Eg: Plants communicate their need to be taken care of and watered immediately through visible changes in the color of the leaves, and the falling of leaves and flowers. Eg: An infant will cry if he / she is hungry.
Clarity of thought : Eg: Patient to Doctor - “I want a painkiller” The poor doctor would never come to know whether the patient has a headache or is suffering from shoulder pain or injury in any other part of the body. This is how effective communication is important in personal life. Patient forgot to make his point clear leading to confusion. Assert respectfully : Eg: If you are taking some lectures on How to Dress Professionally and you yourself is not properly dressed then the lecture is of no use. Be aware of the communication process: Eg: If somebody’s family member has passed away, even if the person is old and sick for a longer period of time. You cannot say that it is good that he passed way.
Time Eg You boss has just had a very hard core discussion about the decreasing sales. You cannot go and ask for a promotion. Even though your sales bar is rising.
Eg: How the CEOs with little direct contact with their bottom level employees continue to exert influence?
Aristotle’s model of communication Eg: The politician must understand the needs of the people in his constituency like the need of a shopping mall, better transport system, safety of girls etc and then design his speech. His speech should address all the above issues and focus on providing the solutions to their problems to expect maximum votes from them. His tone and pitch should also be loud and clear enough for the people to hear and understand the speech properly. Here speaker is the center of the communication Profession of the person really matters * Doctor – Prognosis * Lawyer – Judgment * Scientist – Outcome * Teacher – Result
Berlo’s model of communication takes the emotional aspects of the communication How does one know what the other person is speaking ? - Through Hearing . How does one know whether the pasta he has ordered is made in white sauce or not ? -Through Tasting . How does one know that there is a diversion ahead or it’s a no parking zone? - Through Seeing . How will an individual come to know that the food is fresh or stale ? How do we find out the fragrance of a perfume ? – Through Smelling How will you find out whether the milk is hot or not ? - Through Touching .
6 Questions Of Communications
Six Helpful Question of Communication Sumali Parikh B K School of Management P G Diploma in International Business (Evening)
Definition of communication <ul><li>It is the fundamental method that humans use to interact with each other since the beginning of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication theory was proposed by S. F. Scudder in the year 1980. It states that all living beings existing on the planet communicate although the way of communication is different. </li></ul>
Communication can be defined as: <ul><li>Sharing information between people </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanging of ideas that require action </li></ul><ul><li>The sending / receiving of verbal / non-verbal messages </li></ul><ul><li>To understand what is conveyed </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent misunderstanding </li></ul>
Barriers of Communication <ul><li>What is the purpose of message? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The message should be clear, concise and accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encoding the message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the wrong style / language is used that may result in to misunderstanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to convey the message? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the method of conveying the message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decoding the message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special jargons may be misunderstood by non-specialist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EG: You cannot ask a student. What is the prognosis of your test? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpreting the message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong assumptions are made when instructions are not clear. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unless the sender is provided with prompt feedback errors / misunderstanding cannot be corrected. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><li>How Where Who </li></ul>
<ul><li>Clarity of thought : One needs to be clear and focused on the subject at hand and not beat around the bush and be ambiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>Assert respectfully : It is important that one develops speaking up assertive communication skills. This is because when one is assertive, they are proving that they are confident about what they need to convey. Choose data that best supports your claim. Some examples will definitely work. </li></ul><ul><li>Convey one's thoughts : It is important for one to courageously convey what they think. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in yourself while expressing, if you yourself is not convinced then it is very tough to convey that message. </li></ul>Be aware of the communication process : One should be aware of every aspect of the present communication - the purpose, objective and needs. One needs to be aware of what is occurring within the self; aware of what the others present feel; aware of all that is occurring between the communicators and aware of all that is happening around the communicators
<ul><li>Time: There must be a right time to communicate for the right message. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the Argument: Argument is the worst sort of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Time Pressures: Often in organization the targets have to be achieved within a specified time period, the failure of which has adverse consequences. In a haste to meet deadlines, the formal channels of communication are shortened, or messages are partially given, i.e., not completely transferred. Thus sufficient time should be given for effective communication. If someone is busy and if you give some important message to that person that person might not be interested in listening to that message and might make a mistake. </li></ul><ul><li>Distraction/Noise: Communication is also affected a lot by noise to distractions. Physical distractions are also there such as, poor lightning, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room also affects communication in a meeting. Similarly use of loud speakers interferes with communication. </li></ul>When
Why ? <ul><li>Purpose: If the purpose of communication is to achieve common understanding or to create new or better awareness, then communicating vision requires a clear and compelling message. </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>WHOM? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships provide us with happiness, fulfillment and joy. It is therefore really important to be able to understand your spouse or partner and for you to help them understand you. The only to do this is to make sure you are accurately communicating what you intend to communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker must be very careful about his selection of words and content in this model of communication. He should understand his target audience and then prepare his speech. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Place where to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Your Place or His Place </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages (Your Place) </li></ul><ul><li>“ My place My rules” </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologically you are in a familiar place </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages (His Place) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: If someone walks-in and he will ask you to be excuse for sometime you will be in middle of some important discussion and you have to end it due to some interruption. </li></ul>
How <ul><li>Source: The source in other words also called the sender is the one from whom the thought originates. He is the one who transfers the information to the receiver after carefully putting his thoughts into words. How does the source or the sender transfer his information to the recipient ? It is done with the help of communication skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social System and Culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Message : When an individual converts his thoughts into words, a message is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding: The process of converting the thoughts in to words is also called as Encoding . </li></ul><ul><li>Channel: It actually refers to the medium how the information flows from the sender to the receiver. All the five senses are the channels which help human beings to communicate with each other. </li></ul>Decoding: The process of receiving the message thru any channel and trying to understand is decoding Receiver: When the message reaches the receiver, he tries to understand what the listener actually wants to convey and then responds accordingly.
