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Jainism

  1. 1. Page 2 ContentsSection Page 1 Basics of Jainism 3 2 Principle of Jainism 4 3 Philosophies of Jainism 5 4 Jain Beliefs 7 5 Daily life of a Jain 8 6 How does Jainism bring changes? 9 7 The Origin of Jainism 11 8 Lord Mahavira 17 9 Jainism & World Religions 19 10 Jainism in India: A Snapshot 21 11 Organization of Jainism 25 12 Bibliography 27
  2. 2. Page 3 1. Basics of Jainism ►Jainism is a way of life and one of the oldest religions of the world. ►It believes in a cyclical nature of universe. It discourages superstition and blind faith and encourages free and rational thinking. ►Jainism lays heavy emphasis on non-violence (ahimsa) and discipline. ►According to Jain philosophy, all Tirthankaras were born as human beings but they have attained a state of perfection or enlightenment through meditation and self realization. They are the “Gods” of Jains. ►Jains have always practiced non-violence, vegetarianism, meditation, yoga, and environmentalism. ►Jainism is often described as one of the most peaceful religion. ►The goal of Jainism: the spiritual progress of the individual through a succession of stages until he is able to conquer and renounce dependence on the world and the self.
  3. 3. Page 4 2. Principles of Jainism Non-violence (Ahimsa)  Not to cause harm to any living beings by thoughts, speech or body  Non-violence towards all living creatures, in both thought and action PrinciplesofJainism Multiplicity of Views (Anekäntväd)  Strengthens autonomy of thoughts & speech, and non- possessiveness. Non-Possessiveness / Non- Attachment (Aparigraha)  A complete detachment from people, places, and material things Truthfulness (Satya)  To speak the harmless truth only Non-Stealing (Asteya / Achaurya)  Not to take anything that is not properly given
  4. 4. Page 5 3. Philosophies of Jainism ►Jainism believes in Godhood but does not believe God to be the First Cause. God is not a Creator, Preserver or Destroyer of the universe. ►“God” does not Punish or Reward ►Each person is responsible for improving life by one’s self-endeavor ►Each person is capable of achieving Godhood ►All Living Beings have Souls & are Equal ►All life is sacred ►Therefore, living in peace & harmony is essential ►Elimination of our Karmas is the Path to Liberation & Achievement of Godhood ►It requires multiple re-births ►Ultimate Goal of Life ►To be free from all karma Equality
  5. 5. Page 6 3. Philosophies of Jainism Karma Theory The principles governing the successions of life cycles (birth, life, and death) is Karma. The Theory of Karma is founded on the simple law of cause and effect. What we experience now is the result of our own past action and our future is a function of our own choice and making. Explains the role that karmas play in our lives, how we accumulate karmas, and how we get rid of them. Actions of mind, speech, and body bind us with karma and our intentions and the passions determine the duration, strength and the results of the bondage
  6. 6. Page 7 4. Jain Beliefs All souls are equal Non-Violence Multiplicity of views Non-possessiveness Karma Three jewels: Right Knowledge Right Faith Right Conduct
  7. 7. Page 8 5. Daily life of a Jain ►Code of Conduct for Monks & Nuns (stricter) ►Code for Laymen and Laywomen ►Vegetarianism & Non-Violent Practices ►No Silk, Leather, Animal Products ►Simplicity of Lifestyle, Non-Materialism ►Meditation and Introspection ►Forgiveness is a Moral Doctrine ►Compassion, Charity & Community Service ►Preservation of the Environment ►Jainism is the World’s Only Religion Emphasizing the Environment
  8. 8. Page 9 6. How does Jainism bring changes? • Anger • Arrogance • Deception • Greed Control of destructive emotions (mental) • Violence, Lies, Stealing, Lust • Unlimited possessiveness Abstain From (physical) • Vegetarian • Family values Jain Family Characteristics
  9. 9. Page 10 6. How does Jainism bring changes? Multi Step Approach
  10. 10. Page 11 7. The Origin of Jainism 571AD Mohammed Judaism Christianity Jainism Hinduism Islam 2600BC Abraham 2200BC Exodus from Egypt 30BC Christ Beginning-less / Endless Beginning-less / Endless 557BC, Mahavir 483BC Gautam Buddha 1940sAD Israel Buddhism
  11. 11. Page 12 7. The Origin of Jainism ►Jainism doesn't have a single founder. The truth has been revealed at different times by a tirthankara, which means a teacher who 'makes a ford' i.e. shows the way. Other religions call such a person a 'prophet'. ►As great omniscient teachers, Tirthankaras accomplished the highest spiritual goal of existence and then teach others how to achieve it. ►In what Jains call the 'present age' there have been 24 tirthankaras - although there is little evidence for the existence of most of these.
  12. 12. Page 13 7. The Origin of Jainism Tirthankara: A tirthankara appears in the world to teach the way to moksha, or liberation. ►A trthankar is not an incarnation of the God. He is an ordinary soul that is born as a human and attains the states of a Tirthankar as a result of intense practices of penance, equanimity and meditation. As such, the Tirthankar is not defined as an Avatar (god-incarnate) but is the ultimate pure developed state of the soul. ►Tirthankaras were not founders of any religion, but great omniscient teachers who lived at various times in man's cultural history. They accomplished the highest spiritual goal of existence and then taught their contemporaries the way to reach it by crossing over to the safe shores of spiritual purity. ►Each new tirthankara preaches the same basic Jain philosophy, but they give the Jain way of life subtly different forms in order to suit the age and the culture in which they teach.
