4. Official Name in English Organisation for Economic Co-operation
Official Name in French Organisation de coopération et de
développement économiques [OCDE]
Official Languages English, French
Type Intergovernmental Organization
5. Founded In 1961 as the succession organisation of OEEC
Headquarters Paris (Château de la Muette)
Secretary General José Ángel Gurría (since
2006), elected for 5 years
Current secretary general- Mathias
Cormann 28-05-2023 5
6. THE OECD:WHAT IS IT?
• The Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development is a unique forum where the governments of 30
market democracies work together to address the economic,
social and governance challenges of globalization as well as to
exploit its opportunities.
• The organization provides a setting where governments can
compare policy experiences, seek answers to common
problems, identify good practice and co-ordinate domestic and
7. • The OECD helps governments to foster prosperity and
fight poverty through economic growth, financial stability,
trade and investment, technology, innovation,
entrepreneurship and development co-operation.
• For more than 40 years, the OECD has been one of the
world’s largest and most reliable sources of comparable
statistical, economic and social data
8. HISTORY OF OECD
• The OECD grew out of the Organisation for European Economic Co-
operation (OEEC), which was set up in 1948 with support from the United
States and Canada to co-ordinate the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction
of Europe after World War II .
• Created as an economic counterpart to NATO, the OECD took over from the
OEEC in 1961 and, since then, its mission has been to help governments
achieve sustainable economic growth
• And employment and rising standards of living in member countries while
maintaining financial stability, so contributing to the development of the
world economy. 28-05-2023 8
9. WORK OF OECD
• OECD provides a setting for reflection and discussion policy research based on
and analysis that helps governments shape policy that may lead to a formal
agreement among member governments or be acted on, in domestic or other
• The OECD’s way of working consists of a highly effective process that begins with
data collection and analysis and moves on to collective discussion of policy, then
decision- making and implementation.
• Crucial analytical work and consensus-building on trade issues, such as trade in
services, feed into the success of international trade negotiations. 28-05-2023 9
10. Global partners
OECD member countries
Countries invited to
open talks on potential
Countries to which
OECD is offering
11. 37 member countries Recently added
13. WHO DRIVES OECD’S WORK?
Oversight and strategic direction
Representatives of member countries and of the European
Commission; decisions taken by consensus
Discussion and implementation
Representatives of member countries and
of invited non-members work with the
OECD Secretariat on specific issues
Analysis and proposals
14. OECD’S MISSION
Article 1 of the OECD Convention defines the Organisation’s
mission as being to:
• Support economic growth
• Boost employment
• Raise living standards
• Maintain financial stability
• Assist other countries’ economic development
• Contribute to growth in world trade
15. • Financed by the member states
• Contribution rate depends on country‘s wealth
• Budget of 338.3 million Euro in 2023
16. FIELDS OF WORK
7 main fields:
Economy, Society, Innovation, Finance, Governance, Sustainibility and
• Pisa (Assesment study to compare students in member countries)
• Publishing of the OECD Economic Outlook
• Publishing and updating of a model tax convention
17. Environment, sustainable development
• Make markets work for a healthier environment
• Use science and technology to benefit people everywhere
• Cut wastage and pollution
• Bring together member countries to discuss fundamental energy
issues through the international energy agency (IEA) and the
nuclear energy agency (NEA)
18. SPECIAL BODIES
• Africa Partnership Forum
• Business and IndustryAdvisory Committee (BIAC)
• DevelopmentAssistance Committee
• OECD Development Centre
• Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE)
• International Transport Forum (ITF)
• International EnergyAgency
• Nuclear EnergyAgency
• Partnership for Democratic Governance (PDG)
• Sahel and WestAfrica Club
• Trade UnionAdvisory Committee (TUAC)
19. OECD’S ACHIEVEMENTS
Improving transparency and ethics in international business
• Principles of Corporate Governance
• Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises
• Anti-Bribery Convention
• Polluter-Pays Principle (PPP)
Simplifying tax issues in international transactions
• Model Tax Convention
Helping emerging and transition economies
•Co-operation programmes with emerging market economies including China,
India and Brazil
20. OECD COMMUNICATIONS
• Publications (over 150 titles per year)
• A regularly updated website (statistics, data,
• A corporate magazine OECD observer
• Radio and TV studios
• An annual civil society forum
• OECD centres (berlin, mexico city, tokyo and
washington) which organise events to disseminate
22. India is one of the many non-member economies with which the OECD
has working relationships in addition to its member countries.
*The OECD has been co-operating with India since 1995. The OECD Council at
Ministerial level adopted a resolution on 16 May 2007 to strengthen the co-
operation with India, as well as with Brazil, China, Indonesia and South
Africa, through a programme of enhanced engagement.
*It also called for the expansion of the OECD's relations with Southeast Asia.
While enhanced engagement is distinct from accession to the OECD, it has the
potential in the future to lead to membership.
INDIA AND THE OECD
India values the opportunity to discuss major policy issues and challenges and
to learn from the experiences of OECD countries facing similar challenges.
The relationship also benefits OECD Members and non-OECD economies, who
are increasingly engaged with India through trade and investment, and who have
gained a better understanding of India as it has become a major actor in the
The OECD’s first Economic Survey of India was released in 2007. India also
participates in various policy areas including trade, investment, policies for small
and medium-sized enterprises, development and steel.
AREAS OF WORK
24. INDIA’S PARTICIPATIONIN OECD GENERAL ACTIVITIES
India is on the Governing Board of the OECD’s Development Centre and it
also participates as an observer in some OECD Committees and various
Indian ministers have also attended a number of Ministerial Council Meeting
dialogue sessions with non-OECD countries since 2002.
