Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

Loading in …3

Check these out next

1 of 34 Ad

More Related Content

Slideshows for you (20)

Viewers also liked (20)


Similar to Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (20)

Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

  1. 1. Reactor Engineering NE – 4 (Lecture - 22) AHWR S. Dayal ACE KM
  2. 2. AHWR • Developed to use Thorium for generation of commercial nuclear power • 300 MWe • Pressure Tube type reactor: vertical PT • Boiling Light Water: BLW • Passive Safety Features 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 2
  3. 3. Safety Features AHWR • negative void coefficient of reactivity. • Passive safety systems • Heat sink in the form of Gravity Driven Water Pool GDWP • Removal of core heat by natural circulation. • ECCS injection directly inside the fuel. . • Two independent shutdown systems. 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 3
  4. 4. + Features of AHWR • No Hi Pressure D2O as coolant, no leakage loss / recovery systems • Recovery of heat generated in Moderator System for feed-water heating • Shop assembled coolant channels, quick replacement of pressure-tube 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 4
  5. 5. + Features of AHWR • Steam Drums in place of steam-generators • Higher Steam pressure than in PHWR • Production of 500 m3/day of DM Water in Desalination Plant, by using steam from LP Turbine • Design Life : 100 Years • No exclusion Zone, due to advanced safety features 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 5
  6. 6. Specifications of AHWR • Power: 920 MWth, 300 MWe • Core: Vertical, Pr. Tube; ID: 120 mm • Coolant: Boiling Light Water • No. of Coolant Channels: 452 • Fuel Pins: 54 = 24 (Th+Pu) + 30 (Th+U233) • Fuel Length: 3.5 m • Core Flow Rate: 2230 kg/s 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 6
  7. 7. Specifications of AHWR • Coolant Inlet: 259 Deg. Cel.; Outlet: 130 Deg. Cel. • Steam Quality: 18.6 % • Steam Generation Rate: 414.4 kg. • Steam Pressure: 70 bar • PSS: 40 Shutoff Rods (Boron Carbide) • SSS: Liquid Poison Injection in Moderator • Control Rods: 13 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 7
  8. 8. Specifications of AHWR • Lattice Pitch: 245 mm • Discharge Burnup: 24000 MWd/t • -- up-to 40,000 • Dysprosium is used as burnable poison Dy2O3 in ZrO2 • Natural Dysprosium has 5 isotopes 160 – 164 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 8
  9. 9. Fuel • 54 pins – Innermost Ring: 12 Pins (Th233 U)O2, U233 enrichment 3.0 % – Middle Ring: 18 Pins (Th233 U)O2, U233 enrichment 3.75 % – Outermost Ring: 24 Pins (Th Pu)O2, Pu enrichment 2.5% in upper-half & 4.0% in lower- half – Central Rod has burnable poison Dy2O3 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 9
  10. 10. Fuel Cluster 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 10
  11. 11. Cross Section of Fuel Cluster 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 11
  12. 12. PHW Reactor Components • Inlet header • Feeders • Coolant Channel • Outlet feeders called “tail-pipes” – End-Shield – Feeder Vault – Calandria Vault 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 12
  13. 13. 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 13
  14. 14. Reactor Structure • Cylindrical Aluminum Tank: 330cm ID & 500 cm high • Tank is adequately sized to provide 40 cm D2O radial reflector around the core 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 14
  15. 15. Calandria Vault • Concrete block, for shielding • Two movable shield trolleys, at the top • Water Filled Reactor Vault Tank, open at top 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 15
  16. 16. General arrangement 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 16
  17. 17. Moderator System • D2O will be used • Cover Gas – Helium 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 17
  18. 18. Instrument & Control • Neutron (flux) Power measurement – For reactor regulation and Control – Detectors are located in Graphite fillers below Reactor – In-Core: flux mapping system • 25 LEU based, fission counters – Source range monitors: pulse channels • Conventional Instrumentation – Flow, Pressure, Temperature & Level – To generate: ALARM (Hi, V-Hi), TRIP 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 18
