Anatomi & fisiologi manusia pencernaan

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Anatomi & fisiologi manusia pencernaan

  1. 1. Roz`ainSyakirah IzzahRabi`atul
  2. 2. What is Digestion?• Digestion is a catabolic process in which large complex molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) are broken down into simpler monomers (monosaccharides, glycerol and fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides) which can be absorbed by the body.
  3. 3. FunctionBreakdown of ingested foodAbsorption of nutrients into the bloodProduction of cellular energy (ATP)Constructive and degradative cellular activities
  4. 4. Types of Digestionmechanical chemical no chemical there is a change in the chemical change food. in the food. food is broken down hydrolysis reactions into smaller pieces, carried out by mixed with digestive enzymes contained juices secreted in the within the digestive body. juices.
  5. 5. Proses Pencernaan Mechanical ChemicalIngestion Propulsion Absorption Defecation Digestion Digestion
  6. 6. Six Processes of Digestion1.Ingestion – getting food into the mouth2.Propulsion – moving foods from one region of the digestive system to another3.Mechanical digestion – Mixing of food in the mouth by the tongue – Churning of food in the stomach – Segmentation in the small intestine
  7. 7. 4.Chemical Digestion – Enzymes break down food molecules into their building blocks – Each major food group uses different enzymes • Carbohydrates are broken to simple sugars • Proteins are broken to amino acids • Fats are broken to fatty acids and alcohols5.Absorption – End products of digestion are absorbed in the blood or lymph – Food must enter mucosal cells and then into blood or lymph capillaries6.Defecation – Elimination of indigestible substances as feces
  8. 8. Proses Pencernaan
  9. 9. Division of digestive system organsAlimentary canal Accessory organ continuous coiled secrete digestive hollow tube that runs juices by ducts from the mouth to (exocrine glands) into the anus the alimentary canal.
  10. 10. Alimentary Canal Organs Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Anus
  11. 11. Accessory Digestive Organs Salivary glands Teeth Pancreas Liver Gall Bladder
  12. 12. Mouth Oral Cavity (Ac)• Mastication (chewing) of food• Mixing masticated food with saliva• Initiation of swallowing by the tongue• Allowing for the sense of taste
  13. 13. Salivary Glands (Ac)Salivary Glands:• Saliva-producing glands – Parotid glands – located anterior to ears – Submandibular glands – Sublingual glandsSaliva:• Mixture of mucus and serous fluids• Helps to form a food bolus• Contains salivary amylase to begin starch digestion• Dissolves chemicals so they can be tasted
  14. 14. Teeth (Ac)• The role is to masticate (chew) food• Humans have two sets of teeth – Deciduous (baby or milk) teeth – 20 teeth are fully formed by age two• Permanent teeth – Replace deciduous teeth beginning between the ages of 6 to 12 – A full set is 32 teeth, but some people do not have wisdom teeth• Types of teeth: Incisors - cutting Canines - tearing Premolars – shearing, shredding Molars - grinding
  15. 15. Tooth Structure• Crown – exposed part – Outer enamel – Dentin – Pulp cavity• Neck – Region in contact with the gum – Connects crown to root• Root – Periodontal membrane attached to the bone – Root canal carrying blood vessels and nerves
  16. 16. Pharynx (Al)• Serves as a passageway for air and food• Food is propelled to the esophagus by two muscle layers – Longitudinal inner layer – Circular outer layer• Food movement is by alternating contractions of the muscle layers (peristalsis)
  17. 17. Esophagus (Al)• Runs from pharynx to stomach through the diaphragm• Conducts food by peristalsis (slow rhythmic squeezing)• Passageway for food only (respiratory system branches off after the pharynx)
  18. 18. Liver and Gall Bladder (Accessory Organs)• Largest gland in the body• Composition – Bile salts – Bile pigment (mostly bilirubin from the breakdown of hemoglobin) – Cholesterol – Phospholipids – Electrolytes• Stores bile from the liver by way of the cystic duct• Bile is introduced into the duodenum in the presence of fatty food• Gallstones can cause blockages
  19. 19. Stomach
  20. 20. Stomach (Al)• Located on the left side of the abdominal cavity• Food enters at the cardioesophageal sphincter• Regions of the stomach – Cardiac region – near the heart – Fundus – Body – Pylorus – funnel-shaped terminal end• Food empties into the small intestine at the pyloric sphincter• Rugae – internal folds of the mucosa• External regions – Lesser curvature – Greater curvature
  21. 21. Function of Stomach• Acts as a storage tank for food• Site of food breakdown• Chemical breakdown of protein begins• Delivers chyme (processed food) to the small intestine
  22. 22. Pancreas (Ac)• Produces a wide spectrum of digestive enzymes that break down all categories of food• Enzymes are secreted into the duodenum• Alkaline fluid introduced with enzymes neutralizes acidic chyme• Endocrine products of pancreas – Insulin – Glucagon
  23. 23. Large Intestine (Al)• Larger in diameter, but shorter than the small intestine• Frames the internal abdomen• Cecum – saclike first part of the large intestine• Appendix – Accumulation of lymphatic tissue that sometimes becomes inflamed (appendicitis) – Hangs from the cecum• Colon – Ascending – Transverse – Descending – S-shaped sigmoidal• Rectum• Anus – external body opening
  24. 24. Functions of Large Intestine• Absorption of water• Eliminates indigestible food from the body as feces• Does not participate in digestion or absorption of digested food• Goblet cells produce mucus to act as a lubricant• Site of production of Vitamin K by symbiotic bacteria which live off the remains of food that have not been digested or absorbed in the small intestine. These bacteria produce over 50% of fecal matter.
