Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

STUDY OF TRADITIONAL DRUGS

7,170 views

Published on

Plants are a tremendous source for the discovery of new products of medicinal value for drug development.
Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs currently used in one or more countries in the world. During the past decade, traditional systems of medicine have become a topic of global importance. Current estimates suggest that, in many developing countries, a large proportion of the population relies heavily on traditional practitioners and medicinal plants to meet primary health care needs.
Although modern medicine may be available in these countries, herbal medicines (phytomedicines) have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons. Concurrently, many people in developed countries have begun to turn to alternative or complementary therapies, including medicinal herbs.

Published in: Education

STUDY OF TRADITIONAL DRUGS

  1. 1. STUDY OFSTUDY OF TRADITIONAL DRUGSTRADITIONAL DRUGS K.Sudheer Kumar, Assistant professor. Dept.of Pharmacognosy Chilkur Balaji college of Pharmacy Hyderabad. E-mail:sudheer.y2k8@gmail.com K.Sudheer Kumar, Assistant professor. Dept.of Pharmacognosy Chilkur Balaji college of Pharmacy Hyderabad. E-mail:sudheer.y2k8@gmail.com
  2. 2. Plants are a tremendous source for the discovery of new products of medicinal value for drug development. Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs currently used in one or more countries in the world. During the past decade, traditional systems of medicine have become a topic of global importance. Current estimates suggest that, in many developing countries, a large proportion of the population relies heavily on traditional practitioners and medicinal plants to meet primary health care needs. Although modern medicine may be available in these countries, herbal medicines (phytomedicines) have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons. Concurrently, many people in developed countries have begun to turn to alternative or complementary therapies, including medicinal herbs. INTRODUCTION Plants are a tremendous source for the discovery of new products of medicinal value for drug development. Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs currently used in one or more countries in the world. During the past decade, traditional systems of medicine have become a topic of global importance. Current estimates suggest that, in many developing countries, a large proportion of the population relies heavily on traditional practitioners and medicinal plants to meet primary health care needs. Although modern medicine may be available in these countries, herbal medicines (phytomedicines) have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons. Concurrently, many people in developed countries have begun to turn to alternative or complementary therapies, including medicinal herbs.
  3. 3. Synonym: Rakta punarnava,hogweed Biological source: It consists of fresh as well as dried herbs of Boerhavia diffusa,belongigng to the family Nyctaginaceae.Found through out India in wild also found in Himalayan valley at a altitude of 2000-2500m,found in other countries like China,Malasia,Africa.Cultivates in sandy and waste lands, grows road sides,aboundent in rainy season,colleceted at flowering stage, Botanical features:branched,perennial.creeper. Synonym: Rakta punarnava,hogweed Biological source: It consists of fresh as well as dried herbs of Boerhavia diffusa,belongigng to the family Nyctaginaceae.Found through out India in wild also found in Himalayan valley at a altitude of 2000-2500m,found in other countries like China,Malasia,Africa.Cultivates in sandy and waste lands, grows road sides,aboundent in rainy season,colleceted at flowering stage, Botanical features:branched,perennial.creeper. PUNARNAVA Synonym: Rakta punarnava,hogweed Biological source: It consists of fresh as well as dried herbs of Boerhavia diffusa,belongigng to the family Nyctaginaceae.Found through out India in wild also found in Himalayan valley at a altitude of 2000-2500m,found in other countries like China,Malasia,Africa.Cultivates in sandy and waste lands, grows road sides,aboundent in rainy season,colleceted at flowering stage, Botanical features:branched,perennial.creeper. Synonym: Rakta punarnava,hogweed Biological source: It consists of fresh as well as dried herbs of Boerhavia diffusa,belongigng to the family Nyctaginaceae.Found through out India in wild also found in Himalayan valley at a altitude of 2000-2500m,found in other countries like China,Malasia,Africa.Cultivates in sandy and waste lands, grows road sides,aboundent in rainy season,colleceted at flowering stage, Botanical features:branched,perennial.creeper. Color: leaves are green on upper surface, white in lower side, stem are greenish/Purple,Flowers are pink in lower part Odour:Odour less, Taste: Bitter, Size:Leaves-25-30mm, Shape:Long,ovate,oblong stems are cylindrical. Flowers are internally sessile-with umbels, roots are cream light brown in color. Description
  4. 4. VERNACULAR NAMES Sanskrit: Rakta puspa Assam. : Ronga Punarnabha Beng. : Rakta Punarnava Eng. : Hog Weed Guj. : Saturdi Hindi. : Gadapurna, Lalpunarnava Kan. : Kommeberu Mal. : Chuvanna Tazhutama Mar. : Rakta Punarnava Ori. : Laalapuiruni Punj. : Iteit (Lal), Khattan Tam. : Mookarattai (Shihappu) Tel. : Atikamamidi, Erragalijeru Urdu. : Surkh Punarnava Sanskrit: Rakta puspa Assam. : Ronga Punarnabha Beng. : Rakta Punarnava Eng. : Hog Weed Guj. : Saturdi Hindi. : Gadapurna, Lalpunarnava Kan. : Kommeberu Mal. : Chuvanna Tazhutama Mar. : Rakta Punarnava Ori. : Laalapuiruni Punj. : Iteit (Lal), Khattan Tam. : Mookarattai (Shihappu) Tel. : Atikamamidi, Erragalijeru Urdu. : Surkh Punarnava
  5. 5. STEM:-greenish purple, stiff, slender, cylindrical, swollen at nodes, minutely pubescent or nearly glabrous, branches from common stalk, more than a metre long. ROOT:- well developed, fairly long, somewhat tortuous, cylindrical, 0.2-1.5 cm in diameter, yellowish brown to brown colored, surface soft to touch but rough due to minute longitudinal striations and root scars, fracture, short, no distinct. LEAVES:-opposite in unequal pairs, larger ones 25-37 mm long and smaller ones 12-18mm long ovate-oblong , apex rounded ,pointed, base is subcordate, green and margin is entire, dorsal side pinkish ,thick in texture. FLOWERS:-very small, nearly sessile or shortly stalked, 10-25 cm, in small umbels are arranged on stalks, 4-10 corymb, axillary and in terminal panicles, bracteoles, small, acute, perianth tube constricted above the ovary, lower part greenish, ovoid, ribbed, upper part pink, funnel-shaped, 3 mm long, tube 5 lobed, stamen 2-3. FRUIT:-one seeded nut, 6 mm long clavate, rounded, broadly and bluntly 5 ribbed. MACROSCOPYMACROSCOPY STEM:-greenish purple, stiff, slender, cylindrical, swollen at nodes, minutely pubescent or nearly glabrous, branches from common stalk, more than a metre long. ROOT:- well developed, fairly long, somewhat tortuous, cylindrical, 0.2-1.5 cm in diameter, yellowish brown to brown colored, surface soft to touch but rough due to minute longitudinal striations and root scars, fracture, short, no distinct. LEAVES:-opposite in unequal pairs, larger ones 25-37 mm long and smaller ones 12-18mm long ovate-oblong , apex rounded ,pointed, base is subcordate, green and margin is entire, dorsal side pinkish ,thick in texture. FLOWERS:-very small, nearly sessile or shortly stalked, 10-25 cm, in small umbels are arranged on stalks, 4-10 corymb, axillary and in terminal panicles, bracteoles, small, acute, perianth tube constricted above the ovary, lower part greenish, ovoid, ribbed, upper part pink, funnel-shaped, 3 mm long, tube 5 lobed, stamen 2-3. FRUIT:-one seeded nut, 6 mm long clavate, rounded, broadly and bluntly 5 ribbed.