  19. 19. Range overlap of channels Source Range: Pulse Channel Inter. & Power Range: Six DC Channels (Multi Range DC Channel: MRDC) 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 19
  20. 20. Shutdown Devices • Shut-Off rods – Six: Cadmium (encased in Al) Rods – 68 mk –ive reactivity addition 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 20
  21. 21. 5 AHWR 2 3 6 4 17 1 Secondary Containment 2 Primary Containment 15 3 Gravity Driven Water Pool 8 4 Isolation Condenser 5 Passive Containment Isolation Duct 7 10 6 Vent Pipe 7 Tail Pipe Tower 1 8 Steam Drum 11 9 100 M Floor 9 13 10 Fuelling Machine 11 Deck Plate 12 12 Calandria with End Shield 14 13 Header 14 Pile Supports 15 Advanced Accumulator 16 Pre - Stressing Gallery 16 17 Passive Containment Cooler 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 21
  22. 22. Status • Structured peer review completed • Pre-licensing design safety appraisal by AERB in progress 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 22
  23. 23. AHWR: a quick, safe, secure and proliferation resistant solution AHWR is a 300 MWe vertical pressure tube type, boiling light water cooled and D 2O moderated reactor (A configuration to provide low risk nuclear energy using available technologies) Major design objectives  Significant fraction of Energy from Thorium Top Tie Plate Displacer Water Rod  Several passive features Tube  3 days grace period Fuel  No radiological impact Pin AHWR can be configured to accept a  Passive shutdown system to range of fuel types address insider threat scenarios. including LEU, U- Pu , Th-Pu , LEU-Th  Design life of 100 years. and 233U-Th in full Bottom Tie P late core  Easily replaceable coolant channels. AHWR Fuel assembly
  24. 24. PSA Level 3 calculations for AHWR indicate low probability of impact in public domain Plant familiarization & Level-3 Atmospheric Dispersion identification of design With Consequence Analysis aspects important to severe accident Release from Containment PSA level-1 Identification of significant events with Level-2 : Source Term (within large contribution to Containment) Evaluation through Core Damage Analysis Frequency Level-1, 2 & 3 PSA activity block diagram 24
  25. 25. SWS: Service Water System (63 %) APWS: Active Process Water System ECCS HDRBRK: ECCS Header Break SLOCA: 15 % LLOCA: Large Break LOCA Contribution to CDF MSLBOB: Main Steam Line Break Outside 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 Containment 25
  26. 26. AHWR 300-LEU is a 300 MWe system fuelled with LEU-Thorium fuel, has passive safety features, high degree of operator forgiving characteristics, no adverse impact in public domain, high proliferation resistance and inherent security strength. Peak clad temp. hardly rises even in the complete station blackout and failure of primary and secondary systems.
  27. 27. Reactor Block components 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 27
  28. 28. Shut Off Rod drive mechanism, Typical Rod-drop profile 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 28
  29. 29. Main HT System 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 29
  30. 30. Emergency Core Cooling System 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 30
  31. 31. ECCS • Passive mode during first 15 minutes, from accumulators – 4 Accumulators, 240 m3, Nitrogen at 5.0 MPa • From Gravity driven water pool for next three- days (low pressure injection) – Passivity is obtained by “Fluidic Flow Control Device” – 6000 m3 of water – 4 loops. HX, pump, filter, IX & chemical addition 09/10/12 tank in each loop RE-4, Le-22 31
  32. 32. Gravity Driven water Pool [GDWP] 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 32
  33. 33. AHWR: Design evaluation by INPRO method • IAEA initiated project on, International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors & Fuel Cycles • Evaluation criteria in six areas – Economics -- Environment & Sustainability – Safety -- Waste Management – Proliferation -- Cross cutting issues • Reports have been sent to IARA for AHWR 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 33
  34. 34. End of RE – 4 Lecture – 22 09/10/12 RE-4, Le-22 34