How <ul><ul><li>Verbal / Oral : Oral communication could be said to be the most used form of communication. Whether it is to present some important data to your colleagues or lead a boardroom meeting, these skills are vital. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written: Writing is used when you have to provide detailed information such as figures and facts, even while giving a presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen : The person on the receiving end would also need to exercise much caution to ensure that he/she clearly understands what is being said. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This shows therefore, that you would need to cultivate both your listening and speaking skills, as you would have to carry out both roles in the workplace, with different people. </li></ul></ul>
Body Language <ul><li>Maintain eye contact with the audience : This is vital as it keeps all those present involved in the conversation. It keeps them interested and on the alert, during the course of the conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Body awareness : One needs to be aware of all that their body is conveying to them, as well as others. For instance, if there is anxiety rising during the course of a conversation then one feels thirsty and there maybe a slight body tremor. At that point one needs to pause and let someone else speak. A few deep breaths and some water works as the magic portion at this point. </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking: Interrogating, Criticizing Blaming Shaming </li></ul><ul><li>You messages: Moralizing, Preaching, Advising, Diagnosing, Endorsing Power, Ordering, Threatening, Commanding, Directing </li></ul><ul><li>Shouting: Name-calling , Refusing to talk </li></ul><ul><li>The non-verbal barriers are: Flashing eyes, Rolling eyes, Quick movements, Slow movements, Arms crossed, Legs crossed </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures out of exasperation Slouching, Hunching, Lack of personal hygiene Doodling, Avoiding eye contact, Staring at people, Over fidgeting </li></ul>
Body Language <ul><li>One Research has revealed that there are four different zones of interpersonal space. </li></ul><ul><li>1st zone is called intimate distance and ranges from touching to about 18” apart. Intimate distance is the space around us that we reserve for lovers, children, family members and friends. </li></ul><ul><li>2nd zone is called personal distance and begins about an arm's length away; starting around 18” from our person and ending about 4’ away. We use personal distance in conversations with friends, to chat with associates, and in group discussions. </li></ul><ul><li>3rd zone of interpersonal space is called social distance and is the area that ranges from four to 8’ away from you. Social distance is reserved for strangers and new acquaintances. </li></ul><ul><li>4 th zone of space is public distance and includes anything more than 8’ away from you. This zone is used for speeches, lectures, and theater. </li></ul>
10 no…nos of Communication <ul><li>01. “That makes no sense” </li></ul><ul><li>02. “I told you so” </li></ul><ul><li>03. “It doesn’t matter” </li></ul><ul><li>04. “You’re not listening” </li></ul><ul><li>05. “Whatever…” </li></ul><ul><li>06. “It’s your fault because…” </li></ul><ul><li>07. “You made me feel…” </li></ul><ul><li>08. “Everybody else…” </li></ul><ul><li>09. “Anybody could see that…” </li></ul><ul><li>10. “Yeah Right…” </li></ul>
Summarize <ul><li>To summarize the communication theory proposes that to survive, every living entity, needs to communicate with others and also among themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is a dire need of survival. </li></ul><ul><li>In communication feedback is the most important step. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Over the years, estimates of student vocabulary size have varied greatly, hindered in part by issues such as the types of vocabularies being considered (e.g., receptive/ productive or oral/print). Depending on how they approached such issues, early vocabulary researchers reported figures ranging from 2,500 to 26,000 words in the vocabularies of typical grade 1 students and from 19,000 to 200,000 words for college graduate students (Beck & McKeown, 1991). As researchers began to define more clearly what they meant by vocabulary size, the estimates became more precise. At the present time, there is considerable consensus among researchers that students add approximately 2,000 to 3,500 distinct words yearly to their reading vocabularies (Anderson & Nagy, 1992; Anglin, 1993; Beck & McKeown, 1991; White et al., 1990). </li></ul>