  25. 25. Small Intestine (Al)• The body’s major digestive organ all digestion of food is completed in this organ• Site of nutrient absorption into the blood• Duodenum (25cm = 10 inches) “12 finger widths long” – Attached to the stomach – Curves around the head of the pancreas – Where bile and pancreatic juices enter the alimentary canal• Jejunum (2.5m = 8 feet) “empty” – Attaches anteriorly to the duodenum• Ileum (3.6m = 12 feet) “twisted” – Extends from jejunum to large intestine
  26. 26. Small Intestine (Internal Structure)• Villi are small fingerlike structures formed by the mucosa• Give the small intestine more surface area for absorption• Fold in the intestine are called circular folds or plicae circulares• Deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa• Do not disappear when filled with food• The submucosa has Peyer’s patches (collections of lymphatic tissue)
  27. 27. Villi Internal Structure and Function• Absorptive cells are found on the surface epithelium which are simple columnar microvilliated epithelium• Blood capillaries are below the surface epithelium and this is where monosaccharides, amino acids, and nucleic acids enter into the blood stream and are taken to the liver for processing• Lacteals (specialized lymphatic capillaries) where lipids are absorbed and eventually re-enter the blood stream to be taken to the liver for processing.
  28. 28. DIGESTION OF NUTRIENT
  29. 29. WHAT IS NUTRIENT?• Substance in food that is used by the body to promote normal growth ,maintenance and repair.• Divide into 6 categories major nutrient:carbohydrate,lipids,water and protein minor nutrient:vitamin and mineral
  30. 30. WHAT IS DIGESTION?• Process of breaking down ingested food into small molecule• For example: -In mouth,salivary amylase convert starch to maltose,maltotriose and a-dextrin -In stomach,pepsin convert protein to peptide -Lingual and gastric lipases convert triglycerides into fatty acid,diglycerides and monoglycerides
  31. 31. DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATE• Salivary amylase keep continue in stomach but then it was stop by acidic pH. So, just a few starches are broken down• Starches that not already broken down into maltose,maltotriose and a-dextrins are cleaved by pancreatic amylase• Although pancreatic amylase acts both on glycogen and starches but it doesn’t effect cellulose
  32. 32. • After amylase split starch into small fragment,a brush-border enzyme called a- dextrinase acts on the resulting a- dextrins,clipping off one glucose unit at a time• Ingested molecules of sucrose,lactose and maltose (disaccharides)-are not acted on until they reach small intestine
  33. 33. • Sucrase breaks sucrose into molecule of glucose and fructose• Lactase digest lactose into molecule of glucose and galactose• Maltase split maltose and maltotriose into two or tree molecules of glucose,respectively• Digestion of carbohydrate ends with production of monosaccharides,which the digestive system is able to absorb
  34. 34. DIGESTION OF PROTEIN• Protein are fragmented into peptide by action of pepsin• Enzyme in pancreatic juice- trypsin,chymotrypsin,carboxypeptidase and elastase-continue to break down protein into peptide• Although all these enzyme convert whole protein into peptide,their action differ somewhere b’coz each split peptide bonds between different amino acid
  35. 35. • Trypsin,chymotrypsin and elastase all cleave the peptide bond between a specific amino acid and its neighbor• Carboxypeptidase splits off the amino acid at the end of peptide• Protein digestion is completed by two peptidase in aminopeptidase and dipeptidase
  36. 36. • Aminopeptidase cleaves off amino acid at the amino end of peptide• Dipeptidase splits dipeptides into single amino acid
  37. 37. DIGESTION OF LIPIDS• The most abundant lipids in diet are triglycerides,consist of molecule of glycerol bonded to three fatty acid molecule• Enzyme that split triglycerides and phospholipids are called lipase• Three type of lipases that can participate in lipid digestion are lingual lipase,gastric lipase and pancreatic lipase
  38. 38. • Triglycerides are broken down by pancreatic lipase into fatty acid and monoglycerides• Large lipid globule containing triglyceride can be digested in the small intestine,and it undergo emulsification• Emulsification-process in which large lipid globule is broken down into several small lipid globule.it involve bile
  39. 39. • The small lipid globule formed from emulsification provide a large surface area that allow pancreatic juice to function more effectively
  40. 40. DIGESTION OF NUCLEIC ACID• Pancreatic juice contain two nucleases:ribonuclease which digest RNA and deoxyribonuclease which digest DNA• Result of the action of this two nuclease are further digested by nucleosidases and phosphatase into pentose,phosphates and nitrogenous base• These product are absorbed via active tansport
  41. 41. ABSORPTION
  42. 42. WHAT IS ABSORPTION?Passage of digested nutrients fromgastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph
  43. 43. ABSORPTION OF MONOSACCHARIDES• The capacity of small intestine to absorb monosaccharide is huge-an estimated 120 grams per hour• As a result, all dietary carbohydrate that are digested normally are absorbed, leaving only indigestible cellulose and fiber in feces.• Monosaccharides pass from the lumen through the apical membrane via facilitated diffusion or active transport.
