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• Militant nationalism was caused by:
1. Aggressive nationalism (loving one’s country and hatred
2. Economic competition (England & France has colonies in
Africa & Asia. Even Russia, Japan, Italy wanted to expand
colonies to get raw material and market for finished products.
Acquisition of new colonies and expansion of economy ended
with armed conflict) and
3. International tension (atmosphere was filled with fear,
apprehension(worry) and hatred)
• Every country was trying to keep huge armies and navies.
• Many military and naval officers were dominating the civilian
• European countries were having outright wars to achieve their
Race for Armaments
• The mad race for armaments was a major reasons which led
to the first world war.
• Every country was stockpiling armaments in the name of
self defence and protecting peace. One country was forced to
increase its armaments if other countries did that.
• Germany built a powerful navy to protect her colonies and
to come at par with Britain. But by 1914, left behind Britain
and France in mfg. iron and steel. Imperator was largest ship
in the world.
• Germans also dug Kiel canal deeper so that battleships
could enter its waters.
• England and France were concerned with Germany’s
growing military strength. This led to fierce race of
Division of Europe into two hostile groups
• There were two kind of States in Europe in 20th century:
1. SINGLE NATION STATES: France, Holland and
2. IMPERIAL STATES: Austria-Hungarian Empire &
• Germany entered into alliance with Austria &
Hungary and Italy formed Triple Alliance.
• A+ B+C = Triple Alliance
• Similarly, France, England and Russia formed
Triple Entente. Japan also later joined triple
• W + X+ Y + (Z) = Triple Entente
• Thus Europe was divided into two hostile
(unfriendly/opposing) groups: Triple Alliance and Triple
Sarajevo Crisis (immediate cause)
• Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne
of Austria-Hungary was assassinated at Sarajevo
capital of Bosnia on June 28 1914.
• It was done by secret society called as Black Hand/
Union of Death who wanted to unite all Serbians
into a single Serbian State.
• Austria served an ultimatum on Serbia on July 23
making 11 demands. Serbia accepted all expect that
of losing her sovereignty.
• Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28 1914.
Italy v/s Germany
• Britain, France, Russia and Allies were
called as Allied Powers.
• Germany, Austria and allies were called as
• War was fought in areas called as Fronts.
• Western front: Germany v/s Northern
• Eastern Front: Germany v/s Russian
Entry of USA
• In 1915, the German U- Boats had sunk a British
• 1153 passengers were killed including the 123
• Americans were sympathetic to Britain.
• Allied Powers had taken big loan from USA to
pay for the arms and the good bought by them.
• Therefore, USA thought that if Germany would
win it would be a loss of USA and Germany
would become serious rival to the USA.
• So, USA entered the war on the side on Allied
Results of the war
• A) The Treaty of Versailles: The victorious allies
met at a conference at Versailles (Jan 1919) and Paris
(1919). 27 countries were present. However President of
US, PM of England and France mainly decided the
terms of peace treaties. (Wilson-George-George)
• Defeated countries and Russia weren’t a part of the
• As a result of Paris Conference on June 28 1919,
‘The Treaty of Versailles’ was signed & the war
• US President Wilson’s 14 points negotiations were
the basis of the treaty. It was done in order to prevent
Germany from going to war again.
Terms of the treaty
1. It declared Germany guilty of aggression.
2. Germany was asked to pay for the loss to the
Allies. 33 billion dollars was the amount
decided, Germany was asked to give all her
merchant ships to Allies and was asked to
supply coal to France , Belgium and Italy for 10
years. (Coal to FBI)
3. German Coal mines called as Saar were given to
France for 15 years and area would be
controlled by the League of Nations.
4. Demilitarise Rhine Valley & area in west of
Rhine to be occupied by Allied Troops for 15
Terms of the Treaty
• 5. Germany gave: a) Alsace Lorraine to France, b)
Eupen-et-Malmedy to Belgium and Schleswig to
Denmark. (Lost some territories to FBD). Danzig
became a Free Port in the Polish Territory.
• 6. Germany gave up some territories to FBD,
Poland and Czechoslovakia. (Lost territories to
• 7. Germany lost all her colonies to Britain,
Belgium, South Africa and Portugal. (Lost
Colonies to BBSaP)
• 8. German colonies in China were given to
Japan and not to China.
14 Points of the treaty
• 10. Complete Independence to Belgium, Poland,
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. (Independence to
• 11. The Covenant (Contract) of the League of
Nations was added to the Treaty of Versailles.
Army Navy Submarin
Results of the war
• B) Territorial Rearrangements: After the war European
Supremacy was seen in the world. USA surpassed
Europe eco and militarily. Treaties signed after war
changed the map of the world especially Europe.
a) Three Dynasties were destroyed i) Romanov in
Russia ii) Hohenzollern in Germany and iii)
Hapsburg in Austria-Hungary.
b) Austria & Hungary became separate Independent
Results of the war
c) Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia emerged as
d) Finland, Estonia, Latvia etc. emerged with
• Democracy replaced Monarchy in
Results of the war
• C) Formation of League of Nations:
• Destruction caused by War had convinced the
leaders of the world that they must prevent
War and promote international cooperation.
This thought inspired them to set-up league
• It was made a part of all important peace
• In 1920, league of nations was created as a
world organisation of all Independent States.
Aims & Objectives of LN
1. All States were prohibited from signing any
secret treaties and alliances.
2. Members cannot maintain huge Armies,
Warships and destructive Armaments.
• 3. All should respect each other’s Independence.
• 4. Members should settle their disputes through
• 5. Members would take action any State which
causes danger to World peace.
• 6. LN should promote Cultural, Social and
Economical cooperation among the members.