  6. 6. MICROSCOPY Stem:-T.S shows epidermal layer containing multi cellular,uniserite glandular trichome consisting of 9-12 stalked cells 150-220 μ long, cortex consists of 1-2 layers of parenchyma, endodermis indistinct, pericycle 1-2 layered, thick-walled often containing scattered isolated fibres, stele consisting of many small vascular bundles often joined together in a ring and many big vascular bundles scattered in the ground tissue, intra fascicular cambium present. Root:-T.S shows brown walls in the outer few layers, cork cambium of 1-2 layers of thin walled secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells followed by cortex composed of 5-12 layers of thin-walled, oval to polygonal cells, xylem elements composed of thin-walled more or less rectangular cells arranged in radial rows calcium oxalate, in single or in group present in cortical region and parenchymatous tissue in between xylem tissue, starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components found in cortex phloem occurs as hemispherical or crescentic patches outside each group of xylem vessels and composed of sieve elements and parenchyma, Root:-T.S shows brown walls in the outer few layers, cork cambium of 1-2 layers of thin walled secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells followed by cortex composed of 5-12 layers of thin-walled, oval to polygonal cells, xylem elements composed of thin-walled more or less rectangular cells arranged in radial rows calcium oxalate, in single or in group present in cortical region and parenchymatous tissue in between xylem tissue, starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components found in cortex phloem occurs as hemispherical or crescentic patches outside each group of xylem vessels and composed of sieve elements and parenchyma, Leaves:-T.S of leaf shows anomocytic stomata on both sides, numerous, a few short hairs, 3-4 celled, present on the margin and on veins, palisade one layered,spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered with small air spaces, idioblasts containing raphides,occasionally cluster crystal of calcium oxalate and orange-red resinous matter present in mesophyll. Palisade ratio 3.5-6.5, stomatal index 11-16, vein islet number 9-15.
  7. 7. S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 2 % 2 Total Ash Not more than 15 % 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 6 % 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 1 % 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 4 % IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Uses:Diuretic,Expectorant,Stomachic and used in Jaundice treatment,enlargement of spleen and abdominal pain. Chemical constituents Alkaloids-Punarnavine.Phenolic-glycosides-PunarnavosideAnti-fibrinilytic- Boeravinavoside A,B,C &D Ursolic acid. DOSE :-20-30 g of the drug for decoction. 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 4 %
  8. 8. Synonym :shankhvel,shankhini Biological source: Aerial parts of canscora decussata belongs to the family Gentianaceae.It widely cultivated in India at a altitude of 1300m.also cultivated in srilanka and Myanmar,seeds are used to propagate. Macroscopy:Branched,annual,ornamen tal, herbs are erect, four winged stems, and branches are decussate branched sessileleaves,2.54cm,lanceolate,axilliary, solitary white –yellowish in color. SHANKAPUSHPISHANKAPUSHPI Synonym :shankhvel,shankhini Biological source: Aerial parts of canscora decussata belongs to the family Gentianaceae.It widely cultivated in India at a altitude of 1300m.also cultivated in srilanka and Myanmar,seeds are used to propagate. Macroscopy:Branched,annual,ornamen tal, herbs are erect, four winged stems, and branches are decussate branched sessileleaves,2.54cm,lanceolate,axilliary, solitary white –yellowish in color.
  9. 9. VERNACULAR NAMES Sanskrit :sankapuspi Bengali : Sankhapuspi Gujrati : Shankhavali Hindi : Shankhapushpi Kannada : Bilikantisoppu, Shankhapushpi, Marathi : Sankhahuli, Shankhavela, Oriya : Sankhapuspi Punjabi : Ksirapuspi, Sankhapuspi, Sankhahuli Tamil : Kakattam, Kakkanangudi, Karakhuratt, Telugu : Shankhapushpi Sanskrit :sankapuspi Bengali : Sankhapuspi Gujrati : Shankhavali Hindi : Shankhapushpi Kannada : Bilikantisoppu, Shankhapushpi, Marathi : Sankhahuli, Shankhavela, Oriya : Sankhapuspi Punjabi : Ksirapuspi, Sankhapuspi, Sankhahuli Tamil : Kakattam, Kakkanangudi, Karakhuratt, Telugu : Shankhapushpi
  10. 10. Shankapushpi is an erect, branching annual, up to 60 cm high. Stems 4-winged. Leaves 2.5- 3.8 cm long,oblonglanceolate,acute 3-nerved,the branches erect rigid.Flowers white, those in the forks long-pedicelled; calyx8-13mm,long, winged;corolla tube as long as, 6-8 mm long, tipped by persistent style. Description MICROSCOPY Root - cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated, elliptical, parenchymatous cells and yellowish- brown, tanniniferous, secretory cells Present, phloem composed of sieve elements, phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Xylem consisting of usual elements, vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits fibres and tracheids present, medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length ,starch grains solitary are simple round to oval in shape measuring 3-8 μ in dia. Root - cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated, elliptical, parenchymatous cells and yellowish- brown, tanniniferous, secretory cells Present, phloem composed of sieve elements, phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Xylem consisting of usual elements, vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits fibres and tracheids present, medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length ,starch grains solitary are simple round to oval in shape measuring 3-8 μ in dia. POWDER MICROSCOPY simple pits, fibres and tracheids, simple and compound starch grains, measuring 3 - 8 μ in dia., unicellular hairs, mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. Chemical constituents: Aerial parts and flowering tops contain free xanthones,xanthone glucosides,-loliolide,methoxy-and hydroxy xanthones and its 3-O-rutinosyl derivative. Roots contain ß-amyrin, friedelin,gentianine,xanthones, and 16 xanthones including mangiferin.Ash of the herb shows salts containing iron, potassium, calcium, nitrates and carbonates
  11. 11. Uses :Useful as laxative, fresh juice is prescribed in insanity, epilepsy and nervous debility. prescribed as a blood purifier in syphilis,gonorrhoea.Root bark is used in compound preparations to strengthen the retentive power of brain and to alleviate leucorrhoeal and spermatorrhoeal discharge. S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 2 % 2 Total Ash Not more than 17 % 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 8 % 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 6 % 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 10 % IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Uses :Useful as laxative, fresh juice is prescribed in insanity, epilepsy and nervous debility. prescribed as a blood purifier in syphilis,gonorrhoea.Root bark is used in compound preparations to strengthen the retentive power of brain and to alleviate leucorrhoeal and spermatorrhoeal discharge. DOSE - 3-8 g. of the drug in powder form
  12. 12. Macroscopy:Fruits are colored berries,shatavari is a perennial, climbing shurb.stems are covered with spines (recurved),leaves are linear,green,needle like, roots are fascicle-clusters at base of stem. Color: Roots are silver-white-ash colored, Odor :None,Taste:starchy-bitter,sweet, Shape: spindle,Size:5-15 cm. SHATAVARI (Synonym :shatamuli)SHATAVARI (Synonym :shatamuli) Biological source: Dried roots of Asparagus racemosus belongs to the family Liliaceae It is widely cultivated in Asia,Australia,andIndia(Himalayan region at a altitude of 1300-1400 m) roots are collected from wild soure,also cultivated in gardens as potten plant. Macroscopy:Fruits are colored berries,shatavari is a perennial, climbing shurb.stems are covered with spines (recurved),leaves are linear,green,needle like, roots are fascicle-clusters at base of stem. Color: Roots are silver-white-ash colored, Odor :None,Taste:starchy-bitter,sweet, Shape: spindle,Size:5-15 cm.