  44. 44. -Fructose(found in fruit)-is transported via facilitated diffusion -Glucose and galactose are transported into absorptive cells of the villi via secondary active transport that is coupled to the active transport of Na+• Monosaccharide then move out of absorptive cells through their basolateral surface via facilitated diffusion and enter the capillaries of the villi
  45. 45. ABSORPTION OF AMINO ACIDS,DIPEPTIDES AND TRIPEPTIDES• Protein is absorbed as amino acid via active transport, mainly occur in deodenum and jejunum• Half of the absorbed amino acid are present in food and the other half come from the body itself as protein in digestive juice and dead cells that slough off the mucosal surface.
  46. 46. • 95-98% of the protein present in small intestine is digested and absorbed.• Different transporter carry different type of amino acid -some amino acid enter absorptive cell of the villi via Na+ dependent secondary active transport which is silmilar to the glucose transporter and the other amino acid are actively transported by themselves
  47. 47. • Amino acid move out of the absorptive cells via diffusion and enter capillaries of the villus• :both monosaccharides and amino acid are transported in the blood to the liver by way of hepatic portal system.
  48. 48. ABSORPTION OF LIPID• All dietary lipid are absorbed via simple diffusion• Because of emulsification and digestion; triglycerides are mainly broken down into monoglycerides and fatty acid, which can be short-chain fatty acid or long-chain fatty acid• Short-chain fatty acid are hydrophopic and small in size. Thus, they can dissolve in the watery instestinal chyme,pass through the absorptive cells via simple diffusion
  49. 49. • Long-chain fatty acid are large and hydrophobic and have difficulty being suspended in the watery environment of the intestinal chyme. So, bile salt help them to be more soluble• Bile salt surround the long-chain fatty acid and forming tiny sphere called micelles.
  50. 50. • The micelles move from the interior of the small intestinal lumen to the absorptive cell.• At that point, long-chain fatty acid diffuse out of the micelle into absorptive cells, leaving micelles behind the chyme
  51. 51. ABSORPTION OF ELECTROLYTE• Electrolyte that are absorbed by the small intestine come from gastrointestinal secretions and some are part of ingested foods and liquids• Recall that electrolyte are compound that separate into ions in water and conduct electricity
  52. 52. • Sodium ion are actively transported out of absorptive cells by basolateral sodium- potassium pump after they have moved into absorptive cells via diffusion and secondary active transport.• Negatively charge bicarbonate,chloride,iodide and nitrate ion can passively follow Na+ or actively transported
  53. 53. • Calcium ion also are absorbed actively in a process stimulated by calcitriol• Other electrolyte such as iron,potassium,magnesium and phosphate ions are absorbed via active transport mechanism
  54. 54. ABSORPTION OF VITAMINS• Fat soluble vitamin A,D,E and K are included with digested dietary lipid and absorbed via simple diffusion• Water-soluble vitamin such as B and C also absorbed via simple diffusion. However B12 combine with intrinsic factor produced by the stomach and combination is absorbed in the ileum via an active transport mechanism
  55. 55. ABSORPTION OF WATER• the total volume of fluid that enter small intestine each day about 9.3 liters-comes from ingestion of liquid and from various gastrointestinal secretion• The small intestine absorbs about 8.3 liters of fluid; the remainder passes into the large intestine, where most of the rest of it-about 0.9 liter• Only 0.1 liter of water is excreted in the feces each day. Most is excreted via urinary sytem
  56. 56. • All water absorption in GI tract occur via osmosis from the lumen of the intestine through absorptive cells and into blood capillaries• Because water can move across the intestinal mucosa in both direction, the absorption of water from small intestine depend on the absorption of electrolyte and nutrient to maintain osmotic balance with blood• The absorbed electrolyte,monosaccharides and amino acid establish a concentration gradient for water that promote water absorption via osmosis
  57. 57. METABOLISMA
  58. 58. Metabolisma• Tindak balas kimia yang berlaku dalam sel hidup yang membolehkan sel membesar dan membiak dan mengekalkan struktur mereka.• Dibahagikan kepada dua jenis :1) Katabolisme : menghasilkan tenaga, seperti pemecahan makanan dalam repirasi sel.1) Anabolisme : memenggunakan tenaga untuk membentuk komponen sel seperti protein dan asid nukleik.
