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DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM IN NANO GREEN

A nanocarrier is nano material being used as a transport module for another substance, such as a drug. Commonly used nanocarriers include micelles, polymers, carbon-based materials, liposomes and other substances.Nanocarriers are currently used in drug delivery and their unique characteristics demonstrate potential use in chemotherapy. Nanocarriers include polymer conjugates, polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold Nanoparticles.Lipid-based carriers include both liposomes and micelles. Examples of gold nanoparticles are gold nanoshells and nanocages.Different types of nonmaterial being used in nano carriers allows for hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to be delivered throughout the body. potential problem with nanocarriers is unwanted toxicity from the type of nonmaterial being used. Inorganic nonmaterial can also be toxic to the human body if it accumulates in certain cell organelles new research is being conducted to invent more effective, safer nanocarriers. Nano pharmaceuticals offer the ability to detect diseases at much earlier stages and the diagnostic applications could build upon conventional procedures using nano particles. Nano pharmaceuticals represent an emerging field where the sizes of the drug particle or a therapeutic delivery system work at the nanoscale. Nano pharmaceuticals have enormous potential in addressing this failure of traditional therapeutics which offers site-specific targeting of active agents. Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample. Multicolor optical coding for biological assays has been achieved by embedding different-sized quantum dots into polymeric microbeads. Nan pore technology for analysis of nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into electronic signatures.C-dots (Cornell dots) are the smallest silica-based nanoparticles with the size <10 nm. There are three main reasons for the popularity of herbal medicine 1. There is a growing concern over the reliance and safety of drugs. 2. Modern medicine is failing to effectively treat many of the most common health condition. 3. Many natural measures are being shown to produce better results than drugs or surgery without the side effects

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DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM IN NANO GREEN
1
K.Sudheer Kumar,
Assistant professor.
Dept.of Pharmacognosy
Chilkur Balaji college of Pharmacy
Hyderabad.
E-mail:sudheer.y2k8@gmail.com
Contents
Introduction
Advantages of Nano particles
Recent developments
Preparation of Nano particles
Formulation available as novel drug delivery system in Herbals
Disadvantages of Nano particles
Conclusion
2
INTRODUCTION
Herbal medicine is also called phyto medicine using a plant's seeds, berries, roots,
leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Herbalism has a long tradition of
use outside of conventional medicine.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the
populations of some Asian and African countries presently use herbal medicine.
Among the 120 active compounds currently isolated from the higher plants and
widely used in modern medicine today,
Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the
limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast
knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent
years. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may
help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various compounds
and herbs.
3
4
Nanoparticles are the particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size.
A nanoparticles is a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its
transport and properties.
“ Nanoparticles are sub- nanosized colloidal structures composed of
synthetic or semi-synthetic polymers.”
Size range : 10–1000 nm
The drug is dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated or attached to a
nanoparticles matrix.
Nanocapsules:- Nanocapsules are systems in which the drug is confined to
a cavity surrounded by a unique polymer membrane.
Nanospheres:- Nanospheres are matrix systems in which the drug is
physically and uniformly dispersed.
A nanocarrier is Nano material being used as a transport module for another
substance, such as a drug. Commonly used nanocarriers include micelles, polymers,
carbon-based materials, liposomes and other substances.
Nanocarriers are currently used in drug delivery and their unique characteristics
demonstrate potential use in chemotherapy.
Nan carriers include polymer conjugates, polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based
carriers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and Gold nanoparticles.
Examples of gold nanoparticles are gold nanoshells and nanocages.Different types of
nonmaterial being used in nano carriers allows for hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs
to be delivered throughout the body.potential problem with nanocarriers is unwanted
toxicity from the type of nonmaterial being used. 5
6
Polymer drug conjugates are products of Nano-medicine enrolled in cancer
diagnosis and treatment.