  13. 13. VERNACULAR NAMES Sanskrit : Narayani Assamese : Satmull Bengali : Satamuli, Satmuli, Shatamuli English : Asparagus Gujrati : Satavari Hindi : Satavar, Satamul Kannada : Ashadi poeru, Halavu Bau, Narayani, Malayalam : Satavari Kizhangu Marathi : Shatavari Punjabi : Satavar Tamil : Shimai-Shadvari, Nilichedi Kishangu Telugu : Sima-Shatawari (Dry Root), Pippipichara, Pilliteegalu (Fresh Root) Urdu : Satawari Sanskrit : Narayani Assamese : Satmull Bengali : Satamuli, Satmuli, Shatamuli English : Asparagus Gujrati : Satavari Hindi : Satavar, Satamul Kannada : Ashadi poeru, Halavu Bau, Narayani, Malayalam : Satavari Kizhangu Marathi : Shatavari Punjabi : Satavar Tamil : Shimai-Shadvari, Nilichedi Kishangu Telugu : Sima-Shatawari (Dry Root), Pippipichara, Pilliteegalu (Fresh Root) Urdu : Satawari
  14. 14. MICROSCOPY Shows an outer layer of piliferous cells, ruptured at places, composed of small, thin-walled, rectangular asymetrical cells, a number of cells elongated to form unicellular root hairs cortex comprises of 25 to 29 layers, distinct in two zones, outer and inner cortex; outer cortex consists of 6 or 7 layers, compactly arranged, irregular to polygonal, thick walled, lignified cells, inner cortex comprise of 21 to 23 layers, stone cells, either singly or in groups, calcium oxalate also present in this region.2 or 3 layers of stone cells encircle the endodermis, endodermis composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.Xylem consist of vessels,tracheids and parenchyma, Phloem consists of usual element; pith composed of circular to oval parenchymatous cells, a few cells slightly lignified. Yellowish-cream; fragments of lignified, thick-walled cells; vessels with simple pits, pieces of raphides, numerous, lignified, rectangular elongated' stone cells having clear striations with wide as well as narrow lumen and groups of parenchyma. POWDER MICROSCOPY Yellowish-cream; fragments of lignified, thick-walled cells; vessels with simple pits, pieces of raphides, numerous, lignified, rectangular elongated' stone cells having clear striations with wide as well as narrow lumen and groups of parenchyma. 4-steroid saponins-Shatavarin-I,II,III,IV. Glycosides like Quercetin,rutin,hyperoside,diosgenin are present.Its principal constituents include saponins, sitosterol and stigmasterol with their glucosides, alkaloids, proteins and tannins. The plant contains the triterpene saponins called Shatavarin I-IV. The ingredients in the Shatavari plant include steroidal saponins, isoflavones, asparagamine A and polysaccharides. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTSCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
  15. 15. S.NO PARAMETER RANGE IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Uses: Roots used as Galactogoguge,tonics,and diuretics in AyurvedaUses: Roots used as Galactogoguge,tonics,and diuretics in Ayurveda DOSE - 3-6 gm of the drug. S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 1 % 2 Total Ash Not more than 5 % 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 0.5 % 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 10 % 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 45 %
  16. 16. color :-Leaves are green Taste:-Bitter Size :-around 2 cm shape-Leaves are entire,obovate,alternate,flowers are solitary- stalked. Seeds are minute, one sepal is large in out of five. BRAHMI Botanical source:Brhmi consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae a glabrous, succulent small, prostrate or creeping annual herb, found throughout India in wet and damp places. MACROSCOPY Root:-Thin,wiry,small,branched cream-yellow in color Stem:-Thin, green or purplish green, about 1-2 mm thick, soft, nodes and internodes prominent, glabrous; taste, slightly bitter. Leaf:Simple,opposite,decussate,green sessile,12cm,long,obovateoblong,taste slightly bitter. Flower:-Small,axillary and solitary, pedicels 6-30 mm long,bracteoles shorter than pedicels. Fruit:-Capsules up to 5 mm long, ovoid and glabrous. color :-Leaves are green Taste:-Bitter Size :-around 2 cm shape-Leaves are entire,obovate,alternate,flowers are solitary- stalked. Seeds are minute, one sepal is large in out of five. Root:-Thin,wiry,small,branched cream-yellow in color Stem:-Thin, green or purplish green, about 1-2 mm thick, soft, nodes and internodes prominent, glabrous; taste, slightly bitter. Leaf:Simple,opposite,decussate,green sessile,12cm,long,obovateoblong,taste slightly bitter. Flower:-Small,axillary and solitary, pedicels 6-30 mm long,bracteoles shorter than pedicels. Fruit:-Capsules up to 5 mm long, ovoid and glabrous.
  17. 17. VERNACULAR NAMES Sanskrit : Sarasvati Assamese : Brahmi English : Thyme Leaved Gratiola Gujrati : Neerbrahmi, Bamanevari Hindi : Manduka Parni Kannada : Nirubrahmi, Valabrahmi, Ondelaga, Mandukaparni Malayalam : Bhahmi Marathi : Jalnam, Brahmi, Birami Oriya : Brahmi Punjabi : Brahmibuti Tamil : Nirabrahmi, Brahmi vazhukkai Telugu : Sambarenu, Sambrani Urdu : Brahmi Sanskrit : Sarasvati Assamese : Brahmi English : Thyme Leaved Gratiola Gujrati : Neerbrahmi, Bamanevari Hindi : Manduka Parni Kannada : Nirubrahmi, Valabrahmi, Ondelaga, Mandukaparni Malayalam : Bhahmi Marathi : Jalnam, Brahmi, Birami Oriya : Brahmi Punjabi : Brahmibuti Tamil : Nirabrahmi, Brahmi vazhukkai Telugu : Sambarenu, Sambrani Urdu : Brahmi
  18. 18. Root:-Shows a single layer of epidermis, cortex having large air cavities Endodermis is single layered pericycle not distinct. Stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. Stem:-Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Vascular ring composed of a narrow zone of Phloem, a wide ring of xylem towards centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.Starch grains are simple, round to oval measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. MICROSCOPY Leaf :-Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle, glandular hairs, subsidiary cells present on both surfaces,a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells, mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath; no distinct midrib present. Root:-Shows a single layer of epidermis, cortex having large air cavities Endodermis is single layered pericycle not distinct. Stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. Stem:-Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Vascular ring composed of a narrow zone of Phloem, a wide ring of xylem towards centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.Starch grains are simple, round to oval measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. Leaf :-Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle, glandular hairs, subsidiary cells present on both surfaces,a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells, mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath; no distinct midrib present. Powder microscopy:- shows yellowish brown, shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening, glandular hairs,simple,round and oval starch grains, measuring 4-14 µ in diameter.