  59. 59. Laluan Metabolik
  60. 60. Metabolisma karbohidrat• T’dpt 3 jenis kmpln utama karbohidrat iaitu :a) Monosakarida – gula ringkas : glukosab) Disakarida – gula kompleks : maltosac) Polisakarida – gula kompleks y bsr : kanji,glikogen• Laluan ini melibatkan pemecahan molekul-molekul karbohidrat di dalam organ hati, kerana hati menyimpan glukos.• Glukosa merupakan monosakarida yang paling penting dalam metabolisme tubuh.• Glukosa yang terkandung dalam nutrisi masuk ke dalam sistem sirkulasi atau ke dalam darah untuk dipindah ke sel-sel tubuh yang memerlukannya atau diubah pada hati menjadi molekul yang lain.• Glukosa adalah sumber tenaga utama bagi sel-sel haiwan, dan merupakan satu-satunya sumber tenaga bagi manusia.
  61. 61. METABOLISMA LIPID •Lipid ialah sebatian organik yang mengandungi karbon, hidrogen, dan oksigen. •Jenis utama lipid adlh lemak, minyak, fosfolipid, dan steroid sprti kolesterol,testosteron,estrogen dan progesteron. •Lemak & minyak adlh cnth lipid y dtempatkan dlm kategoriLipid trigliserida, y t’diri drp 1 gliserol dan 3 asid lemak.
  62. 62. METABOLISMA PROTEIN• Protein adalah molekul-molekul y bsr & kompleks.• Monomer bgi protein adlh asid amino.• Sel badan akn mengeluarkan asid amino daripada darah dan menggunakannya untuk membina protein, untuk kegunaan sendiri(enzymes, membranes, muscle protein) dan untuk mengeksport(mucus,hormones).• ATP akan t’bentuk jika glukosa dan lemak tidak mencukupi atau jika kekurangan Asid amino.
  63. 63. METABOLISMA NUKLEIK ASID • Asid nukleik merupakan sejenis makromolekul yang terdiri daripada rantaian nukleotida. Dalam biokimia molekul ini mampu membawa maklumat atau membentuk struktur dalam sel.
  64. 64. • Asid nukleik yang biasa termasuk asid deoksiribonukleik (DNA) dan asid ribonukleik (RNA). Asid nukleik terdapat dalam semua benda hidup, kerana mereka terkandung dalam segala sel. Asid nukleik juga terdapat di dalam virus. • Metabolisme asid nukleik adalah proses yang mana nukleotida disintesis . • Sintesis asid nukleik juga merupakan satu mekanisme, anabolik umumnya melibatkan tindak balas kimia fosfat, gula pentose, dan asas bernitrogen. • Pemusnahan asid nukleik adalah prosedur katabolik umumnya melibatkan tindak balas enzim.
  65. 65. Diet dan PemakananDiet Seimbang• Pengambilan makanan yang mengandungi semua nutrien seperti protein,karbohidrat, lemak, vitamin, garam mineral, dan air serta pelawas dalam kuantiti yang diperlukan.Pemakanan• kajian berkaitan dengan pengambilan makanan untuk proses pertumbuhan ,pemulihan dan pengawalan kesihatan.
