Screen translation


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Diachronic and synchronic view of screen translation from intertitles to surtitles going through the phase of most popular and extensively used subtitles...

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Screen translation

  1. 1. SCREEN TRANSLATIONTatheerZahraAmnaSufiaSultana Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  2. 2. Objectives How long has screen translation been practised? How is it achieved? What equipment and training is required? What changes and challenges arise from new technology? What makes a good screen translator? Who evaluates screen translation? What commercial and political agendas underpin the selection and translation of material for the screen? Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  3. 3. Cont’d What are the financial, cultural and linguistic implications of the expanding use of translated audiovisual material in individual countries and in general? To what extent can we expect the mediated material we view to reflect the source texts upon which it is based? In what ways can screen translation methods be used to deliberately alter or censor audiovisual material? Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  4. 4. Talk Map What screen translation is? Diachronic View of Screen Translation Basic Terminology e.g. Media Translation, Language Versioning, Audio Visual Translation, and Revoicing: Lip Synch Dubbing Voice Over Narration Free Commentary Subtitling Dubbing Vs Subtitling: evaluation of ST Factors Influencing the Choice of STM & Constraints Surtitling 20th Century Challenges to ST & Conclusion Summary Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  5. 5. Screen Translation“…the interlingual transfer of verbal language when it istransmitted and accessed both visually andacoustically, usually, but not necessarily, through some kindof electronic device.”  translations for any electronic appliance with a screen (i.e.TV; cinema; videogame console; GPS navigator; mobile phone etc.)  Film translation  Dialogue translation Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  6. 6. Terms used for screentranslation Audio visual translation Language versioning Media translationRanges:• Television programmes• Films, videos, video games, mobile phones• CD-Roms, DVDs• Operas and plays
  7. 7. Audiovisual translation  “[a] semiotic construct comprising several signifying codes that operate simultaneously in the production of meaning.” (Chaume 2004:16)  Films, plays, opera, video-games and hypertexts are examples of audiovisual products that are intended to be both seen and heard at the same time by end users.Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  8. 8. Multimedia translation Multimedia products are both produced and consumed by means of several media. In other words, typical multimedia products such as a films and hypertexts, will be created through the implementation of diverse technological equipment (i.e. cameras, computers, software programs etc.) and subsequently consumed by end- users via some sort of electronic device such as a television; a computer screen or a console.
  9. 9. History of Screen Translation Silent Movies continued to be made until early 1930s The Jazz Singer in 1927, sound debut on screen by Al Johnson, marked a new era in film history. Intertitles were used earlier to clarify plot and dialogues. 1906 to 1913, French ruled the film industry. (Flynn, 1995: 15) In 1912, Italy was the most advanced national cinema in the world, with 717 films in production (Russo, 1997) US took over as a result of the effects of WW1, when talkies emerged in 1930s. (OCONNELL, 2007) Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  10. 10. History cont’d Early days of dubbing and subtitlingTalkies and the expansion of travel and tourism led to the need of dubbing and subtitling Hollywood responded initially by reshooting films. American film companies built large studios at Joinville in France but sooner the approach was abandoned as early as 1932/33 as it was uneconomical, inefficient and artistically poor. Thereafter, the studios were used instead for dubbing purposes (Danan 1991: 606-7). Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  11. 11. ComponentsIntertitlesRevoicingi. Lip Synch Dubbingii. Voice Overiii. Narrationiv. Free CommentarySubtitlesSurtitles Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  12. 12. Intertitles Intertitles, which may be viewed as the direct forerunners of subtitles, posed relatively little problem when a film was exported, as they could be removed, translated, drawn or printed on paper, filmed and inserted again in the film (Ivarsson, of Linguistics and Literature, UMT Department 1992: 15).
  13. 13. Lip-Synch Dubbing  Whitman-Linsen (1992: 57) distinguishes between:  • pre-synchronisation, e.g. using the prerecorded music/lyrics on the soundtrack of filmed versions;  • direct synchronisation, e.g. when voice and picture are recorded simultaneously;  • post-synchronisation, which is the most common dubbing procedure and involves the recording/addition of sound after the visual images have been shot. Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  14. 14. SubtitlingDefinition Subtitling may be defined as a translation practice that consists of presenting a written text, generally on the lower part of the screen, that endeavours to recount the original dialogue of the speakers, as well as the discursive elements that appear in the image (letters, inserts, graffiti, inscriptions, placards, and the like), and the information that is contained on the soundtrack (songs, voices off). (Diaz Cintas, 2007) Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  15. 15. Paradigms of Subtilting Subtilting Intralingual Interlingual same language other languages for deaf and hard of hearing immigrants, TFL, minorities Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  16. 16. Technical parameters Open subtitles(viewer has no choice as to the presence of subtitles on screen) Closed subtitles(translation can be added to the programme at the viewer’s will) Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  17. 17. Open Subtitle-MultilingualA clip of an animated English Movie with open and multilingualsubtitles Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  18. 18. Closed Subtitle/CaptionsA clip showing the process of selection of closed/optionalsubtitles Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  19. 19. Interlingual SubtitlesA scene from a Hindi movie with English subtitles Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  20. 20. Dubbing VS Subtitling Dubbing Subtitling Ten times expensive Ten times cheaper Time consuming long Quick process Spoils the original It doesn’t mess with voices; original, You can hear original film; original voices; It can reach audience Promotes the use of a with lower literacy rate foreign language13 who tend not to along with creating an understand the foreign interest in the foreign language culture
