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Innovate, Integrate And Measure Performance.


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The slides were prepared for a talk during Mobilicity held on 21st Nov. 2009.

The talk attempts to first outline the themes for pursuing systemic and systematic changes in approaches towards transportation in city planning and governance. It then addresses how and what 'innovations' are required for pursuing the larger goals illustrating some of the examples and case studies. This could be by way of technological innovation (using simulation tools in planning), to organizational innovation (eg. restructuring STUs and informal coordination demonstrated for connectivity to the new International Airport) and regulatory innovation (much needed). Later on, it emphasizes how 'integration' is essential and in what ways: linking policy instruments with different modes; land-use planning; transport measures; and infrastructure provision. It illustrates the need for pursuing 'strategic integration' by pursuing complementary strategies and removal of barriers (institutional and financial). For instance, introduction of congestion pricing is one lever, but has to be pursued by improved accessibility and connectivity by other modes, new infrastructure, better parking, etc. and a combination of all. Finally, it is noted that along with these, is the need for measuring performance to assess the impacts and set benchmarks. The Bangalore Mobility Indicators 2008 has already been prepared and now it is only imperative that benchmarks are set for achieving them in the coming years. Innovation and Integration should complement towards realizing the goal of better access and mobility of people (across age, abilities and gender) over vehicles.

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Innovate, Integrate And Measure Performance.

  1. 1. Measure Performance Integrate Innovate Dr. H. S. Sudhira.
  2. 2. Critical Themes Innovation, particularly in Planning methodologies, Operations and their enabling Mechanisms. Integration between policy instruments with land-use and transport strategies, different modes & infrastructure provision. Tools for assessing and predicting the Performance of Policy Instruments.
  3. 3. • Technological – Planning methodologies: Use of Simulation Innovate based tools – Spatial Planning Support Systems. – Infrastructure, Vehicle, Services. • Organizational Integrate – Enhancing competencies of personnel involved in policy, planning and decision-making. • Regulatory Measure – Unified transport authority that takes care of Performance planning, operations and financing. – Statutory backing for CTTP and guiding its implementation. CTTP: Comprehensive Transportation and Traffic Plan
  4. 4. Patterns of Innovation and Regulatory Change Regulatory Will BMLTA Innovation Change be next? Pattern • In some cases, first the Regulation was changed, then the Innovation occurred. • In some, Innovation is first developed, then the change in Regulation booted the diffusion of Innovation. Examples • Restructuring STU (Regulatory change). • Online reservations – AWATAR (Technological innovation). • Low-floor buses (Technological innovation). • High Level Task Force for Airport Connectivity (Organizational Innovation). STU: State Transport Undertakings
  5. 5. Where can Innovation occur? Service Infrastructure Vehicle Operations • Bus priority • Environmentally • Fare & Ticketing • Guided bus way friendly engines • Timetable and • Low floor bus Frequency • Change in size • Rationalizing of vehicle bus routes • Marketing Possibilities of Innovations with respect to Innovative Capabilities in Bus-based Public Transport.
  6. 6. Promotion of NMT: Cycling • IISc System of Bike Sharing • EC Bike at Electronics City by Bike Ride-A-Cycle Sharing Foundation Systems (proposed) in Bangalore • Realization rests on overcoming certain barriers: Institutional. NMT: Non-Motorized Transport
  7. 7. Integration In 4 broad ways: • Integration between policy instruments involving different modes; • Integration between policy instruments involving infrastructure provision, management, information and pricing; • Integration between transport measures and land-use planning measures; and • Integration with other policy areas such as health and education.
  8. 8. Strategic Integration Approaches to Strategic Integration: • Pursuit of Synergy • Ex: Provision of Park and Ride facilities; Provision of Pubic Transport and Fares Reduction; • Removal of Barriers • Legal and Institutional barriers; • Financial barriers; • Political and Cultural barriers; • Practical and Technological barriers.
  9. 9. Pursuing Complementary Strategies 4. Bicycle paths and walkways 3. Improved 2. New frequencies Infrastructure of Public like better Transport parking 1. Bus priorities and traffic calming Combination of all! Introduction of Congestion Pricing
  10. 10. Performance Measures • The impact of policy instruments on demand for travel determines the contribution of overall policy objectives. • Measures required to assess the impacts and set benchmarks. • Empirical models built on them, aid in testing out the elasticities of variables involved like fares, service levels and income. • Bangalore Mobility Indicators 2008: first of its kind in India.
  11. 11. Bangalore Mobility Indicators 2008 Source: DULT
  12. 12. Performance Measures that link Investments • Through efficient Project Management and • Tackling Time and Cost Overruns (Sudhira, 2007) Data Source: BBMP (Annual Budgets)
  13. 13. Summary of Indicators 1 .0 0 0 .9 0 0 .8 0 De sirab le = 0.70 0 .7 0 0 .6 0 De sirab le = 0.65 0 .5 0 0 .4 0 0 .3 0 0 .2 0 0 .1 0 0 .0 0 De sirab le = 0 -0 .1 0 li li st t a h a a es al al ur ut ar ur Ea ah ah W ap So ag ap -0 .2 0 e ar an or e ev an iN e or as or al m ad ar ay al al ng D m ng ah ar hw ng Bo Ba at Ba M es Ba By aj R C o m p o s i te C o n ges ti o n I n d ex 1 ja Ra C o m p o s i te M o b i l i ty I n d ex 2 C o m p o s i te Ac c es s i b i l i ty I n d ex 3 * Excludes Safety Index as data not available for all zones 1. Higher values indicate more congestion. 2. Higher values indicate better mobility 3. Higher values indicate better accessibility. Source: DULT
  14. 14. Challenges For whom? Who? – Central Interventions Measure Performance – State across PeopleMeasures – Private Participation Age, Abilities – Judicial and Gender. Interventions Integrate – Research Planning for Institutions Innovate – Citizen Groups ‘Evolution of – Others Cities’
  15. 15. Thank you. Inspired by May and Tight (2006).
  16. 16.
  17. 17. RouteFinder for Bangalore Sudhira, 2006
  18. 18. The Runoff Model for IISc Sudhira, 2006
  19. 19. CA Model – Mangalore, Karnataka CA: Cellular Automata Sudhira et al., 2004
  20. 20. TrafficSim – Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore Sudhira H. S., Jain V., Visvanathan V. and Chakrabarti S., 2006
  21. 21. Prototype of Spatial Planning Support System Sudhira H. S., 2008