  66. 66. Kumpulan Makanan Asas
  67. 67. Fungsi Kesan berlebihan Kesan kekuranganKarbohidrat Membekalkan tenaga utama lebihan berat badan Marasmus(p’tumbuha untuk keperluan badan n t’bantut)Protein membentuk dan membaiki lemak mningkat, paras penghasilan antibodi tisu, membentuk enzim, kalsium drh t’jejas menurun & risiko antibodi, hormon, agen jangkitan meningkat. pengangkut Penyakit KwasyiokorLemak membekalkan tenaga & lebihan berat badan Kekurangan berat pengekalan suhu, badan membekalkan asid lemak perlu, penyerapan vitamin larut lemak
  68. 68. Garam Galian• Dibahagikan kpd 2 kumpulan : - Makronutrien (dp’lukan dlm Kuantiti bsr) - Mikronutrien (dp’lukan dlm kuantiti kecil)
  69. 69. Makronutrien sumber fungsi Kesan kekurangan Kalsium susu, keju, ikan m’bina tlg & gigi yang kuat, mnolong pmbekuan drh, riket,osteoporosi bilis, bijirin dp’lukan untk pengecutan otot & pmindahan impuls s, p’darahan saraf. b’pnjangan. Magnesium Bijirin,syrn Menjana enzim yang diperlukan untuk mengeluarkan Otot lemah hijau,susu, tenaga dalam tubuh. Diperlukan oleh tubuh dalam daging pembentukan bahan genetik dan pertumbuhan tulang. kalium Susu, daging, Pemindahan impuls saraf, pengecutan otot Ganguan dlm pisang, sstm saraf sayuran hijau Fosforus Susu, daging, M’bntk tulang & gigi yang kuat, menggiatkan enzim- Tulang rapuh, bijirin, telur enzim yang diperlukan tubuh untuk menukarkan kerosakan gigi. makanan kepada tenaga. Natrium Garam, daging, Mngekalkan keseimbangan air dlm bdn, mngekalkan Kekejangan otot telur, susu tknn osmosis cecair dlm bdn.
  70. 70. Mikronutrien sumber Fungsi Kesan kekuranganIodin Udang, kerang, M’bntk hormon Goiter, kretinisme pd makanan laut tiroksina knk-knkBesi Hati, bayam, kacang, M’bntk hemoglobin Anemia telur kuningFlorin Air minuman, teh, Mengukuhkan enamel Karies gigi sayuran pd gigi
  71. 71. Vitamin• Kumpulan sebatian organik yang diperlukan dalam kuantiti yang kecil untuk memelihara dan mengekalkan kesihatan.• Dikelaskan kepada 2 kumpulan :a) Larut lemak: - tidak dapat dikumuh melalui air kencing tetapi disimpan dalam badan - vitamin A, D, E dan K.a) Larut air: - tidak dapat disimpan dalam badan dan sebarang kuantiti berlebihan akan larut dalam air dan dikumuhkan keluar melalui air kencing. - Vitamin B kompleks dan vitamin C.
  72. 72. jenis sumber fungsi Kesan kekuranganVitamin C buah-buahan. memelihara tisu p’hubung, kshtn skurvi ( gusi kulit & pemulihan luka yang cepat, b’darah, kulit mngkatkan ketahanan t’hdp lebam, sendi jgkitan bgkak)Vitamin D Keju, mentega dan telur. m’bantu pnyerapan kalsium & penyakit riket, fosforus, m’bina tulang dan gigi karies gigi yang kuatVitamin E sayuran hijau,minyak memelihara kshtn sstm otot, saraf kemorosotan otot kelapa sawit. & sstm p’edaran darah, bhn & saraf p’oksidaan bgi asid lmk tepuVitamin K hati,bayam dan kubis. m’bantu dalam pembekuan darah b’darah secara berlebihanVitamin A susu, tomato, lobak Membina pigmen pada retina rabun malam, merah mata untuk penglihatan jelas pada kulit tidak yang waktu malam & memastikan sihat p’tumbuhan sel epitelium kulit yang sihat.
  73. 73. Air• Merupakan 70% drp berat bdn manusia.• Peranan :a) Sbg pelarutb) Medium tndk bls kimia dlm bdn.c) Medium pengangkutan bhn mknn t’cerna, oksigen, bhn p’kumuhan.d) Pengawalaturan suhu bdn : Bila kekurangan air, suhu tubuh akan menjadi panas dan naik. Khdiran air akan m’bntu m’stabilkan suhu bdn.e) Sbg pelincir : mngurangkan geseran tulang pd sendi.f) P’kumuhan : urea,asid urik & grm mineral b’lebihan dsingkirkn melalui air kencing dan peluh.
