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Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

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Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

  1. 1. Reactor EngineeringNE – 4 (Lecture - 22) AHWR S. Dayal ACE KM
  2. 2. AHWR• Developed to use Thorium for generation of commercial nuclear power• 300 MWe• Pressure Tube type reactor: vertical PT• Boiling Light Water: BLW• Passive Safety Features09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 2
  3. 3. Safety Features AHWR• negative void coefficient of reactivity.• Passive safety systems• Heat sink in the form of Gravity Driven Water Pool GDWP• Removal of core heat by natural circulation.• ECCS injection directly inside the fuel. .• Two independent shutdown systems.09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 3
  4. 4. + Features of AHWR• No Hi Pressure D2O as coolant, no leakage loss / recovery systems• Recovery of heat generated in Moderator System for feed-water heating• Shop assembled coolant channels, quick replacement of pressure-tube09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 4
  5. 5. + Features of AHWR• Steam Drums in place of steam-generators• Higher Steam pressure than in PHWR• Production of 500 m3/day of DM Water in Desalination Plant, by using steam from LP Turbine• Design Life : 100 Years• No exclusion Zone, due to advanced safety features09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 5
  6. 6. Specifications of AHWR• Power: 920 MWth, 300 MWe• Core: Vertical, Pr. Tube; ID: 120 mm• Coolant: Boiling Light Water• No. of Coolant Channels: 452• Fuel Pins: 54 = 24 (Th+Pu) + 30 (Th+U233)• Fuel Length: 3.5 m• Core Flow Rate: 2230 kg/s09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 6
  7. 7. Specifications of AHWR• Coolant Inlet: 259 Deg. Cel.; Outlet: 130 Deg. Cel.• Steam Quality: 18.6 %• Steam Generation Rate: 414.4 kg.• Steam Pressure: 70 bar• PSS: 40 Shutoff Rods (Boron Carbide)• SSS: Liquid Poison Injection in Moderator• Control Rods: 1309/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 7
  8. 8. Specifications of AHWR• Lattice Pitch: 245 mm• Discharge Burnup: 24000 MWd/t • -- up-to 40,000• Dysprosium is used as burnable poison Dy2O3 in ZrO2• Natural Dysprosium has 5 isotopes 160 – 16409/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 8
  9. 9. Fuel• 54 pins – Innermost Ring: 12 Pins (Th233 U)O2, U233 enrichment 3.0 % – Middle Ring: 18 Pins (Th233 U)O2, U233 enrichment 3.75 % – Outermost Ring: 24 Pins (Th Pu)O2, Pu enrichment 2.5% in upper-half & 4.0% in lower- half – Central Rod has burnable poison Dy2O309/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 9
  10. 10. Fuel Cluster 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 10
  11. 11. Cross Section of Fuel Cluster 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 11
  12. 12. PHW Reactor Components• Inlet header• Feeders• Coolant Channel• Outlet feeders called “tail-pipes” – End-Shield – Feeder Vault – Calandria Vault09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 12
  13. 13. 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 13
  14. 14. Reactor Structure• Cylindrical Aluminum Tank: 330cm ID & 500 cm high• Tank is adequately sized to provide 40 cm D2O radial reflector around the core09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 14
  15. 15. Calandria Vault• Concrete block, for shielding• Two movable shield trolleys, at the top• Water Filled Reactor Vault Tank, open at top09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 15
  16. 16. General arrangement 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 16
  17. 17. Moderator System• D2O will be used• Cover Gas – Helium09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 17
  18. 18. Instrument & Control• Neutron (flux) Power measurement – For reactor regulation and Control – Detectors are located in Graphite fillers below Reactor – In-Core: flux mapping system • 25 LEU based, fission counters – Source range monitors: pulse channels• Conventional Instrumentation – Flow, Pressure, Temperature & Level – To generate: ALARM (Hi, V-Hi), TRIP09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 18
