CURRICULUM: AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION BY EVELYN J. SOWELL CH 5 STUDIES OF SOCIETY AND CULTUREPresented by:Tam Suet YetSantha Devi Arumugam
LITERACY ISSUES FOR THE 21STCENTURY Society dictates purposes of education for the school curricula. How do society and culture relate to curriculum? To what extent can society affect curriculum? How do societal-cultural changes affect curriculum processes and choices of learning emphases?
WHAT IS LITERACY? Once referred solely to one’s language abilities. Ability to use one’s native language, closely related to culture. In the U.S. defined as one’s English language ability. Other forms of literacy required today due to economic changes eg cultural, science and information.
TYPES OF LITERACY Language literacy - definition open to interpretation (Sowell,1996). - if one does not speak English/Malay is he/she considered illiterate? Cultural literacy - social groups gather according to language, ethnic background, religion.
- shared beliefs or culture create norms.- subjects like civics and content based syllabus for language to learn about other cultures, reduce prejudice, foster tolerance and understanding in a multicultural society (CDC).
Science literacy - knowledge of a variety of techniques for approaching and working on problems - understanding of scientific-mathematical features of a problem - ability to work with others on a problem - ability to cope with real world problem situations
Information literacy - ability to assemble, analyse, interpret and draw inferences and conclusions about information from a variety of sources (Adams & Bailey, 1993, Lenox & Walker, 1994)
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR LEARNERS’LITERACY?Initially : Families Schools Religious organisationsNow : Schools play a major role Economic need and changing social values, busy and absentee parents an accepted phenomena Social institutions still important
ECONOMY AND THE MALAYSIANLABOUR MARKET Employment - graduates (high pay for highly eduated, upward mobility) - non-graduates(working-class status,either white collar/blue-collar skilled or semi-skilled positions, repetitive tasks, upward mobility limited)(JobsMalaysia, 2010, Ministry of Human Resources)
EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC CHANGES ONTHE WORKFORCE Changes are due to development and advances in information technology mostly affects unskilled workers, less manufacturing jobs Loss of jobs Retrenchment Need for spouses to work, take up additional jobs
Literacy in the workplace -jobs that pay well require special training or education. Strong relationship between literacy skill and occupation.
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS :FAMILY, RELIGION AND EDUCATION Family, religion and education - handle concerns and problems related to physical, emotional and intellectual needs of children & youth. - influenced by changes in economy - rising standard of living, people aware of inequalities in living standards (communication)
2 million foreign workers in Malaysia Locals unwilling to work in construction sites, pumping fuel, cleaning toilets, working in restaurants. Low pay? Demeaning? Malaysian employers do not want to hire fresh graduates - poor command of English - unrealistic expectations of salary - poor character, attitude, personality..
- frequent job switching Influence of higher educational institutions - producing graduate manpower, not nurturing talent and building intellectual capital.(Tneh, David, 2010, National University of Singapore)
WHAT IS REQUIRED? A more holistic and flexible education system Realising that the co-relation and interdependence between education, employment and the economy cannot be disregarded, important for the moral and social wellbeing of the people (Tneh, 2010).
Child care and socialization practicesFAMILY-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS• Initially, an economic organization depends on household ie: raising a family, good and production demand• Transferred to private sector business TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Ie: taxation• Parents who work affects children – stress between spouses & stress between children/parents bond - divorce - remarried families co-exist - violence: child/spouse abuse - grandparentsTHE SITUATION IN MALAYSIACan the curriculum do something to children who are victims ofsuch circumstances?Can they still sit for SPM/ PMR/ UPSR?
FAMILY-RELIGION-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIPS• School was at first not compulsory• Up until WW2. religion, school and family are social institutions• Social capital – social networks that display concern for children ie: volunteer group family members youth group leaders TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 adults religious organizations• However, at present, adults continue self-pursuits instead of childbearingresponsibilities.• Solely left to educators and schooling
DEMOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND OF LEARNERS(MALAYSIA) Population: 25,715,819 (July 2009 est.) Ethnic groups: Malay 53.3%, Chinese TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 26.0%, Indigenous 11.8%, Indian 7.7%, Others 1.2% Religions: Islam (60.4%), Buddhism (19.2%), Christianity (9.1%), Hinduism (6.3%), Other/None (5.0%). Languages: Bahasa Melayu (official), Chinese (various dialects), English, Tamil, Indigenous. (taken from US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2777.htm)
LIVING CONDITIONS Peninsular vs Sabah Sarawak Urban vs Rural Areas TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Exposure Living means for extra coaching Tuition Musical/ Art Lessons Games/ Sports Books/ Television Programmes Malaysia Literacy Rate: 91.9 %
SOCIETY & CULTURE APPLIED IN CURRICULUMPROCESSES All children after 6 should go to school. Educational and curriculum development: TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 independence to 1990 The National Education System of Malaysia was inherited from the British colonial government. Education Act of 1961 achieving national unity and development through education Reforming Society – purpose of education (schools actually shape changes society) Uses societal problems, issues and concerns as content – set goal for betterment of society
KBSM + KBSR KBSR -reducing the previously heavily content- oriented curriculum, to concentrate on the three Rs. TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Specifies a child-centered approach-more student participation and focuses on individual differences of students. Teaching activities are designed to especially encourage participation and verbal communication Learning is to be gained through a variety of experiences
KBSM - a continuation of the KBSR Enable them to make choices in selecting subjects of their interest. KBSM aims to continue providing general education (taken from Educational development and reformation in Malaysia: past, present and future Rahimah Haji Ahmad Professor and Dean, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia) TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Projected roles for classroom users of curricula – interactive methods in delivering the curriculum.The question is: Our we doing it right?As we think about….
Social demands Culture effect Scope and complexity of curriculum Professional development of teachers Effective communication in a classroom TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 Resources – time, people Evaluation – cultivating cognitive achievement through tests, scales & portfolios Acknowledge consistency in social & cultural realities
TSY/CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT2010 The End ……QUESTIONS????????