The polymer molecules are used as the delivery system for the drugs and
have shown very promising results. Polymer drugs have passed multidrug
resistance (MDR) testing and hence may become a viable treatment of endocrine-
related cancers.
polymeric nanoparticles : It consist of a polyme or copolymer having
nanoparticles or nanofillers dispersed in the polymer matrix. These may be of
different shape (e.g., platelets, fibers, spheroids),
lipid-based carriers: A solid lipid nanoparticle is typically spherical with -an
average diameter between 10 to 1000 nanometers. Solid lipid nanoparticles
possess a solid lipid core matrix that can solubilize lipophilic molecules

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DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM IN NANO GREEN

  • 1. DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM IN NANO GREEN 1 K.Sudheer Kumar, Assistant professor. Dept.of Pharmacognosy Chilkur Balaji college of Pharmacy Hyderabad. E-mail:sudheer.y2k8@gmail.com
  • 2. Contents Introduction Advantages of Nano particles Recent developments Preparation of Nano particles Formulation available as novel drug delivery system in Herbals Disadvantages of Nano particles Conclusion 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Herbal medicine is also called phyto medicine using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Herbalism has a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the populations of some Asian and African countries presently use herbal medicine. Among the 120 active compounds currently isolated from the higher plants and widely used in modern medicine today, Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various compounds and herbs. 3
  • 4. 4 Nanoparticles are the particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. A nanoparticles is a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties. “ Nanoparticles are sub- nanosized colloidal structures composed of synthetic or semi-synthetic polymers.” Size range : 10–1000 nm The drug is dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated or attached to a nanoparticles matrix. Nanocapsules:- Nanocapsules are systems in which the drug is confined to a cavity surrounded by a unique polymer membrane. Nanospheres:- Nanospheres are matrix systems in which the drug is physically and uniformly dispersed.
  • 5. A nanocarrier is Nano material being used as a transport module for another substance, such as a drug. Commonly used nanocarriers include micelles, polymers, carbon-based materials, liposomes and other substances. Nanocarriers are currently used in drug delivery and their unique characteristics demonstrate potential use in chemotherapy. Nan carriers include polymer conjugates, polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and Gold nanoparticles. Examples of gold nanoparticles are gold nanoshells and nanocages.Different types of nonmaterial being used in nano carriers allows for hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to be delivered throughout the body.potential problem with nanocarriers is unwanted toxicity from the type of nonmaterial being used. 5
  • 6. 6 Polymer drug conjugates are products of Nano-medicine enrolled in cancer diagnosis and treatment. The polymer molecules are used as the delivery system for the drugs and have shown very promising results. Polymer drugs have passed multidrug resistance (MDR) testing and hence may become a viable treatment of endocrine- related cancers. polymeric nanoparticles : It consist of a polyme or copolymer having nanoparticles or nanofillers dispersed in the polymer matrix. These may be of different shape (e.g., platelets, fibers, spheroids), lipid-based carriers: A solid lipid nanoparticle is typically spherical with -an average diameter between 10 to 1000 nanometers. Solid lipid nanoparticles possess a solid lipid core matrix that can solubilize lipophilic molecules
  • 7. Dendrimers:Dendrimers represent a class of novel polymers having unique molecular architectures characterized by their well-defined structure, with a high degree of molecular uniformity, low polydispersity and properties that make them attractive materials for the development of nanomedicines. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are very prevalent in today’s world of medical research and are being highly researched in the fields of efficient drug delivery and biosensing methods for disease treatment and health monitoring. A Carbon Nanotube is a tube-shaped material, made of carbon, having a diameter measuring on the nanometer scale 7
  • 8. Advantages Of Nanoparticles • Nano particle can be administered by parenteral, oral, nasal,occular routes. • By attaching specific ligands on to their surfaces,nano particles can be used for directing the drugs to specific target cells. • Improves stability and therapeutics index and reduce toxic affects. • Both active & passive drug targetting can be achieved by manipulating the particel size and surface characteristics of nano particles • Protection from physical and chemical degradation. • Improved tissue macrophages distribution. • Enhancement of stability and Protection from toxicity. • Enhancement of pharmacological activity. • Increased bioavailability.