  19. 19. S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 2 % 2 Total Ash Not more than 18 % 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 6 % 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 6 % 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 15 % IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Chemical constituents:Alkaloids of Brahmine.Herpestine,saponins,Bacosides,A&B also contains Stigma sterol,Bacogenin,A and B 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 15 % DOSE :- 1-3 g in powder form. Uses: Nervine tonic.used to treat Asthma and Epilepsy, also acts as Anti-ulcer
  20. 20. GOKHURU Synonym: Puncturevine,Tribulus,Goksura. Biological source: It consists ripe fruits and roots of Tribulus terrestris Linn. belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae. Which is a common weed of the road sides and other waste land,chiefly growing in hot,dry and sandy regions throughout India and up to 3,000 m in Kashmir. It consists of Not less than 0.5% Diosgenin.widely cultivates in India, Srilanka Color: Greenish-grey fruits yellow to light brown. Odour: odourless or aromatic, Taste:-Sweetish and astringent. Size:7-18 cm long and 0.3-0.7 cm in diameter, Shape:Globules,5-10 woody,cocci, roots are slender, cylindrical, fibrous, frequently branched. Fracture:- Fibrous, tough, woody and surface becomes rough due to presence of small nodules. Synonym: Puncturevine,Tribulus,Goksura. Biological source: It consists ripe fruits and roots of Tribulus terrestris Linn. belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae. Which is a common weed of the road sides and other waste land,chiefly growing in hot,dry and sandy regions throughout India and up to 3,000 m in Kashmir. It consists of Not less than 0.5% Diosgenin.widely cultivates in India, Srilanka Macroscopy Color: Greenish-grey fruits yellow to light brown. Odour: odourless or aromatic, Taste:-Sweetish and astringent. Size:7-18 cm long and 0.3-0.7 cm in diameter, Shape:Globules,5-10 woody,cocci, roots are slender, cylindrical, fibrous, frequently branched. Fracture:- Fibrous, tough, woody and surface becomes rough due to presence of small nodules.
  21. 21. VERNACULAR NAMES Sanskrit :svadamistra Assamese : Gokhurkata, Gokshura Bengali : Gokhri, Gokshura English : Caltrops fruit Gujrati : Bethagokharu, Mithagokhru, Hindi : Gokhru Kannada : Neggilamullu, Neggilu, Kashmiri : Pakhda, Michikand Malayalam : Nerinjil Marathi : Gokharu, Sarate Oriya : Gokhyura, Gukhura Tamil : Nerinjil, Nerunjil Telugu : Palleru Kaya Urdu : Khar-e-Khasak Khurd Sanskrit :svadamistra Assamese : Gokhurkata, Gokshura Bengali : Gokhri, Gokshura English : Caltrops fruit Gujrati : Bethagokharu, Mithagokhru, Hindi : Gokhru Kannada : Neggilamullu, Neggilu, Kashmiri : Pakhda, Michikand Malayalam : Nerinjil Marathi : Gokharu, Sarate Oriya : Gokhyura, Gukhura Tamil : Nerinjil, Nerunjil Telugu : Palleru Kaya Urdu : Khar-e-Khasak Khurd
  22. 22. Transverse section of primary roots show a layer of epidermis followed by 4-5 layers of thin-walled parenchymatous cortex. Endodermis is distinct with pericycle enclosing stele, in mature root, cork is 4-6 layered, cork cambium single layered followed by 6-14 layers of thin-walled parenchymatous cells with varying number of fibres found in groups resembling those of phloem. Secondary phloem divided into two zones, outer zone characterized by presence of numerous phloem fibres with a few sieve tubes slightly collapsed, inner zone frequently made up of parenchymatous singles or doubles layers towards inner side, in groups of three to four on outer side having bordered pits, Tracheids are long,narrow with simple pits, xylem parenchyma rectangular or slightly elongated with simple pits and reticulate thickening, xylem fibres few, trachieds elongated with simple pits. Medullary rays heterogenous, 1-4 cells wide, starch grains and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex, phloem and medullary rays cells, few prismatic crystals also present in xylem ray cells. MICROSCOPY Transverse section of primary roots show a layer of epidermis followed by 4-5 layers of thin-walled parenchymatous cortex. Endodermis is distinct with pericycle enclosing stele, in mature root, cork is 4-6 layered, cork cambium single layered followed by 6-14 layers of thin-walled parenchymatous cells with varying number of fibres found in groups resembling those of phloem. Secondary phloem divided into two zones, outer zone characterized by presence of numerous phloem fibres with a few sieve tubes slightly collapsed, inner zone frequently made up of parenchymatous singles or doubles layers towards inner side, in groups of three to four on outer side having bordered pits, Tracheids are long,narrow with simple pits, xylem parenchyma rectangular or slightly elongated with simple pits and reticulate thickening, xylem fibres few, trachieds elongated with simple pits. Medullary rays heterogenous, 1-4 cells wide, starch grains and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex, phloem and medullary rays cells, few prismatic crystals also present in xylem ray cells.