  21. 21. Contd… Dubbing Subtitling Doesn’t interfere with Interferes with the the visual integrity of visual integrity of the the images on the visual images screen Allows for less Requires more concentrated, more concentration and relaxed viewing involves less relaxation while viewing13
  22. 22. Translation or Adaptation?(Diaz, 2007)  It has to be understood that the subtitled text is not a proper translation, but rather a simple adaptation that preserves the general meaning of the original. Pommier (1988:22) Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  23. 23. Factors Influencing the Choiceof STM Dubbing countries (e.g. France, Germany, Spain) Subtitling countries (e.g Belgium, Denmark, Sweden) Available Budget Time Programme genre Status and power relations of the source and target languages (e.g. world, major, minority languages) Karamitroglous (2000) Target audience profile: factors as age, sex, educational background and social class of the audience (OConnell, 1998) Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT Function of the translation in the target culture {Skopos
  24. 24. Constraints of Subtitling Overt form of translation (Gottlieb, 1992), i.e. it can be evaluated by those who know the source language of the voicetrack. Time Space Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  25. 25. Spatial Considerations Maximum of 2 lines Safe area Position on screen Background 28 to 40 spaces per line Type of font Font size Characters Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  26. 26. Constraints of Dubbing Covert rather than overt translation there is no scope for the primary target audience to evaluate the actual standard of content Fodor (1976: 10) model of triad synchronies: (1) phonetic synchrony, matching sounds and lip movements; (2) character synchrony, matching the dubbing voice (timbre, tempo, etc.) and the original actors physique and manner and gestures; and (3) content synchrony, matching the semantic content of the original and dubbed script versions closely. Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  27. 27. Whitman-Linsen (1992: 19) Linsen’s alternative model of dubbing synchrony. She suggests that the general concept of dubbing synchrony be subdivided into: (1) visual/optical synchrony; into lip synchrony proper, syllable synchrony and kinetic synchrony. (2) audio/acoustic synchrony; covers idiosyncratic vocal type, paralinguistic/ prosodic elements (such as tone, timbre, intonation and tempo) and cultural specifics such as regional accents and dialects. (3) content synchrony. Content synchrony is understood to encompass all the linguistic challenges involved in the dubbing process. Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  28. 28. Nucleus-Sync (Herbst, 1994:244-5) Herbst advocates scene by scene rather than take by take translation, for appropriate and natural translations and allowing translators to address nucleus synchrony which he promotes in his research. Herbst explains the significance of nucleus-sync as follows: movements of the body, slight nods, raising of the eyebrows, or making gestures always coincide with the uttering of stressed syllables, which [...] are referred to as nuclei .... However, while lip- sync is given priority in dubbing, this is not always the case with nucleus-sync so that the situation could occur when a character raised his eyebrows between two nuclei with such movements appearing completely and Literature, UMT Department of Linguistics unmotivated.
  29. 29. As constrained translation Dubbing Subtitling It’s covert rather than It’s an overt form of overt translation translation The search for synchrony Can be evaluated by creates the key those who know the constraints source language of the voicetrack i. Phonetic synchrony Time and space are ii. Character synchrony further constraints, iii. Content synchrony people read more quickly than they read There is no scope for the Space constraints arise primary target audience to because there is room 13 evaluate the actual for only about 30 or 40 standard of content characters synchrony
  30. 30. Real Time Subtitling Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  31. 31. Surtitles (supertitles, supratitles) Surtitles are relative newcomers on the international stage, first appeared in 1983 in Canada They are rather like the interlingual subtitles provided on some foreign filmsLive performances: opera, concerts, musicals theatre conferences Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  32. 32. 20th Century Challenges to ST &Conclusion Advent in digital technology and IT added speed and quality to subtitling and dubbing Improved access and choice of ST mode e.g. multilingual DVD, and digital TV closed subtitles Present and future researches focusing on machine translation and softwares development Linguistics, pedagogical, cultural, commercial and political issues in screen translation are being ignored Interdisciplinary approach in research projects can solve the problem Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  33. 33. Summary Historical background of ST from Intertitles to Surtitles i.e.1927-1983 Types of ST i.e. Revoicing, Subtitling, Interlingual/Intralingual and Open/Closed Choice of STM and Factors influencing it Constraints of Dubbing and Subtitling Surtitling Challenges of 20th Century Conclusion Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  34. 34. References Connell. E., (2007). Screen Translation. Multilingual Matters. Toronto Yang. W., (2010). Brief Study on Domestication and Foreignization in Translation. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 77-80, January 2010 Hagan. M., (2006). Teletranslation Revisited: Futurama for Screen Translators?. EU-High- Level Scientific Conference Series Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  35. 35. Links for Further Reading 2006_Proceedings/2006_proceedings.html 4/3.3/carroll 3ar.html hp Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT
  36. 36. Thank you for your attentionAny questions? Feel free to ask Department of Linguistics and Literature, UMT