India also supports the OECD regionally-focused activities in Asia, hosting
regional forums and workshops on issues including investment, taxation,
financial education, private pensions, and development.
25. •OECD seed scheme provides an international framework for the
certification of seed
•OECD aim to facilitate seed trade by reducing technical barriers,
improving transparency and lowering transactions costs.
•OECD certification is applied only to those varieties that are officially
recognized as distinct and having an acceptable value in at least one participating
•OECD: 57 country members which is a mandatory/compulsory system
OECD AND THE SEED CERTIFICATION
26. The OECD Seed Schemes:
A globally recognized seed certification system
The OECD Seed Schemes provide an international framework for the certification of seed.
They aim to facilitate seed trade by reducing technical barriers, improving transparency and lowering
The OECD Seed Schemes were set up in 1958 with the objective to encourage the use of seed of
consistently high quality in participating countries.
There are currently 58 Members of one or more of the OECD Seed Schemes worldwide.
27. The Seed Schemes authorise the use of labels and certificates for seed produced and processed for
international trade according to agreed principles.
One of the main principles is that OECD certification is applied only to those varieties that are
officially recognised as distinct and having an acceptable value in at least one participating country.
Further, certified seed must be related directly through one or more generations to authentic Basic
Seed of a variety.
In addition, satisfactory conditions for the production and processing of Basic and Certified Seed
must be ensured and verified by field inspection and post-control
28. An OECD list of varieties eligible for seed certification is regularly published and available
online and in hard copy.
For a country to use the OECD labels, it is required to register the species and varieties in the
OECD list of varieties.
The list contains most internationally traded varieties, and it has grown progressively over the
last 30 years.
There are currently 49,899 varieties and 200 species listed.
29. The rules of the Seed Schemes cover seven groups of species, constituting seven distinct and
independent Schemes. In response to the needs of Member countries, the rules are regularly amended.
In the past years, the Seed Schemes faced a number of challenges, including the authorisation of
companies to perform some seed certification activities, seed multiplication abroad and the move to
large-scale seed production facilities.
Some of these challenges reflect the shifting roles and responsibilities of the public 5 and private
Scientific and technical developments also resulted in further adaptation of the rules of the Schemes.
30. In order for a country to participate in the OECD Seed Schemes, several criteria must be met:
The country must provide a description of the national seed certification scheme and a copy of the
national rules and procedures governing variety registration and seed certification.
Particular attention is paid to the country‟s national rules regarding previous cropping, isolation,
verification of varietal identity and varietal purity standards.
The country must also prove that it has a national list of varieties which includes only those varieties
that are – according to international guidelines – distinct, uniform and stable.
In the case of agricultural species, varieties must have an acceptable value for cultivation and use.
These criteria ensure a harmonization of seed certification standards.
Once a country has been accepted into the OECD Seed Schemes, its certification standards are
considered equivalent to all other Member countries within the same Scheme.
31. OECD Schemes for Varietal Certification of Seed Moving in International Trade
• Promote the use of agriculture seed of consistently high quality.
•Certified seeds are produced -and officially controlled -according to common harmonised
procedures in 59 participating countries
OECD Seed Schemes
Increase quality of Seed
•Fewer weed seeds
•Less inert matter
•Less seed-borne diseases
•Known varieties 28-05-2023 31
32. 1. Varietal identity: The identity of a variety is defined by the official description
of its characteristics, resulting from a given genotype or combination of
2. Varietal purity: The purity of a variety is the proportion of plants or seeds within
the population that conforms to the official description of the variety.
The OECD Seed Certification Schemes are
based on two criteria
33. 7 OECD SCHEMES
1. Grasses & Legumes
2. Crucifers & Other Oil or Fibre Species
4. Maize & Sorghum
7. Subterranean Clover & Similar Species
34. •The opportunity to develop exports and/or imports of certified seed.
•A national seed law which provides the legal framework for variety registration and seed
• Anational list of varieties.
•An efficient domestic certification system, with adequate equipment and
qualified staff for field inspection, seed sampling and labeling.
•An efficient laboratoryfor seed analysis accordingto ISTA Rules or equivalent.
•Asystem of post-controls to check the varietal purity of the certified seed
Requirements for joining the OECD Seed Schemes
35. Procedure for joining an OECD seed schemes:
Sending of official letter to the OECD secretariat.
Provision of basic documentation explaining seed certification procedures in the country.
Fulfillment of all OECD technical requirements (e.g. establishment of variety list, implementation of
pre- and post-control tests for ≥ 3 years prior to application).
Payment of all fees related to the evaluation mission.
Admittance or rejection on basis of evaluation report.
Final approval (if admitted) by consensus at the OECD Seed SchemesAnnual Meeting, the OECD Committee for
Agriculture and the OECD Council
Each generation is identified by the label colour:
White with a violet diagonal stripe – pre- basic
White – basic
Blue – certified C1 Red – certified C2
36. OECD Seed Scheme
The objective of the OECD seeds schemes is to encourage the seeds
of consistently high quality in participating countries.
India’s participation in the OECD Seed Scheme was accepted by the
OECD in 2008 in respect of five seed schemes viz.
i. Grasses and legumes
iii. Crucifers and other oil and fiber species.
iv. Maize and Sorghum and
In a world where all countries and people are interconnected, the only way to
forward is to strengthen international co-operation and make it more inclusive.
The OECD plays an important role in sharing information, data and measuring
progress on poverty eradication or inequality, and in bringing to the forefront
solutions pertinent for the betterment of humanity.
The OECD has thus judiciously participated in the decisive struggles of our
time, and especially the fight against inequalities.so here I conclude that the OECD
has been at the forefront of global cooperation ,offering the top notch analysis and
policy advice for better society and that is why today, the world looks to the
OECD for leadership.