  23. 23. S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 2 % 2 Total Ash Not more than 13 % 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 3 % 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 4 % IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Uses: it is used as Diuretic,tonic,Aphrodisiac, Chemical constituents:Diosgenin,Teresterosin A,B and Gitogenin. DOSE - 20-30 g of the drug for decoction.DOSE - 20-30 g of the drug for decoction. 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 4 % 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 10 %
  24. 24. Root-10-45 cm long, few mm to two cm in diameter, almost cylindrical and tapering, bearing a number of fine longitudinal and few transverse wrinkles with occasional scars. Stem-herbaceous, prickly with prominent nodes and internodes, color-green when fresh, external surface is light green when dry becomes yellowish green and smooth. size-stem pieces 8-10 mm thick of variable length, centre shows a large and distinct, pith. Synonym: Yellow-fruit night shade Biological source: Kantakari consists of mature,dried whole plant of Solanum xanthocarpum belonging to the family Solanaceae, which is a perennial herb,very prickly diffused herb of waste land, found throughout India. KANTAKARIKANTAKARI MACROSCOPYMACROSCOPY Root-10-45 cm long, few mm to two cm in diameter, almost cylindrical and tapering, bearing a number of fine longitudinal and few transverse wrinkles with occasional scars. Stem-herbaceous, prickly with prominent nodes and internodes, color-green when fresh, external surface is light green when dry becomes yellowish green and smooth. size-stem pieces 8-10 mm thick of variable length, centre shows a large and distinct, pith. Leaves Fruits Seeds Flower
  25. 25. VERNACULAR NAMES Sansktit:vyagri,kasudra Assamese : Katvaedana, Kantakar Bengali : Kantakari English : Febrifuge plant Gujrati : Bharingani Hindi : Katai, Katali, Ringani, Bhatakataiya, Kannada : Nelagulla, Kiragulla Malayalam : Kantakari chunda Marathi : Bhauringani, Kataringani Oriya : Bhejibaugana, Ankarati, Chakada Bhoji Punjabi : Kandiari Tamil : Kandangatri, Kandankatri, Telugu : Nelamulaka, Pinnamulaka, Mulaka, Sansktit:vyagri,kasudra Assamese : Katvaedana, Kantakar Bengali : Kantakari English : Febrifuge plant Gujrati : Bharingani Hindi : Katai, Katali, Ringani, Bhatakataiya, Kannada : Nelagulla, Kiragulla Malayalam : Kantakari chunda Marathi : Bhauringani, Kataringani Oriya : Bhejibaugana, Ankarati, Chakada Bhoji Punjabi : Kandiari Tamil : Kandangatri, Kandankatri, Telugu : Nelamulaka, Pinnamulaka, Mulaka,
  26. 26. Leaves:- Petiolate,exstipulate,ovate- oblong,elliptic, sinuate or sub-pinnatifid, sub acute hairy, 4- 12.5 cm long and 2-7.5cm wide,green,veins and midrib full with sharp prickles,odour and taste not distinct. Flower:- Ebracteate,pedicellate,bisexual,pentamerous,r egular,complete,bright,blue or bluish-purple, Calyx:- persistent,gamosepalous,short,globose,linearl anceolate,acute,hairy,0.5-1.3 cm long and densely prickly, Corolla:- Gamopetalous,lobesdeltoid,acute,hairy,1-2 cm long and purple in colour, stamens are 5,epipetalous, basifixed,filament short 1-1.5 mm long, anther, oblong lanceolate,0.7-0.8 cm long, ovary superior, ovoid, glabrous, bilocular with axile placentation having numerous ovules. Fruit:- Berry globular, measuring 0.8-1 cm in diameter, surrounded by persistent calyx at base unripe fruits are with green and white strips, ripe fruit shows different yellow and white shades. Flower:- Ebracteate,pedicellate,bisexual,pentamerous,r egular,complete,bright,blue or bluish-purple, Calyx:- persistent,gamosepalous,short,globose,linearl anceolate,acute,hairy,0.5-1.3 cm long and densely prickly, Corolla:- Gamopetalous,lobesdeltoid,acute,hairy,1-2 cm long and purple in colour, stamens are 5,epipetalous, basifixed,filament short 1-1.5 mm long, anther, oblong lanceolate,0.7-0.8 cm long, ovary superior, ovoid, glabrous, bilocular with axile placentation having numerous ovules. Seeds:- Circular, flat, numerous, embedded in a fleshy mesocarp about 0.2cm,diam glabrous taste, bitter and acrid. Fruit:- Berry globular, measuring 0.8-1 cm in diameter, surrounded by persistent calyx at base unripe fruits are with green and white strips, ripe fruit shows different yellow and white shades.
  27. 27. Root- transverse section of mature root shows cork composing of 3-6 layers of thinwalled,rectangular and tangentially elongated cells, cork cambium single layered followed by 6-15 layers of thin-walled tangentially elongated to oval or circular parenchymatous cells. stone cells either single or in groups of 2-20.Secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by medullary rays, stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-20 or more in outer, and middle phloem regions.  phloem rays 1-4 cells wide and 2-22 cells high, cambium 3-5 layered of thin- walled rectangular cells, xylem composed of vessels,tracheids, fibre trachieds, parenchyma and transversed by medullary rays, all elements being lignified, xylem parenchyma rectangular or lightly elongated with simple pits and rarely with.Microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains present MICROSCOPYMICROSCOPY Root- transverse section of mature root shows cork composing of 3-6 layers of thinwalled,rectangular and tangentially elongated cells, cork cambium single layered followed by 6-15 layers of thin-walled tangentially elongated to oval or circular parenchymatous cells. stone cells either single or in groups of 2-20.Secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by medullary rays, stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-20 or more in outer, and middle phloem regions.  phloem rays 1-4 cells wide and 2-22 cells high, cambium 3-5 layered of thin- walled rectangular cells, xylem composed of vessels,tracheids, fibre trachieds, parenchyma and transversed by medullary rays, all elements being lignified, xylem parenchyma rectangular or lightly elongated with simple pits and rarely with.Microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains present
  28. 28. S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 2% 2 Total Ash Not more than 9% 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 3% IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Greenish, under microscope shows single or groups of stone cells,pitted vessels, groups of spongy parenchyma, fragments of palisade tissue, aniso cytic stomata, stellate hairs and simple, rounded to oval starch grains measuring 2.75-11μ . POWDER MICROSCOPY 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 3% 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 6% 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 16% DOSE - 20-30 g of the drug for decoction. Uses: Used as febriguge,Used to treat cough,asthma. Used to treat anthelmentic,anti-pyretic and anti-spasmodic Constituents - Glucoalkaloids and sterols.
  29. 29. •Fruit are sub-globose, 5-18 cm in diameter, externally greenish when young, yellowish-brown when ripe, hard and woody, surface is smooth or slightly granular bearing a circular scar at the point of attachment with peduncle, •Carpels are 10-15, central, each containing several hairy seeds embedded in yellowish brown, extremely sticky mucilage. •Seeds are oblong, flat, woody, and having white hair, fresh pulp of ripe fruit, brown, of sticky. Odour:faintly aromatic, Taste:Mucilaginous &slightly astringent. BILWABILWA Synonym: sacred herb, Stone apple, Wood apple. Biological source: Bilva consists of pulp of entire, unripe or half ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos belonging to the family Rutaceae a tree, attaining a height of 12 m growing wild and also cultivated throughout the country, rind of fruit is removed and pulp is bruised and dried. Description: •Fruit are sub-globose, 5-18 cm in diameter, externally greenish when young, yellowish-brown when ripe, hard and woody, surface is smooth or slightly granular bearing a circular scar at the point of attachment with peduncle, •Carpels are 10-15, central, each containing several hairy seeds embedded in yellowish brown, extremely sticky mucilage. •Seeds are oblong, flat, woody, and having white hair, fresh pulp of ripe fruit, brown, of sticky. Odour:faintly aromatic, Taste:Mucilaginous &slightly astringent. Synonym: sacred herb, Stone apple, Wood apple. Biological source: Bilva consists of pulp of entire, unripe or half ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos belonging to the family Rutaceae a tree, attaining a height of 12 m growing wild and also cultivated throughout the country, rind of fruit is removed and pulp is bruised and dried. A ripe bael fruits
  30. 30. VERNACULAR NAMES Sanskrit : sriphala Assamese : Bael, Vael Bengali : Bela, Bilva English : Bengal Quince, Bael Gujrati : Bill, Bilum Hindi : Bela, Sriphal, Bel Kannada : Bilva Malayalam : Koovalam Marathi : Bel, Baela Oriya : Bela Punjabi : Bil Tamil : Vilvam Telugu : Maredu Urdu : Belgiri, (Bael) Sanskrit : sriphala Assamese : Bael, Vael Bengali : Bela, Bilva English : Bengal Quince, Bael Gujrati : Bill, Bilum Hindi : Bela, Sriphal, Bel Kannada : Bilva Malayalam : Koovalam Marathi : Bel, Baela Oriya : Bela Punjabi : Bil Tamil : Vilvam Telugu : Maredu Urdu : Belgiri, (Bael)
  31. 31. IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Total Ash Not more than 4% 2 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1% 3 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 6% 4 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 50% Constituents - Marmalosin, tannins, mucilage, fatty oil and sugar. Uses: Used to treat Constipation,Giardia,rptovirus. Constituents - Marmalosin, tannins, mucilage, fatty oil and sugar. Uses: Used to treat Constipation,Giardia,rptovirus. DOSE - 2-6 g. of the drug in powder form.