  74. 74. TENAGA
  75. 75. Tenaga Penting dalam Tubuh1. Tenaga Kinetik: Tenaga yang dibekalkan oleh sebatian ikatan bertenaga tinggi seperti ATP, ADP, dll.2. Tenaga berpotensi: Tenaga yang tidak aktif disimpan di dalam badan dalam bentuk glikogen dan yang terdapat dalam makanan. 83
  76. 76. Pengukuran Tenaga1. Kalori: Jumlah tenaga haba yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu satu gram air sebanyak satu darjah celsius.2. Kilokalori (Kcal) Jumlah haba yang diperlukan untuk meningkatkan suhu 1 kg. air sebanyak sebanyak 1 darjah celsius.3. Unit metrik yang digunakan ialah kilojoule(KJ) 1 Kilokalori (Kcal) = 4.184 KJ) 84
  77. 77. Pengukuran Nilai Tenaga dalam Makanan• Dengan menggunakan alat kalorimeter• Jumlah tenaga yang dihasilkan oleh setiap sampel protein, lemak dan karbohidrat 1 g. Karbohidrat = 4 kcal 1 g. Lemak = 9 kcal 1 g. Protein = 4 kcal 1 g. Alkohol = 7 kcal 85
  78. 78. Contoh Pengiraan 1• Berapakah nilai tenaga yang dalam satu gelas susu beratnya 244g ? Jika dalam susu 100g susu mengandungi: 4.9g CHO; 3.5g protein; 3.7g lemak; 0.6 mineral dan 1.2g vitamin CHO = 244/100 x 4.9g x 4kcal = 47.8 kcal Protein = 244/100 x 3.5g x 4kcal = 34.2 kcal Lemak = 244/100 x 3.7g x 9kcal = 81.3 kcal Jumlah nilai tenaga = 163.3 kcal 86
  79. 79. Contoh pengiraan 2Diet mengandungi 2200 kcal dan mengandungi 210g CHO, dan 120g lemak, kira:• Berapakah jumlah g protein dalam sajian?• Kira peratus setiap nutrien [CHO, protein dan lemak] dalam sajian? 87
  80. 80. a. Jumlah g protein• CHO membekal = 210 x 4 kcal = 840 kcal• Lemak membekal = 120 x 9 kcal = 1080 kcal• Protein = 2200 – (1080 + 840) = 280 kcal Jumlah g protein = 280/4 = 70 gb. Peratus CHO, Protein dan Lemak Peratus CHO = 840/2200 x 100 = 38.2% Peratus Lemak = 1080/2200 x 100 = 49.1% Peratus Protein = 280/2200 x 100 = 12.7% 88
  81. 81. Soalan:1. Potato crisps mengandungi 6.3 g protein, 35.9g lemak dan 49.3 karbohidrat pada tiap-tiap 100 g. Kira nilai tenaga yang terdapat dalam 200 g potato crips?2. Berapakah jumlah nilai tenaga dalam satu keping daging beratnya 90g jika dalam 100g daging mengandungi 15.3g protein, 18.8g lemak, 0.1g karbohidrat , 0.2g mineral 0.2 vitamins dan 65.5g air ? 89
  82. 82. 3. Diet Pak Ali membekal 2600 kcal sehari. Diet tersebut mengandungi 250g karbohidrat, 70g protein. Kira? a. Berapakah jumlah g lemak dalam diet Pak Ali pada hari tersebut? b. Kira peratus setiap nutrien (karbohidrat, protein dan lemak) yang terdapat dalam diet Pak Ali ? 90
  83. 83. Input TenagaTenaga/kilokalori yang terdapat dalam makanan Output TenagaTenaga yang diperlukan @ digunakanoleh tubuh untuk beberapa perkara:• Kadar Metabolisme Asas [Basal Energy Rate]• Aktiviti Fizikal• Pertumbuhan• Tindakan Spesifik Dinamik Makanan 91
  84. 84. Bilakah Kadar Metabolisme Asas diukur?1. Selepas 12 – 18 jam mengambil makanan terakhir.2. Seseorang dalam keadaan rehat.3. Dalam bilik yang sesuai, suhu selesa.4. Kebiasaan diukur selepas bangun tidur waktu pagi. 92
  85. 85. Pengukuran Penggunaan tenaga• Jumlah tenaga yang dijana @ digunakan oleh tubuh dapat diukur secara langsung @ tidak langsung.Kilorimetri Langsung• Individu diletakkan di dalam kilokalorimeter /bilik khas• Kaedah sangat mahal. Cuma beberapa unit terdapat di seluruh dunia• Di Malaysia hanya satu, terdapat di Universiti Hospital. 93
  86. 86. Kilorimetri Tak Langsung• Kaedah yang lebih mudah• Diukur dengan menentukan penggunaan oksigen dan pengeluaran karbon dioksida pada masa tertentu dengan menggunakan alat respirasi• Dapat digunakan semasa individu berbaring rehat @ menjalankan berbagai aktiviti• Pada setiap liter oksigen yang digunakan akan memerlukan 4.825 kilokalori tenaga. 94