Editor's Notes

  • Developed to use Thorium for generation of commercial nuclear power 300 MWe Pressure Tube type reactor: vertical PT Boiling Light Water: BLW Passive Safety Features
  • Slightly negative void coefficient of reactivity. . Passive safety systems working on natural laws. . Large heat sink in the form of Gravity Driven Water Pool with an inventory of 6000 m3 of water, located near the top of the Reactor Building. . Removal of heat from core by natural circulation. . Emergency Core Cooling System injection directly inside the fuel. . Two independent shutdown systems.
  • Idetify each AHW Reactor Component in the diagram
  • Reactor Block The reactor is housed in a concrete reactor block. The concrete wall of the reactor block provides shielding in radial direction. Shielding in axial direction is provided by two motor-operated movable shield trolleys provided at the top. The reactor block is located inside a reactor building. The reactor tank, square box and lattice girders which support fuel and control assemblies are housed inside a cavity in the reactor block. The reactor tank accommodates the fuel, moderator and shut off rods. The tank is open at the top to facilitate connection with a square box through an elastomer expansion joint. The square box houses the lattice girder assemblies. The bottom plate of the square box has a 3300 mm diameter opening in the centre to provide full access to the reactor tank. The top assemblies and reactivity control devices and offer flexibility of configuring the desired core lattice, at the required pitch. The lattice girder assemblies can be spaced as desired with the help of centre zero scale provided along the side of stainless steel rail beams.
  • Moderator and Cover gas system For the initial set of experiments heavy water will be used as the moderator and the reflector. Nitrogen gas is used as the cover gas for the heavy water. The system is designed to supply the required inventory of heavy water in a controlled manner to the reactor tank to attain reactor criticality for various core configurations / reactor experiments. Since the reactor is designed to operate at a very low power level, no dedicated core cooling system has been provided. The small amount of heat generated in the core is transferred to the moderator and cover gas and gets eventually dissipated into atmosphere by natural convection.
  • Control Instrumentation For reliable neutronic power measurement and reactor protection, neutron detectors and associated electronics have been used with sufficient redundancy. The neutron detectors are located in the graphite fillers below the reactor tank as there is substantial difference in expected critical heights of AHWR and PHWR core configurations. For reactor start up from source range two pulse channels are provided. For power measurements and protection in intermediate & power range, six DC channels, Range Overlap Diagram of Nuclear channels consisting of -- three Log-linear channels (for providing Log-rate and Linear Power signals for manual regulation of the reactor power), -- two safety channels and a multi-range DC channel (having seven ranges with full scale values of 0.5 mW to 500 W), are provided. Conventional instrumentation is provided to monitor and record the process parameters such as -- flows, -- pressures, -- temperatures, -- levels, etc. and to generate trips/alarms. An in-core flux mapping system consisting of an array of 25 LEU-based miniature fission counters, working in pulse mode, will provide three dimensional flux distribution in the core.
  • Shutdown Devices The fast-acting shut off rods are used as primary shutdown system. Fast shut down of the reactor on a trip signal is achieved by gravity fall of six-cadmium (Cd encased in Al) shut off rods into the core. The shut-down system is designed to provide sufficient negative reactivity insertion reliably, for fast reduction of reactor power to render the reactor sub-critical following a reactor trip. The shut off rods are normally parked above the core region. The total worth of the shut off rods is about 68 mk and can vary depending on the core configuration. Shut off rods can be withdrawn from the core, one at a time in a predefined sequence, only when the trip is reset, and are parked in their normal parking positions. On a reactor trip signal, in addition to the insertion of the shut-off rods, moderator is also dumped from the reactor tank up to a predefined level by opening two fast-acting dump valves to provide adequate shut down margin, independent of the shut off rods, in the most reactive core.
  • Increase thickness of child thyroid dose line. No need for legend there – it misleads to 1 Sv point.