  32. 32. APAMARGHA Synonym: Devils-horse whip. Biological source:Apamarga consists of dried root of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Belonging to the family Amaranthaceae a stiff erect, 0.1-0.9 m high, herb found commonly as a weed throughout the country up to 900 m. Shape & size:Tap root cylindrical slightly ribbed, up to 1.0 cm in thickness, Texture:Rough due to presence of some root scars Color:Yellowish-brown Odour: Not distinct Taste:Not characteristic. MACROSCOPY
  33. 33. Sansk : Adhasyala, Assam : Chirchita Beng : Apang Eng : Prickly Chaff Flower Guj : Aghedo Hindi : Chirchira, Latjira Kan : Uttarane, Uttaren Mal : Kadaledee Mar : Anghada Punj : Puthakanda, Lattajeera Tam : Nayuruvi Tel : Uttareni Urdu : Chirchita VERNACULAR NAMES Sansk : Adhasyala, Assam : Chirchita Beng : Apang Eng : Prickly Chaff Flower Guj : Aghedo Hindi : Chirchira, Latjira Kan : Uttarane, Uttaren Mal : Kadaledee Mar : Anghada Punj : Puthakanda, Lattajeera Tam : Nayuruvi Tel : Uttareni Urdu : Chirchita
  34. 34. Mature root shows 6-10 layered, rectangular, tangentially elongated, thin- walled cork cells. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers, oval to rectangular, thin-walled parenchymatous cells having scattered, thick-walled, irregular lignified stone cells,followed by 5-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening, composed of vascular tissues small patches of sieve tubes are distinct in the phloem parenchyma demarcating the xylem rings. secondary xylem composed of tracheids, fibres and parenchyma; vessels with both simple and bordered pits and with scalariform thickening, measuring 135- 348 μ in length and 32-64 μ in width fibres pointed at both ends with walls moderately thickened, measuring 260-740 μ in length and 12-24 μ in width,tracheids have tapering ends, measuring 165-535 μ in length and 17-34 μ in width. MICROSCOPY Mature root shows 6-10 layered, rectangular, tangentially elongated, thin- walled cork cells. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers, oval to rectangular, thin-walled parenchymatous cells having scattered, thick-walled, irregular lignified stone cells,followed by 5-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening, composed of vascular tissues small patches of sieve tubes are distinct in the phloem parenchyma demarcating the xylem rings. secondary xylem composed of tracheids, fibres and parenchyma; vessels with both simple and bordered pits and with scalariform thickening, measuring 135- 348 μ in length and 32-64 μ in width fibres pointed at both ends with walls moderately thickened, measuring 260-740 μ in length and 12-24 μ in width,tracheids have tapering ends, measuring 165-535 μ in length and 17-34 μ in width.
  35. 35. Shows Yellowish-brown fragments of rectangular cork cells, stone cells, vessels showing bordered pits and scalariform thickening, fibres and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 1% 2 Total Ash Not more than 9% POWDER STUDY 2 Total Ash Not more than 9% 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1% 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 2% 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 10% Uses :  Used to treat piles,  Used as expectorant,  Used as anti-dote for snake poison,  Used as GIT tonic DOSE - 5-10 g
  36. 36. RASNA Biological source:Rasna consists of dried leaf of Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiern,belonging to the family Asteraceae an annual, ashy and pubescent, under shrub having spreading roots extending to several metres it grows abundantly in sandy soils in upper Gangetic plain and Rajasthan. It flowers during cold season. Leaves are simple, 3-5 cm long, 0.6-2 cm broad,sessile,obtuse,lanceolate&ovate lanceolate,margin entire or toothed around the apex, unequal at base both surfaces pubescent, distinct small hairs more prominent near veins, Odour: characteristic, Taste: astringent and slightly bitter. Texture: brittle,papery MACROSCOPY Leaves are simple, 3-5 cm long, 0.6-2 cm broad,sessile,obtuse,lanceolate&ovate lanceolate,margin entire or toothed around the apex, unequal at base both surfaces pubescent, distinct small hairs more prominent near veins, Odour: characteristic, Taste: astringent and slightly bitter. Texture: brittle,papery
  37. 37. VERNACULAR NAMES Sansk. : Sugandhi Assam. : Rasnapat Beng. : Rasna Hindi. : Rayasan, Rayasana, Rasna Kan. : Rasna, Dumme-Rasna Mar. : Rasna, Rayasana Punj. : Reshae Tel. : Sanna Rashtramu Urdu. : Rauasan, Rasna Sansk. : Sugandhi Assam. : Rasnapat Beng. : Rasna Hindi. : Rayasan, Rayasana, Rasna Kan. : Rasna, Dumme-Rasna Mar. : Rasna, Rayasana Punj. : Reshae Tel. : Sanna Rashtramu Urdu. : Rauasan, Rasna
  38. 38. Midrib-shows single layered epidermis covered by thick,striated cuticle. collenchyma 2-5 layered towards xylem,1-3 layered towards phloem, beneath collenchyma 2-5 layers of parenchyma present on both sides. Central portion occupied by a large vascular bundle, xylem facing towards upper and phloem towards lower epidermis. Vascular bundle surrounded by sclerenchymatous sheath appearing as a cap above and below vascular bundle consists of wide phloem, a thin cambium and xylem. Phloem consists of phloem parenchyma and a few phloem fibres. Xylem consists of tracheids, vessels and xylem parenchyma, vessels arranged radially. Parenchyma and palisade cells of leaf contain oil globules, scattered rosette crystals of calcium oxalate are both in lamina and midrib MICROSCOPY Midrib-shows single layered epidermis covered by thick,striated cuticle. collenchyma 2-5 layered towards xylem,1-3 layered towards phloem, beneath collenchyma 2-5 layers of parenchyma present on both sides. Central portion occupied by a large vascular bundle, xylem facing towards upper and phloem towards lower epidermis. Vascular bundle surrounded by sclerenchymatous sheath appearing as a cap above and below vascular bundle consists of wide phloem, a thin cambium and xylem. Phloem consists of phloem parenchyma and a few phloem fibres. Xylem consists of tracheids, vessels and xylem parenchyma, vessels arranged radially. Parenchyma and palisade cells of leaf contain oil globules, scattered rosette crystals of calcium oxalate are both in lamina and midrib
  39. 39. Light green; shows fragments of parenchyma, palisade cells, pointed 2-5 celled trichomes, a few oil globules and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than -2% 2 Total Ash Not more than -22% POWDER MICROSCOPY 2 Total Ash Not more than -22% 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than- 7% 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than -8% 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than -23% Uses :Used as stimulant, carminative Constituents –α-Pinene, Eugenol,Alpinol DOSE - 25-50 g. (Decoction).