  87. 87. Kadar Metabolisme Asas [KMA] Basal Metabolisme Rate[BMR]• Kadar Metabolisme Asas - Jumlah tenaga yang diperlukan oleh tubuh untuk menjalankan proses-proses penting dalam tubuh. - Kadar tubuh menggunakan tenaga untuk kekalkan fungsi penting untuk hidup.• Kadar Metabolisme Rehat (KMR) - Penggunaan tenaga pada keadaan yang sama kecuali selepas makan atau berlatih 95
  88. 88. Kaedah mengira keperluan tenaga untuk KMA (Basal Metabolisme Rate)1. Menggunakan anggaran 1 kilokalori/minit = 60 m/jam X 24jam/hari = 1440 kilokalori/hari 96
  89. 89. 2. Alat Respiratori Bebedict-Roth (Penggunaan O2)Ali mengambil 1.08 liter O2 dalam masa 6 minit. Kiraberapa jumlah keperluan tenaga KMA dalam sehari ?[Piawai 1 liter O2 = 4.825 kcal]6 minit Ali mengambil 1.08 liter oksigen1 jam (60 minit) = 1.08 x 60/6 = 10.8 liter OksigenSehari (24 jam) = 10.8 liter x 24 jam = 259.2 liter Oksigen KMA = 259.2 x 4.825 = 1251 kcal. 97
  90. 90. 3. Berasaskan Berat badan, Umur & Jantina• Lelaki < 50 tahun = 1.0 kcal/kg X BB/1 Jam > 50 tahun = 0.9 kcal/kg X BB/1 Jam• Wanita < 50 tahun = 0.9 kcal/kg X BB/1 Jam > 50 tahun = 0.8 kcal/kg X BB/1 Jam 98
  91. 91. Contoh: Kira berapakah jumlah tenaga untuk KMA dalam sehari bagi mereka yang berikut?a. En. Adam berumur 45 tahun mempunyai berat badan 65 kg Keperluan tenaga KMA = 1 x 65 x 24 jam = 1560 kcalb. Cik Fatimah berumur 26 tahun mempunyai berat badan 46 kg. Keperluan tenaga KMA = 0.9 x 46 x 24 jam = 993.6 kcal 99
  92. 92. • Kira berapakah jumlah tenaga untuk KMA dalam sehari bagi mereka berikut? 1. En. Ramlee berumur 45 tahun mempunyai berat badan 65 kg ? 2. Cik Fatimah berumur 25 tahun mempunyai berat badan 46 kg. 3. Pak Adam berumur 66 tahun mempunyai berat badan 63 kg 4. Mak Timah berumur 70 tahun mempunyai berat badan 81 kg. 100
  93. 93. 4. Kaedah Pengiraan WHO. Gunakan Berat badan (dalam kg)• Wanita Berat dalam Kg x 0.95 kcal x 24 jam• Lelaki Berat dalam Kg x 1.0 kcal x 24 jamContoh:• Aminah berumur 13 tahun dan berat badan 50 kg. 50kg x 0.95 kcal x 24 jam = 1140 Kcal• Ramlee, berat badan 58 kg dan berumur 25 tahun 58kg x 1.0 kcal x 24 jam = 1392 Kcal 101
  94. 94. • Kira berapakah jumlah tenaga untuk KMA dalam sehari bagi mereka mengikut kiraan WHO? 1. En. Yunus berumur 48 tahun mempunyai berat badan 73 kg ? 2. Cik Rohani berumur 28 tahun mempunyai berat badan 53 kg. 3. Hamidah berumur 35 tahun mempunyai berat badan 62 kg 4. Halim berumur 70 tahun mempunyai berat badan 74 kg. 102
  95. 95. Formula FAO/WHO untuk ukur REE [Resting Energy Expenditure] Lelaki 3- 9 22.7w) + 495 10 - 17 17.5w + 651 18 - 29 15.3w + 679 30 - 60 11.6w + 879 > 60 13.5w + 487 103
  96. 96. Formula FAO/WHO untuk ukur REE bagi Wanita 3-9 22.5w + 499 10-17 12.2w + 746 18-29 14.7w + 496 30-60 8.7w + 829 > 60 10.5w + 596 104
  97. 97. Latihan:1. Aminah mempunyai berat badan 50 kg. , berumur 18 tahun . Kirakan keperluan tenaga Aminah dalam sehari dengan menggunakan Formula REE ? = 14.7 w + 496 = ( 14.7 x 50 ) + 496 = 735 + 496 = 1231 kcal/hari2. Hamid mempunyai berat badan 78kg dan berumur 33 tahun. Kirakan keperluan tenaga dengan Formula REE? 105
  98. 98. Faktor-Faktor yang mempengaruhi Kadar Metabolisme Asas seseorang1. Komposisi tubuh - Kandungan tisu seseorang. - Tisu tanpa lemak (otot) : tinggi KMA - Tisu berlemak sedikit tenaga - Lelaki perlu KMA tinggi kerana mempunyai lebih tisu tanpa lemak. 106
  99. 99. 2. Keadaan Tubuh: Jalankan aktiviti Fizikal - 2 lelaki sama umur, tinggi & berat badan - Jalankan tugas fizikal yang berbeza. Seorang buruh dan seorang akauntan - Buruh perlu banyak KMA berbanding akauntan kerana buruh mempunyai otot-otot terbentuk berbanding akauntan3. Jantina: - Lelaki lebih tenaga KMA berbanding wanita - Lelaki muda dewasa mempunyai 14% lemak daripada berat badan - Wanita muda dewasa mempunyai 23%- 32% lemak daripada berat badan4. Tidur: Kurang tenaga KMA5. Malnutrisi: Tenaga KMA rendah 107