  • 9. Nano pharmaceuticals offer the ability to detect diseases at much earlier stages and the diagnostic applications could build upon conventional procedures using nano particles. Nano pharmaceuticals represent an emerging field where the sizes of the drug particle or a therapeutic delivery system work at the nanoscale.  Nano pharmaceuticals have enormous potential in addressing this failure of traditional therapeutics which offers site-specific targeting of active agents. Magnetic nanoparticles bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample. 9
  • 10. THREE MAIN REASONS FOR THE POPULARITY OF HERBAL MEDICINE 1. There is a growing concern over the reliance and safety of drugs. 2. Modern medicine is failing to effectively treat many of the most common health condition. 3. Many natural measures are being shown to produce better results than drugs or surgery without the side effects 10
  • 11. Herbal Nanoparticles Microencapsulation of herbal extract in Nano particulate is an effective way used to protect drug or food ingredients against deterioration, Advantages of herbal nanoparticle delivery system 1. Nan particulate system delivers the herbal formulation directly to the site of action. 2. Increased efficacy and therapeutic index. 3. Increased stability via encapsulation. 4. Improved pharmacokinetic effect. 5. Producible with various sizes, compound surface properties. Nanoparticle 11
  • 12. Preparation of Nanoparticles • Solvent evaporation method • Spontaneous emulsification method •Salting out method .
  • 13. Polymers For Nanoparticles  Natural hydrophilic polymers • Proteins: - Gelatin, albumin, lectins, legumin. • Polysaccharides: - alginate, dextran, chitosan, agarose.  Synthetic hydrophobic polymers • Pre-polymerized polymers: - Poly (e-caprolactone) (PECL),Poly (Lactic acid)(PLA), Polystyrene • Polymerized in process polymers: - Poly (isobutyl cyanoacrylates) (PICA), Poly (butyl cyano acrylates)
  • 14. 1. Solvent evaporation method : Drug & polymer is dissolved in organic solvent. Emulsified with an aq. phase containing surfactant to obtain o/w emulsion. Organic phase is then evaporated Nanoparticles
  • 15. 2. Solvent displacement / Nanoprecipitation : Drug dissolved in organic phase(ethanol/methanol) Aq.phase Displacement of organic phase Immediate polymer precipitation because of complete miscibility of both the phase. Nanoparticles Emulsified
  • 16. 3. Salting out method :
  • 17. Equipments for Nanoparticles • Homogenizer • Ultra Sonicator • Mills • Spray Milling • Supercritical Fluid Technology • Electrospray • Ultracentrifugation • Nanofiltration
  • 18. s.no formulation Active ingredients Application of Phytosomal formulation Biological activity Method of preparation Route of administra tion 1 Curcumin (phyotosome) Curcuminoid Increase bio- availability Anti cancer Anti oxidant Curcumin phospholipid complexiation Oral 2 Garlicin (liposome) Garlicin Increase efficiency Lungs Reverse phase evaporation Oral 3 Glycyrrhizic acid loaded (Nano-particles) Glycyrrhizic acid Improves bio- availability Anti- inflammatory Anti- hypertensive Rotary evaporation Oral 4 Quercetin (micro- emulsion) Quercetin Improves permeation Anti-oxidant High speed homogenization Topical 5 Matrin ethosome Matrine (protein) Improves precutaneous permeation Anti- inflammatory Cold method Hot method (concentrating with ethanol ) Topical FORMULATIONS IN HERBALS 18
  • 19. s.no formulation Active ingredients Application of Phytosomal formulation Biological activity Method of preparatio n Route of administr ation 6 Capsaicin transferosome Capsaicin Increase skin penetration Analgesic Thin film hydration method Topical 7 Colchicine transferosome Colchicine Increase skin penetration Antigout lipid film hydration technique In-vitro 8 Zedoaria oil Curcuma zedoaria(white turmeric) Micro sphere procurcumenol Sustained release and high bioavailability Heaptoprotective Solvent evaporation Oral 19
  • 20. Disadvantages Of Nanoparticles  Small size & large surface area can lead to particle aggregation  Physical handling of nano particles is difficult in liquid and dry forms.  Limited drug loading.  Toxic metabolites may form.
  • 21. Several plant extracts and phytomolecules, having excellent bio-activity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size or both, resulting poor absorption and poor bioavailability. Standardized plant extracts like flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, when administered through novel drug delivery system show much better absorption profile which enables them to cross the biological membrane, resulting enhanced bioavailability. The drugs of ayurvedic origin can be utilized in a better form with enhanced efficacy by incorporating in modern dosage forms. However, phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a novel manner to increase patient compliance. An extensive research is going on in the area of novel drug delivery and targeting for plant actives and extracts. CONCLUSION 21