  40. 40. Biological source: Guduchi consists of dried, matured pieces of stem of Tinospora cordifolia belonging to the family Menispermaceae, a perennial climber found through out tropical India, drug collected during summer preferably in the month of May, drug is used in fresh form also. GUDUCHI Taste:-Bitter Size and shape:-Pieces of varying thickness ranging from 0.6-5 cm in diameter, Color:-young stems green with smooth surfaces and swelling at nodes, older ones show a light brown surface marked with warty protuberances due to circular lenticels, Fracture:-Transversely,smoothened surface shows a radial structure with conspicuous medullary rays traversing porous tissues. MACROSCOPYMACROSCOPY Taste:-Bitter Size and shape:-Pieces of varying thickness ranging from 0.6-5 cm in diameter, Color:-young stems green with smooth surfaces and swelling at nodes, older ones show a light brown surface marked with warty protuberances due to circular lenticels, Fracture:-Transversely,smoothened surface shows a radial structure with conspicuous medullary rays traversing porous tissues.
  41. 41. Sanskrit : Amrtvalli Amrti, Madhupar . Assamese : Siddhilata, Amarlata Bengali : Gulancha Gujrati : Galac, Garo Hindi : Giloe, Gurcha Kannada : Amrutaballi Kashmiri : Amrita, Gilo Malayalam : Chittamrutu Marathi : Gulvel Oriya : Guluchi Punjabi : Gilo Tamil : Seendal, Seendil kodi Telugu : Thippateega Urdu : Gilo VERNACULAR NAMES Sanskrit : Amrtvalli Amrti, Madhupar . Assamese : Siddhilata, Amarlata Bengali : Gulancha Gujrati : Galac, Garo Hindi : Giloe, Gurcha Kannada : Amrutaballi Kashmiri : Amrita, Gilo Malayalam : Chittamrutu Marathi : Gulvel Oriya : Guluchi Punjabi : Gilo Tamil : Seendal, Seendil kodi Telugu : Thippateega Urdu : Gilo
  42. 42. Transverse section of stem shows outer-most layer of cork, differentiating into outer zone of thick-walled brownish and compressed cells, inner zone of thin walled colorless, tangentially arranged 3-4 rows of cells, Outer zone of cortex consists of 3--5 rows of irregularly arranged, tangentially elongated chlorenchymatous cells, cortical cells situated towards inner side, polygonal in shape and filled with plenty 2-4 components, several secretory cells, found scattered in the cortex, pericyclic fibres are lignified, Vascular zone composed of 10-12 or more wedge-shaped strips of xylem, externally surrounded by semi-circular strips of phloem, phloem consists of sieve tube, companion cells and phloem parenchyma of polygonal or tangentially elongated cells, some of them contain cryste1s of calcium oxalate, Starch grains of 5.5-11.20 μ in diameter and 6-11.28 μ in length,pith composed of large, thin-walled cells mostly containing starch grains. MICROSCOPY Transverse section of stem shows outer-most layer of cork, differentiating into outer zone of thick-walled brownish and compressed cells, inner zone of thin walled colorless, tangentially arranged 3-4 rows of cells, Outer zone of cortex consists of 3--5 rows of irregularly arranged, tangentially elongated chlorenchymatous cells, cortical cells situated towards inner side, polygonal in shape and filled with plenty 2-4 components, several secretory cells, found scattered in the cortex, pericyclic fibres are lignified, Vascular zone composed of 10-12 or more wedge-shaped strips of xylem, externally surrounded by semi-circular strips of phloem, phloem consists of sieve tube, companion cells and phloem parenchyma of polygonal or tangentially elongated cells, some of them contain cryste1s of calcium oxalate, Starch grains of 5.5-11.20 μ in diameter and 6-11.28 μ in length,pith composed of large, thin-walled cells mostly containing starch grains.
  43. 43. IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 2 % 2 Total Ash Not more than 16 % 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 3 % 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 % 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 % For dried Drug For fresh DrugFor fresh Drug S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Nil 2 Moisture content 75% Constituents - Terpenoid and alkaloids. Uses :Used as rejuvent,ans also enhance memory, Guduchi improves skin luster. DOSE - 3-6 g of the drug in powder form. 20-30 g of the drug for decoction. DOSE - 3-6 g of the drug in powder form. 20-30 g of the drug for decoction.
  44. 44. METHI-(Fenugreek) Biological source: Methi consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum belonging to the family Fabaceae an aromatic 30-60 cm tall, annual herb, cultivated throughout the India . Color:-Dull yellow Odour:- Pleasant; Taste:-Bitter. Shape and structure:-Seed are oblong, rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side, dividing seed into a larger and smaller part, Size:-0.2-0.5cm long, 0.15-0.35 cm broad, Texture:-smooth, very hard Extrafeature:-seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water; MACROSCOPY Color:-Dull yellow Odour:- Pleasant; Taste:-Bitter. Shape and structure:-Seed are oblong, rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side, dividing seed into a larger and smaller part, Size:-0.2-0.5cm long, 0.15-0.35 cm broad, Texture:-smooth, very hard Extrafeature:-seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water; SEEDS
  45. 45. Sanskrit : Methini English : Fenugreek Gujrati : Methi Hindi : Methi Kannada : Menthe, Mente Malayalam : Uluva Marathi : Methi Punjabi : Methi Tamil : Mendium, Ventaiyam Telugu : Mentulu Urdu : Methi VERNACULAR NAMES Sanskrit : Methini English : Fenugreek Gujrati : Methi Hindi : Methi Kannada : Menthe, Mente Malayalam : Uluva Marathi : Methi Punjabi : Methi Tamil : Mendium, Ventaiyam Telugu : Mentulu Urdu : Methi
  46. 46. Seed shows a layer of thick- walled, columnar palisade, covered externally with thick cuticle. Cells are flat at base mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings; followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells. Endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains, several layers of thin walled, mucilaginous cells, varying in size, long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. Cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. MICROSCOPY Seed shows a layer of thick- walled, columnar palisade, covered externally with thick cuticle. Cells are flat at base mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings; followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells. Endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains, several layers of thin walled, mucilaginous cells, varying in size, long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. Cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.