  19. 19. Range overlap of channelsSource Range: Pulse ChannelInter. & Power Range: Six DC Channels(Multi Range DC Channel: MRDC)09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 19
  20. 20. Shutdown Devices• Shut-Off rods – Six: Cadmium (encased in Al) Rods – 68 mk –ive reactivity addition09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 20
  21. 21. 5 AHWR 2 3 6 4 17 1 Secondary Containment 2 Primary Containment 15 3 Gravity Driven Water Pool 8 4 Isolation Condenser 5 Passive Containment Isolation Duct 7 10 6 Vent Pipe 7 Tail Pipe Tower 1 8 Steam Drum 11 9 100 M Floor 9 13 10 Fuelling Machine 11 Deck Plate 12 12 Calandria with End Shield 14 13 Header 14 Pile Supports 15 Advanced Accumulator 16 Pre - Stressing Gallery 16 17 Passive Containment Cooler09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 21
  22. 22. Status• Structured peer review completed• Pre-licensing design safety appraisal by AERB in progress09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 22
  23. 23. AHWR: a quick, safe, secure and proliferation resistant solutionAHWR is a 300 MWe vertical pressure tube type, boiling light water cooled and D 2O moderatedreactor (A configuration to provide low risk nuclear energy using available technologies) Major design objectives  Significant fraction of Energy from Thorium Top Tie Plate Displacer Water Rod  Several passive features Tube  3 days grace period Fuel  No radiological impact Pin AHWR can be configured to accept a  Passive shutdown system to range of fuel types address insider threat scenarios. including LEU, U- Pu , Th-Pu , LEU-Th  Design life of 100 years. and 233U-Th in full Bottom Tie P late core  Easily replaceable coolant channels. AHWR Fuel assembly
  24. 24. PSA Level 3 calculations for AHWR indicate low probability of impact in public domainPlant familiarization & Level-3 Atmospheric Dispersionidentification of design With Consequence Analysisaspects important tosevere accident Release from Containment PSA level-1Identification ofsignificant events with Level-2 : Source Term (withinlarge contribution to Containment) Evaluation throughCore Damage AnalysisFrequency Level-1, 2 & 3 PSA activity block diagram 24
  25. 25. SWS: Service Water System (63 %) APWS: Active Process Water System ECCS HDRBRK: ECCS Header Break SLOCA: 15 % LLOCA: Large Break LOCAContribution to CDF MSLBOB: Main Steam Line Break Outside 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 Containment 25
  26. 26. AHWR 300-LEU is a 300 MWe system fuelled with LEU-Thorium fuel, has passive safety features, high degree of operatorforgiving characteristics, no adverse impact in public domain,high proliferation resistance and inherent security strength. Peak clad temp. hardly rises even in the complete station blackout and failure of primary and secondary systems.
  27. 27. Reactor Block components09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 27
  28. 28. Shut Off Rod drive mechanism, Typical Rod-dropprofile09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 28
  29. 29. Main HT System 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 29
  30. 30. Emergency Core Cooling System09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 30
  31. 31. ECCS• Passive mode during first 15 minutes, from accumulators – 4 Accumulators, 240 m3, Nitrogen at 5.0 MPa• From Gravity driven water pool for next three- days (low pressure injection) – Passivity is obtained by “Fluidic Flow Control Device” – 6000 m3 of water – 4 loops. HX, pump, filter, IX & chemical addition09/10/12 tank in each loop RE-4, Le-22 31
  32. 32. Gravity Driven water Pool [GDWP] 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 32
  33. 33. AHWR: Design evaluation by INPROmethod • IAEA initiated project on, International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors & Fuel Cycles • Evaluation criteria in six areas – Economics -- Environment & Sustainability – Safety -- Waste Management – Proliferation -- Cross cutting issues • Reports have been sent to IARA for AHWR 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 33
  34. 34. End of RE – 4 Lecture – 2209/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 34

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