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TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF MEDICATION (TSM)

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India is known for its traditional medicinal systems—Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. Medical systems are found mentioned even in the ancient Vedas and other scriptures. The Ayurvedic concept appeared and developed between 2500 and 500 BC in India Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness.Alternative medicines are being used by about 60 percent of the world's population. These medicines are not only used by the rural masses for their primary health care in developing countries but are also used in developed countries where modern medicines dominate.India is the largest producer of medicinal plants. There are currently about 250,000 registered medical practitioners of the Ayurvedic system, as compared to about 700,000 of the modern medicine. In India, around 20,000 medicinal plants have been recorded; however, traditional practitioners use only 7,000–7,500 plants for curing different diseases. The proportion of use of plants in the different Indian systems of medicine is Ayurveda 2000, Siddha 1300, Unani 1000, Homeopathy 800, Tibetan 500, Modern 200, and folk 4500. In India, around 25,000 effective plant-based formulations are used in traditional and folk medicine. More than 1.5 million practitioners are using the traditional medicinal system for health care in India.

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TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF MEDICATION (TSM)

  1. 1. Principles of Traditional system ofPrinciples of Traditional system of medication(TSM)medication(TSM) presented by K.Sudheer Kumar, Assistant professor.Depot.of pharmacognosy Chilkur Balaji college of Pharmacy, Hyderabad. 1
  2. 2. Modern System or Allopathy This system was developed in the Western countries. In this system drugs (tablets, capsules, injections, tonics etc.) are manufactured using synthetic chemicals and / or chemicals derived from natural products like plants, animals, minerals etc. This system also uses modern equipment for diagnosis, analysis, surgery etc. Medicines or drugs of this system is often criticised for its treatment of the symptoms rather than the cause of the disease, harmful side effects of certain drugs and for being out of poor people due to the high cost of drugs and treatment. 2
  3. 3. • What is traditional medicine? WHO defines traditional medicine as including diverse health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal, and/or mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises which can be used to maintain well-being, as well as to treat, diagnose or prevent illness. 3
  4. 4. Types of TSM Folk Medicine & (AYUSH) • Ayurveda • * Yoga(Naturopathy) • Unani • Siddha • Homeopathy • * Yoga & Naturopahty are drugless therapies. 4
  5. 5. Principle • A system of medicine based on the principle of • “like cures like” - • Uses the smallest dose possible to produce a response. Origins/History • This principle was first described in Hindu writings over 3000 years ago • Also mentioned by Hippocrates , Galen in the 2nd century. • More researches done by a German physician Samuel Hahnemann who developed “Homoeopathy” Homeopathy 5
  6. 6. Examples (principle): Peeling an onion leads to sore, runny eyes, itchy nose and sneezing – Allium cepa used to treat hay fever and colds. Nettle stings produce a burning, itchy wheal on the skin - Urtica urens is a good remedy for similar skin lesions. Arsenic poisoning causes severe vomiting and diarrhoea with burning pains and Arsenicum alb. V. effective in gastroenteritis and food poisoning. Diagnosis consider physical, mental, emotional changes of patient 6
  7. 7. Remedies Preparation minerals,plants,fish,(marine),insects, Preparation: Whole plant is macerated in alcohol (tinctures) • 1 drop added to 99 of solution results in 1C potency and (1M is equal to 1000C)Standard potencies 6C, 30C,200C, 1M, 10M, 50M…. • Prescription • 6C for local symptoms e.g. joint pain, skin eruptions • 30C for acute illness e.g. influenza, diarrhoea and vomiting, childhood illnesses • 1M or 10M for strong emotional symptoms e.g. depression, anxiety etc. 7
  8. 8. Unani- Tabb-e-Unani( Persian TSM) Unani system of medicine has its origin in Greece. It is believed to have been established by the great physician and philosopher- Hippocrates (460-377 BC). The Arabian scholars and physicians have played great role in the development of this system. Principle: According to principles of Unani body is made up Four basic elements of human body Qualities or states of human body Four“humors” of human body earth cold Blood air dry Phlegm(sputum) Water wet Yellow Bile fire hot Black Bile 8
  9. 9. • There is equilibrium in the “humors” and functions of the body are normal. When the equilibrium of the“humors” is disturbed and the functions of body are abnormal, that state is called disease. Diagnosis: examination of Pulse, urine and stool. Drugs made from medicinal plants, herbs, minerals, metallic and animal origin are used for the treatment of diseases. Hakim established following principle If a drug produces heat in body, it will be stimulant. If a drug produces coldness in body, it will be depressant. Commonly drug termed as Dawa in Unani system of medication 9
