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The First World War

  1. 1. The First World War (1914) July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918
  2. 2. Europe
  3. 3. Germany Germany & her neighboring countries
  4. 4. Causes of First World War Militant Nationalism Armamen t Race Division of Europe into two hostile groups Sarajevo Crisis
  5. 5. Militant Nationalism • Militant nationalism was caused by: 1. Aggressive nationalism (loving one’s country and hatred for others), 2. Economic competition (England & France has colonies in Africa & Asia. Even Russia, Japan, Italy wanted to expand colonies to get raw material and market for finished products. Acquisition of new colonies and expansion of economy ended with armed conflict) and 3. International tension (atmosphere was filled with fear, apprehension(worry) and hatred) • Every country was trying to keep huge armies and navies. • Many military and naval officers were dominating the civilian authorities. • European countries were having outright wars to achieve their goals.
  6. 6. Race for Armaments • The mad race for armaments was a major reasons which led to the first world war. • Every country was stockpiling armaments in the name of self defence and protecting peace. One country was forced to increase its armaments if other countries did that. • Germany built a powerful navy to protect her colonies and to come at par with Britain. But by 1914, left behind Britain and France in mfg. iron and steel. Imperator was largest ship in the world. • Germans also dug Kiel canal deeper so that battleships could enter its waters. • England and France were concerned with Germany’s growing military strength. This led to fierce race of armaments.
  7. 7. Division of Europe into two hostile groups • There were two kind of States in Europe in 20th century: 1. SINGLE NATION STATES: France, Holland and Germany 2. IMPERIAL STATES: Austria-Hungarian Empire & Russian Empire. • Germany entered into alliance with Austria & Hungary and Italy formed Triple Alliance. • A+ B+C = Triple Alliance • Similarly, France, England and Russia formed Triple Entente.  Japan also later joined triple entente. • W + X+ Y + (Z) = Triple Entente • Thus Europe was divided into two hostile (unfriendly/opposing) groups: Triple Alliance and Triple Entente.
  8. 8. Sarajevo Crisis (immediate cause) • Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated at Sarajevo capital of Bosnia on June 28 1914. • It was done by secret society called as Black Hand/ Union of Death who wanted to unite all Serbians into a single Serbian State. • Austria served an ultimatum on Serbia on July 23 making 11 demands. Serbia accepted all expect that of losing her sovereignty. • Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28 1914.
  9. 9. Sequence Austria v/s Serbia Russia supported Serbia Germany v/s Russia Germany v/s France Germany entered Belgium Britain v/s Germany Japan v/s Germany Bulgaria v/s Germany Italy v/s Germany
  10. 10. During War • Britain, France, Russia and Allies were called as Allied Powers. • Germany, Austria and allies were called as Central Powers. • War was fought in areas called as Fronts. • Western front: Germany v/s Northern France • Eastern Front: Germany v/s Russian forces.
  11. 11. Entry of USA • In 1915, the German U- Boats had sunk a British ship Lusitania. • 1153 passengers were killed including the 123 American passengers. • Americans were sympathetic to Britain. • Allied Powers had taken big loan from USA to pay for the arms and the good bought by them. • Therefore, USA thought that if Germany would win it would be a loss of USA and Germany would become serious rival to the USA. • So, USA entered the war on the side on Allied Powers.
  12. 12. Results of the war • A) The Treaty of Versailles: The victorious allies met at a conference at Versailles (Jan 1919) and Paris (1919). 27 countries were present. However President of US, PM of England and France mainly decided the terms of peace treaties. (Wilson-George-George) • Defeated countries and Russia weren’t a part of the conference. • As a result of Paris Conference on June 28 1919, ‘The Treaty of Versailles’ was signed & the war ended. • US President Wilson’s 14 points negotiations were the basis of the treaty. It was done in order to prevent Germany from going to war again.
  13. 13. Treaty of Versailles USA England France
  14. 14. Terms of the treaty 1. It declared Germany guilty of aggression. 2. Germany was asked to pay for the loss to the Allies. 33 billion dollars was the amount decided, Germany was asked to give all her merchant ships to Allies and was asked to supply coal to France , Belgium and Italy for 10 years. (Coal to FBI) 3. German Coal mines called as Saar were given to France for 15 years and area would be controlled by the League of Nations. 4. Demilitarise Rhine Valley & area in west of Rhine to be occupied by Allied Troops for 15 years.
  15. 15. Terms of the Treaty • 5. Germany gave: a) Alsace Lorraine to France, b) Eupen-et-Malmedy to Belgium and Schleswig to Denmark. (Lost some territories to FBD). Danzig became a Free Port in the Polish Territory. • 6. Germany gave up some territories to FBD, Poland and Czechoslovakia. (Lost territories to FBDPC) • 7. Germany lost all her colonies to Britain, Belgium, South Africa and Portugal. (Lost Colonies to BBSaP) • 8. German colonies in China were given to Japan and not to China.
  16. 16. 14 Points of the treaty • 9. • 10. Complete Independence to Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. (Independence to BPCY) • 11. The Covenant (Contract) of the League of Nations was added to the Treaty of Versailles. Army Navy Submarin es Air Force 1,00,000 Soldiers 15,000 men 24 Ships Banned Banned
  17. 17. Results of the war • B) Territorial Rearrangements: After the war European Supremacy was seen in the world. USA surpassed Europe eco and militarily. Treaties signed after war changed the map of the world especially Europe. a) Three Dynasties were destroyed i) Romanov in Russia ii) Hohenzollern in Germany and iii) Hapsburg in Austria-Hungary. b) Austria & Hungary became separate Independent States. Continued…
  18. 18. Results of the war c) Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia emerged as Independent States. d) Finland, Estonia, Latvia etc. emerged with different cultures. • Democracy replaced Monarchy in Europe.
  19. 19. Results of the war • C) Formation of League of Nations: • Destruction caused by War had convinced the leaders of the world that they must prevent War and promote international cooperation. This thought inspired them to set-up league of Nations. • It was made a part of all important peace treaties. • In 1920, league of nations was created as a world organisation of all Independent States.
  20. 20. Aims & Objectives of LN 1. All States were prohibited from signing any secret treaties and alliances. 2. Members cannot maintain huge Armies, Warships and destructive Armaments. • 3. All should respect each other’s Independence. • 4. Members should settle their disputes through LN. • 5. Members would take action any State which causes danger to World peace. • 6. LN should promote Cultural, Social and Economical cooperation among the members.