Composting process and organic fertilizers production

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Aerobic composting process, methods and technology and brief description on the conversion stages from mature compost into granule organic fertilizers. This article was presented before a steering committee in Jakarta in August 2012 on a MSW project.

Published in: Technology
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Composting process and organic fertilizers production

  1. 1. COMPOSTING BASICSDECOMPOSITION OF = STABILIZATION OF ORGANIC MATTER ORGANIC MATTER NATURAL PROCESS HUMAN INTERVENTION SLOWLY, UNCONTROLLED QUALITY; ACCELLERATION,HIGHER QUALITY MAY CAUSE POLLUTION AND BETTER SANITATION COMPOST (HUMUS, CRUMBLY TEXTURE)10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 2
  2. 2. COMPOSTING PROCESS ORGANIC MATTER COMPOST MICROBIAL WATER WATER PROCESS HEAT OXYGEN CO210/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 3
  3. 3. DECOMPOSERS • BACTERIA • FUNGI • ACTINOMYCETES MICROORGANISM • PROTOZOA • MITES • MILLIPEDES • INSECTS • SOWBUGS • EARTHWORMS INVERTEBRATES • SNAILS10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 4
  4. 4. ORGANISM IN THE FOOD WEB10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 5
  5. 5. TEMPERATURE Thermophilic >50° C (>120°F) Mesophilic 10-45C (50° - 110° F)10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 6
  6. 6. TYPES OF MICRO-ORGANISMAEROBIC ANAEROBIC• Require a minimum 5% • Thrive on oxygen oxygen deficient environment• Most rapid and effective • Refer to as Fermentation• Generate heat and CO2 • Generate offensive odor• Psychrophilic: 5° C (40°F) (H2S, cadaverine and• Mesophilic: 10° - 45° C (50° putrescine ) - 110° F) • Produce toxins to plants• Termophilic: >50° C (120°) (acids and alcohols)10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 7
  7. 7. KEY FACTORS TO COMPOSTING C:N Ratio • The range between 25:1 to 40:1 → efficient processSurface Area & Particle Size • The smaller the size the faster the process Aeration • Air circulation enhances aerobic decomposition Porosity • Spaces between particle enable supply of oxygen Moisture Content • Optimum moisture content is 50% to 60% Temperature • Optimum temperature range is between 32°to 60° C pH of Material • Optimum pH ranges between 6.5 to 7.5 Nutrients • Adequate levels of P and K are important Toxic Substance • Heavy metals are toxic to thermophilic bacteria10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 8
  8. 8. CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO Materials with high Nitrogen values C:N Poultry manure with litter 13-18:1 Vegetable waste 12-20:1 Pig manure solids 15-25:1 Dairy manure 20:1 Material with High Carbon Values C:N Wood chips and sawdust 100-500:1 Paper 150-200:1 Straw 40-100:1 Foliage (green) 30-80:1 Material with Neutral C:N Ratios C:N Peat moss 18-36:1 Horse manure with litter 30-60:1Source: British Columbia Department of Agriculture and Food, 1995 10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 9
  9. 9. PRE-PROCESSING SORTING Accept Biodegradables Reject Contaminants SHREDDING Increase Surface Area Increase Porosity MIXING Optimize C : N Ratio Increase Homogeneity10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 10
  10. 10. COMPOSTING METHODS Passive Windrow and Bin Composting • Low Technology and Medium Labor cost • Medium quality product Turned Windrow • Medium technology and Medium labor cost • Uniform product Aerated Static Pile • Medium technology and Low labor cost • Non uniform product In-Vessel and Agitated Bed • High technology and Low labor cost • Uniform product10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 11
  11. 11. PASSIVE WINDROW10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 12
  12. 12. TURNED WINDROW10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 13
  13. 13. AERATED STATIC PILE10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 14
  14. 14. IN-VESSEL COMPOSTING10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 15
  15. 15. AGITATED BED/CHANNEL Mature Compost Rail Mature Compost 750 mm Aeration Piping Raw Compost10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 16
  16. 16. AGITATED BED/CHANNEL10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 17
  17. 17. COMPOST TURNER10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 18
  18. 18. TOP AND SIDE VIEW10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 19
  19. 19. AERATION PIPING IN FLOOR10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 20
  20. 20. COMPOSTING PLANT LAYOUT 145m 36 m Decomposition Bed/Channel Fertilizer 28 m Production Area Shredder Conveyor Compost TurnerWidth 56 m Material Flow Loader Decomposition Bed/Channel Monitoring Laboratory Compost Turner Product Storage Room Length 190 m10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 21
  21. 21. FERTILIZER PRODUCTION MATURE COMPOST 3. GRANULATING 6. PACKING 1.CRUSHING 4. DRYING 5. SCREENING/ 2. FILTERING Note: For more COOLING information on the production process see separate presentation.10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 22
  22. 22. MARKETING STATEGY Diversified Recorded Networking Products Field Test10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 23
  23. 23. THANK YOU 谢谢 For more information please contact Suhardiyoto Haryadi, email address: suhardiyoto@hotmail.com or suhardiyoto@gmail.com10/8/2012 Wirajasa Teknik Industri 24

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