complex shapes or prototype models. ROUTER 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 12
  13. 13. • CNC plasma cutters are very similar to CNC routers in size and setup. • However plasma cutters don’t require as much of a powerful set up because as opposed to dragging around a spinning tool in material they fly above the table with a plasma torch. • Plasma cutters are made for cutting 2 dimensional profile shapes into sheet metal. PLASMA CUTTER 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 13
  14. 14. • CNC laser cutters follow the same principle as the plasma cutter, except they use a powerful laser to do the cutting. • Laser cutters are often good for cutting wood, plastic and metal; each will need a different strength of laser suited for the material depending on the hardness and thickness. CNC LASER CUTTER 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 14
  15. 15. • A 3D printer uses a similar set up as a CNC router or laser cutter, but unlike those machines it does additive machine as opposed to subtractive machining. • Instead of starting with a solid piece of material and removing bits of that material to end up with the desired part, the 3D printer starts with a blank canvas and builds a part up layer-by-layer. • The 3D printer does this either by using an extruder that pushes a material (typically plastic) out from a tiny nozzle, or by using a laser that quickly solidifies a powder or liquid. 3D PRINTER 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 15
  16. 16. • A pick and place machine again uses a similar set up as a CNC router or laser cutter. • This time instead of a tool used for cutting a material, there are multiple small nozzles that pick up electrical components using a vacuum. The machine then moves to a desired location and places that electrical component down on the printed circuit board (hence the name pick and place). • Pick and place machines move very quickly and are used to place the many hundreds or even thousands of electrical components that make up devices such as computer motherboards, phones / tablets, and pretty much everything else that has a printed circuit board. PICK AND PLACE MACHINE 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 16
  17. 17. • 5 axis CNC machines add two rotary axes to the typical three axis setup. • The rotary axes allow much more complex machining to produce parts that would be impractical/impossible to do on a “normal” CNC router or mill 5AXIS CNC MACHINE 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 17
  18. 18. 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 18  2 Axis if all the cutting takes place in the same plane. In this case, the cutter does not have any capability of movement in the Z (vertical) plane. In general the X and Y axes can interpolate together simultaneously to create angled lines and circular arcs.  2.5 Axis if all the cutting takes place entirely in planes parallel to the principal plane but not necessarily at the same height or depth. In this case, the cutter can move in the Z (vertical) plane to change levels, but not simultaneously with the X,Y movements.  An exception might be that the cutter can interpolate helically, that is, do a circle in X,Y while moving simultaneously in Z to form a helix (for example in thread milling).  A subset of the above is that the machine can interpolate any 2 axes together simultaneously, but not 3.  This does make a limited number of 3D objects possible, by cutting in the XZ or YZ planes, for example, but is much more limited than full 3 axis interpolation. DIFFERENT AXIS SYSTEM
  19. 19. 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 19  3 Axis if your cutting requires simultaneous controlled movement of the X,Y,Z axes, which most free-form surfaces require.  4 axis if it includes the above plus 1 rotary axis movement. There are two possibilities: 4 axis simultaneous interpolation (also known as true 4th axis). Or just 4th axis positioning, where the 4th axis can reposition the part between 3 axis operations, but does not actually move during the machining.  5 axis if it includes the above plus 2 rotary axis movements. Besides true 5 axis machining (5 axes moving simultaneously while machining), you also often have 3 plus 2 or 3 axis machining + 2 separate axes positioning only, as well as in rarer cases 4 plus 1 or continuous 4 axis machining + a single 5th axis positioning only
  20. 20. G-CODES G00 Rapid positioning G01 Linear interpolation G02 Arc - Clockwise G03 Arc - Counter Clockwise G04 Dwell G09 Exact stop check G10 Programmable data input G17 XY plane selection G18 ZX plane selection G19 YZ plane selection G20 Programming in Inches G21 Programming in Millimeters (mm) G28 Return to home Return to machine zero on the current work offset. G30 Return to second home G31 Skip function Used for probes and tool length measurement systems G40 Tool radius compensation off G41 Tool radius compensation left G42 Tool radius compensation right G49 Tool length offset compensation cancel G53 Machine Coordinate System G54-59 Work Coordinate Systems G90 Absolute positioning G91 Relative positioning G92 Define current position G94 Feed rate per minute G97 Spindle constant speed 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 20
  21. 21. M00 Compulsory stop M01 Optional stop M02 End of program M03 Spindle on Clockwise rotation M04 Spindle on Counter- clockwise rotation M05 Spindle stop M06 Automatic tool change (ATC) M07 Coolant on Mist M08 Coolant on Flood M09 Coolant off M10 Pallet clamp M11 Pallet clamp off M13 Spindle on Clockwise rotation and coolant on flood M19 Spindle orientation M48 Feedrate override allowed M49 Feedrate override not allowed M52 Unload last tool from spindle M98 Subprogram call M99 Subprogram M- CODES 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 21
  22. 22. ADVANTAGES 1. High Repeatability and Precision e.g. Aircraft parts. 2. Volume of production is very high . 3. Complex contours/surfaces need to be machined. 4. Flexibility in job change, automatic tool settings, less scrap. 5. More safe, higher productivity, better quality. 6. Less paper work, faster prototype production, reduction in lead times. 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 22
  23. 23. DISADVANTAGES 1. Costly setup, skilled operators 2. Computers, programming knowledge required 3. Maintenance is difficult 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 23
  24. 24. 7/14/2017GITAM UNIVERSITY BANGALORE 24 1) Book: CAD/CAM: Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing, by Mikel P. Grover 2) https://wiki.mcneel.com/rhino/cncbasics 3) WIKIPEDIA REFERENCES

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