  100. 100. 6. Tekanan mental: lebih tenaga bagi orang. yang mengalami masalah mental7. Suhu Tubuh - Kalau suhu tubuh tinggi KMA tinggi - Setiap 1 darjah tambahan suhu boleh tingkatkan 13 kcal KMA badan8. Suhu persekitaran - suhu panas kita perlu KMA yang rendah - suhu sejuk kadar KMA tinggi bagi panaskan badan9. Kehamilan - Tenaga KMA tinggi untuk menghamil bayi 300- 330 kcal lebih daripada wanita biasa - Ibu menyusu KMA tinggi bagi proses mengeluarkan susu 500- 550 kcal lebih daripada wanita biasa10. Umur: Umur meningkat keperluan KMA menurun11. Merokok: lebih 10 peratus daripada orang tidak merokok 108
  101. 101. Soalan: Norzalina 25 tahun, tinggi 1.63 m dan berat badan 65 kg. Berikut adalah jumlah kalori yang dimakan iaitukarbohidrat 190g; protein 120g dan lemak 93g mengikut 24- jam dietary recallnya.a. Dengan menggunakan data di atas kirakan: (i) jumlah kalori dan tunjukkan peratus karbohidrat, protein dan lemak ? (ii) Peratus pengambilan makananb. Beri penjelasan tentang diet yang diamalkan oleh Norzalina mengikut perkiraan WHO menggunakan (i) berat badan dan (ii) norma REE 109
  102. 102. (i) Jumlah pengambilan kalori:a. karbohidrat = 190 X 4 kcal = 760 kcalb. protein = 120 X 4 kcal = 480kcalc. lemak = 93 X 9 kcal = 837 kcal Jumlah = 2077kcal(ii) Peratus pengambilan makanana. karbohidrat = 760/2077 X 100 = 36.6 %b. protein = 480/2077 X 100 = 23.1 %c. lemak = 837 /2077 X 100 = 40.3% 110
  103. 103. • i. Berat badan dengan perkiraan WHO = 0.95 kcal X kg (berat badan) X 24 jam = 0.95 kcal X 65 kg X 24 jam = 1482 kcal ii. Berat badan berdasarkan Norm = (14.7W) + 496 = (14.7 X 65 ) + 496 = 955.5 + 496 = 1451.5 kcal 111
  104. 104. • Berdasarkan penjadualan Pemakanan Norzalina telah mengambil lebihan makanan:• Mengikut kiraan berat badan mengikut Formula WHO = 595 kcal [2077 – 1482]• Mengikut keperluan norm = 525.9 kcal [2077 – 1551.1 ] 112
  105. 105. Menu 3000-4000kcal 113
  106. 106. Menu 4000-5000kcal 114
  107. 107. Menu 5000-6000kcal 115
  108. 108. Body Energy Balance Energy intake = total energy output (heat + work + energy storage) Energy intake is liberated during food oxidation Energy output Heat is usually about 60% Storage energy is in the form of fat or glycogenCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide
  109. 109. Digestive Homeostasis Disorders• ULCERS – erosion of the surface of the alimentary canal generally associated with some kind of irritant
  110. 110. Digestive Homeostasis Disorders• CONSTIPATION – a condition in which the large intestine is emptied with difficulty.• Too much water is reabsorbed• and the solid waste hardens
  111. 111. Digestive Homeostasis Disorders• DIARRHEA – a gastrointestinal disturbance characterized by decreased water absorption and increased peristaltic activity of the large intestine.• This results in increased, multiple, watery feces.• This condition may result in severe dehydration, especially in infants
  112. 112. Digestive Homeostasis Disorders• APPENDICITIS – an inflammation of the appendix due to infection• Common treatment is removal of the appendix via surgery
  113. 113. Digestive Homeostasis Disorders• GALLSTONES – an accumulation of hardened cholesterol and/or calcium deposits in the gallbladder• Can either be “passed” (OUCH!!) or surgically removed
  114. 114. Digestive Homeostasis Disorders• ANOREXIA NERVOSA - a psychological condition where an individual thinks they appear overweight and refuses to eat.• Weighs 85% or less than what is developmentally expected for age and height• Young girls do not begin to menstruate at the appropriate age.
  115. 115. Digestive Homeostasis Disorders• HEART BURN – ACID from the stomach backs up into the esophagus.
  116. 116. Sekian,Terima Kasih
  117. 117. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter26/animation__organs_of_digestion.html

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