  10. 10. S.no Unani terms English terms 1 Aam Qatil Deedan Anthelmintic 2 Dafe Humuzat Antacid 3 Habis Bol Anti-diuretic 4 Hazim Digestive 5 Jazib Absorbant 6 Kasir Riyah carminative 7 Laazey, Muhayyij Irritant 8 Mamooli Mus-hil Mild purgative 9 Qabiz Astringent 10 Radey Repellent, Divertive Unani medications 10
  11. 11. Ayurveda• Ayurveda is a very well documented System of Health Care Practiced in Indian. • Comprehensive system that places equal emphasis on the body, mind and spirit, and it strives to restore the innate harmony of the individual. • Ayurveda is the combination of two Sanskrit words – “ayu” ---life – “Veda” --Knowledge or science of life • Practiced in India for over 5000 years(Charaka, sushrutha&Acharya nagarjuna) Vedas (5000 B.C.) describe about 100 plants and treatment of various diseases 11
  12. 12. - It is believed that Lord Brahma created (Dhanvanthari) Ayurveda along with the creation of mankind and universe. - Principles of Ayurveda and Siddha are similar based on following… 1) Pancha Mahabutha siddantha-Everything in universe is composed of 5 basic elements(Human body) I. Prudhvi (earth) II. Apa (water) III. Teja (fire) IV. Vayu (air) V. Akasha (sky). 12
  13. 13. 2.Tridosha theory (Vata, Pitta and Kapha),states that a balance of the doshas results in health, while imbalance results in disease.(three pillars of life) 3.Saptadhatu: (seven forms)  Rasa(lymph)  Rakta(blood)  Meda (adipose tissue)  Mamsa (flesh)  Majja(nervine tissue)  Shukra (reproductive tissue)  Asthi (bones) 13
  14. 14. “The science of eight components"(a ā gaṣṭ ṅ ). 1.Kayachikitsa (general medicine): "cure of diseases affecting the body". 2.Kaumāra-bh tyaṛ and Bala Roga: deals with the treatment of children.(pediatrics) 3.Shalya tantra deals with surgical techniques. 4.Śālākya-tantra (ophthalmology) deals with diseases of the teeth, eye, nose, ear etc. 5.Bhuta-vidya deals with the causes, which are not directly visible and not directly explained by tridosha,pertaining to micro-organisms. 6.Agada-tantra deals with antidotes to poison. 7.Rasayana-tantra (Geriatrics)/(Anti Aging) : deals with rejuvenation. 8.Vajikarana tantra (aphrodisiacs) deals with healthy and desired progeny 14
  15. 15. Clinical examinations: Pulse diagnosis Urine examination Stool examination Tongue examination Eye examination Skin examination Assessment of total body appearance MATERIAL SOURCE OF MEDICINAL RAW MATERIALS  95% raw materials of plant origin.  About 1,000 medicinal plants commonly using.  58 different types of metals and minerals.  54 products of animal and marine origin. 15
  16. 16. Dose: The pediatric dosage is most important factor in Ayurveda dosage forms. Charaka states as fallows Up to 16 years……Bal (child) 17 to 60 years……Middle age 61 to 100 &above…Old age And further classified in to Ksheerad…child depend up on milk up to 1 year Ksheeranand….child up to 4 years(feed with grains,milk,cereals) For infants up to 1 month 1 Ratti (0.12125 gram) increases up to 1 (Ratti “Abraus precatorius” seed) unit of weight/month for ex..1 year 12 rattis (1 masha) 1masha an year up to 16 years (For fast acting drugs it is reduced to half) these rules are similar to dieling’s formula Vriddhi 16-20 Yavan 21-30 Sampoornta 31-40 Hani(aging decay )41-70 16
  17. 17. • Swarasa (Expressed Juice) • Churna (Powders) • Kwath Churna (Coarse power for making decoction) • Asava and Arishta ( Fermented liquids) • Arka (Distilled medicated water) • Avaleha (Jam like formulations) • Ghrita (Classified butter based formulations) • Taila (Medicated/oil based formulations) • Lepa (For external applications) • Malhara (Ointment) • Vati/Gutika(tablet/pill) • Panaka(syrups) • Aaschayotana (Eye drops) Karn bindu (Ear drops)Nasaya (Nasal drops) • Bhasma (Calcinated ash ) Ras Yoga (Herbo-mineral formulation)17
  18. 18. STANDARDIZATION OF AYURVEDA DRUGS AuthenticationAuthentication Heavy Metal Contaminants Heavy Metal Contaminants Microbial CountMicrobial Count Pesticide Residue Pesticide Residue Marker Component Marker Component Chromatographic Profile Chromatographic Profile Extractive ValueExtractive Value Ash ValueAsh Value Volatile Matter Volatile Matter Macroscopy & Microscopy Macroscopy & Microscopy Organoleptic Evaluation Organoleptic Evaluation Foreign MatterForeign Matter Authentication and Standardization of Herbal Raw Material18
  19. 19. AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA [API]  ABOUT 1000 SINGLE DRUGS AND 8000 COMPOUND FORMULATIONS OF RECOGNIZED MERIT ARE USED IN INDIA.  AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIAL COMMITTEE [APC] TARGETED STUDY ON 600 SINGLE DRUGS.  FIVE VOLUMES OF AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA (API) HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED. API VOL I 80 drugs API VOL II 78 drugs API VOL III 100 drugs API VOL IV 68 drugs API VOL.V 92 drugs Total 418 drugs API Vol. VI & VII are in pipeline - 160 drugs 19
  20. 20. Conclusion Today's medical science gives us quick relief but not the guarantee of health. for health guarantee, we will have to go back to holistic health care whether it is any TSM Additional research needs to be conducted in the areas of – Biochemical – Pharmacological&Toxological – Phyto pharmaceutical 20
  21. 21. Thank you 21 “Trees are considered to be meditating souls(yogi) and Research is a kind of process of meditation(yoga)”

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