  47. 47. Shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells, aleurone grains, oil globules, endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 2 % 2 Total Ash Not more than 4 % 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 0.5 % POWDER MICROSCOPY 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 0.5 % 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 5 % Constituents - Alkaloid, Sapogenins (Trigonelloside)and Mucilage. Yemogenin,flavonoides (Trigofoenoside- A-G) DOSE - 3-6 g. of the drug in powder form. Uses : Methi acts as Carminative, Febrifuge and Demulcent
  48. 48. GUGGUL (Commiphora,Mukul) Biological source:Guggul consists of exudates of Commiphora wightii belonging to the family Burseraceae,a small perennial tree or shrub up to 1.2-1.8 m hight,occuring in rocky tracts of Rajasthan,Gujarat,exudate is collected during winter season by making the incisions in the bark or in summer. Shrubs are small thorny contains simple leaves, flowers are bisexual Color:- pale yellow or brown colored pieces. Odour:-Aromatic Taste:-bitter and astringent. Drug makes milky emulsion in hot water. MACROSCOPY Shrubs are small thorny contains simple leaves, flowers are bisexual Color:- pale yellow or brown colored pieces. Odour:-Aromatic Taste:-bitter and astringent. Drug makes milky emulsion in hot water.
  49. 49. Sanskrit : Pura mahisaksa Assamese : Guggul Bengali : Guggula English : Gum-gugul, Indian Bdellium Gujrati : Gugal, Guggal, Gugar Hindi : Guggul Kannada : Kanthagana, Guggala, Mahishaksha , Guggulugida, Kashmiri : Guggul Dhoop, Kanth Gan Malayalam : Gulgulu, Guggulu Marathi : Guggul, Mahishaksh Tamil : Mahisaksi Guggalu Telugu : Makishakshi guggulu, Guggipannu Urdu : Muqil (Shihappu) VERNACULAR NAMES Sanskrit : Pura mahisaksa Assamese : Guggul Bengali : Guggula English : Gum-gugul, Indian Bdellium Gujrati : Gugal, Guggal, Gugar Hindi : Guggul Kannada : Kanthagana, Guggala, Mahishaksha , Guggulugida, Kashmiri : Guggul Dhoop, Kanth Gan Malayalam : Gulgulu, Guggulu Marathi : Guggul, Mahishaksh Tamil : Mahisaksi Guggalu Telugu : Makishakshi guggulu, Guggipannu Urdu : Muqil (Shihappu)
  50. 50. IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH S.NO PARAMETER RANGE 1 Foreign matter Not more than 4 % 2 Total Ash Not more than 5 % 3 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 % 4 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 27 % 5 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 53 % 6 Volatile oil Not less than 1 %6 Volatile oil Not less than 1 % Constituents -Essential oil, gum, resin, steroids. DOSE - 2-4 g of the drug in powder form. Uses :Used to treat Hyperlipidemia,also used to treat Anti-inflammatory Used in treatment of diseases like CVC,Cancer,Obesity and Diabetis
  51. 51. TYLOPHORATYLOPHORA Botanical source:-Leaves and roots of Tylophora indica,belonging to the family Asclepiadaceae found in throughout India, in the plains, forests, hilly slopes and outskirts of the forest up to 900m. Description: A twinning perennial herb Stem densely tomentose, slender, longitudinally striated with branches arising from axil of leaves. Leaves are thick, cauline, opposite, simple entire, acute and base cordate; glabrous ventrally and pubescent dorsally. Flowers greenish-yellow outside, purplish within, in many flowered umbels(dichasialcyme).Fruit a follicle, fusiform, divaricate, up to 10 cm, striate; seed ovate, elongated into a coma, 2 to 2.5cm; silky hairs at one end. Indian ipecacuahna Description: A twinning perennial herb Stem densely tomentose, slender, longitudinally striated with branches arising from axil of leaves. Leaves are thick, cauline, opposite, simple entire, acute and base cordate; glabrous ventrally and pubescent dorsally. Flowers greenish-yellow outside, purplish within, in many flowered umbels(dichasialcyme).Fruit a follicle, fusiform, divaricate, up to 10 cm, striate; seed ovate, elongated into a coma, 2 to 2.5cm; silky hairs at one end. Sanskrit: Arkaparni, Lataksiri, Shwasaghni Hindi: अंतमूल Antamul, Jangli pikvam Telugu: Kakapala, Tellayadala, Verripala VERNACULAR NAMES
  52. 52. Dorsiventral Stomata and multicellular hairs absent on upper epidermis but present on lower epidermis. Trichomes striated, upper epidermal cells longer than lower epidermal cells. Palisade 2 to 4 cell wide followed by is diametric parenchymatous cells.In mid-rib arc- shaped, stele conjoint, collateral, open, encircled by sclerenchyma patches cambium 2 to 3 layered with phloem towards dorsal side; numerous scattered aggregates of microcrystals, collenchymas present below the epidermis in the midst and at the margins below the epidermis. Laticiferous ducts also present below palisade tissue. Lateral vein bundles surrounded by parenchymatous sheath but without cambium. Stomata Paracytic. Stomatal index 88.76 to 91.68; vein islet number 10 to 13 per sq.mm. Palisade ratio 4.25 to 6.00. Petiole circular in outline in transection. Epidermis 1 layered with 2 to 4 celled hairs. Collenchymas 5 to 7 layered followed by isodiametric parenchymatous tissues. Vascular bundle arc-shaped and dorse-convex; sclerenchyma patches on both sides. MICROSCOPYMICROSCOPY Dorsiventral Stomata and multicellular hairs absent on upper epidermis but present on lower epidermis. Trichomes striated, upper epidermal cells longer than lower epidermal cells. Palisade 2 to 4 cell wide followed by is diametric parenchymatous cells.In mid-rib arc- shaped, stele conjoint, collateral, open, encircled by sclerenchyma patches cambium 2 to 3 layered with phloem towards dorsal side; numerous scattered aggregates of microcrystals, collenchymas present below the epidermis in the midst and at the margins below the epidermis. Laticiferous ducts also present below palisade tissue. Lateral vein bundles surrounded by parenchymatous sheath but without cambium. Stomata Paracytic. Stomatal index 88.76 to 91.68; vein islet number 10 to 13 per sq.mm. Palisade ratio 4.25 to 6.00. Petiole circular in outline in transection. Epidermis 1 layered with 2 to 4 celled hairs. Collenchymas 5 to 7 layered followed by isodiametric parenchymatous tissues. Vascular bundle arc-shaped and dorse-convex; sclerenchyma patches on both sides. Chemical constituents:-The major constituent in Tylophora is the alkaloid tylophorine. Uses : The leaves and roots have emetic, cathartic, laxative, expectorant, It has also been used for the treatment of allergies, cold, dysentery, hay fever and arthritis. Traditionally used as a folk remedy in certain regions of India for the treatment of bronchial asthma , inflammation , bronchitis, allergies, rheumatism and dermatitis.

×