  13. 13. Page 14 7. The Origin of Jainism ►The followers of Jainism believe that its roots within India are even older than the Brahmanism (Hinduism) which they believe came with the people ( the Aryans ) migrating from other parts of the world (near the Caspian Sea ). ►The naked statues resembling the Jain monks amongst the remains of the Indus Valley Civilization, do substantiate some of the claims. ►However, there is no conclusive evidence that most of the concepts in Hinduism came from outside India. ►In fact, even the Aryan invasion theory has not yet been proven . ►In those days, people from other parts of the world came to India in a gradual manner. India offered milder climatic conditions and where, agriculture was better developed than several other places in the neighbouring countries. ►Gradually, these people adopted the life style prevalent in India and that is how, it is a country made up of different kinds of people.
  14. 14. Page 15 7. The Origin of Jainism ►The first Tirthankar, Rishabhdev flourished prior to the Indus Valley Civilization and has been referred to as Lord Vishnu in the Puraanas. This name is also mentioned in the Vedas. ►He was followed by 23 other Tirthankars who did not necessarily follow in a continuous manner, one after another. Their names are: ►Adinatha, ►Ajita ►Sambhava ►Abhinandana, ►Sumati, ►Padmaprabha ►Suparshva ►Chandraprabha ►Suvidhi,. ►Shital, ►Shreyansa, ►Vasupujya, ►Vimala, ►Ananta, ►Dharma, ►Shanti, ►Kunthu, ►Ara. ►Malli, ►Muni ►Suvrata, ►Nami, ►Nemi, ►Parshva and ►Mahavira.
  15. 15. Page 16 7. The Origin of Jainism ►The birth places of the 13th, 19 - 21, and 24th Tirthankaras were in Bihar ; and on the hills of Parasnath (Shikharjee), 20 out of 24 Tirthankaras obtained nirvana. Lord Mahavira obtained nirvana at Pawapuri in Bihar. : ►Magadha was the center of Jainism in the written history of India. Starting with Bimbisar, the kings of the Nanda dynasty and the early Maurya dynasty were believers of Jainism, according to the Jain literature. ►Lord Mahavira gave his first sermon on the Vipula Peak at Rajgir.
  16. 16. Page 17 8. Lord Mahavira ►Lord Mahavir - 24th (and final) Tirthankara ►Born on March 30, 599 B.C. (about 2600 years ago) as a prince in Bihar, India. ►Lord Mahavira was given a name - Vardhamana, which means rising or growing, by his parents because the family saw its prosperity after his birth. In the Pali Buddhist texts, he is referred to as the Niggantha Nataputta. ►Vardhamana renounced the world at the age of 30, became ascetic and then spiritually advanced through the stages of Arhat to Kevalin or Jina (conqueror of the self). ►After leaving home, for twelve years, he devoted himself to self discipline and practised severest penance and austerities. ► He preached for the next 30 years, i.e. until the age of 72 when he obtained nirvana in the year 527 B.C
  17. 17. Page 18 8. Lord Mahavira ►The ultimate objective of his teaching is how one can attain the total freedom from the cycle of birth, life, and death, and achieve the permanent blissful state (known as liberation, nirvana, absolute freedom, or Moksha.) ►His philosophy has eight cardinal (law of trust) principles, three metaphysical (dravya, jiva and ajiva), and five ethical. The objective is to elevate the quality of life. ►Five ethical principles that were preached by Mahavira: Ahimsa, Satya or truthfulness, Asteya or non- stealing, Brahmacharya or chastity, Aparigraha or non-possession, non-attachment. ►Mahavira taught that pursuit of pleasure is an endless game, so we should train our minds to curb individual cravings and passions. ►Lord Mahavir envisioned men and women to be on equal footing in the matters of spiritual advancement. ►Another fundamental teaching of Mahavira was Anekantavada i.e., pluralism and multiplicity of viewpoints
  18. 18. Page 19 9. Jainism & World Religions Jainism: Cycle of Life Western: Linearity of Life birth: pure state death heaven hell enlightenment cycle of life/death elimination of karmic bondage nirvana Life Cycles
  19. 19. Page 20 External god controls you Religion/philosophy/science separate Linear nature of life/death As you sow so you reap on judgment day God is the soul within you Karma determines your next life Cyclic nature of life/death - nirvana Religion and philosophy are intertwined Eastern ReligionsWestern Religions Different Core – Similar Outcome 9. Jainism & World Religions
  20. 20. Page21 10. Jainism in India: A Snapshot Founded in Magadh by Mahavir Jain Sixth largest population in India 4,451,753 population as per 2001 Census Literacy rate 94.1 in 2011 Philosophy ► Ahimsa ► Karma ► Dharma ► Moksa Major Figures ► The 24 Tirthankaras ► Rishabha ► Mahavira ► Ganadhara Major Sects ► Digambara ► Svetambara Texts ► Agama ► Kalpa Sutra ► Tattvartha Sutra
  21. 21. Page 22 Palm – signifies assurance; to have faith and change the path of righteousness. Wheel of Dharma – 24 spokes represent the 24 Tirthankaras. The word inside the wheel is ahimsa. Digit of moon – (region of liberated souls) Three dots – (Right Perception/Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct) Overall meaning – After removing all of their karmas, living beings will reside in the world of liberated souls. 10. Jainism in India: A Snapshot Jain Symbols
  22. 22. Page 23 ► Mahavir Jayanti – celebration of the birth of Lord Mahavir ► Paryushan Parva – festival of forgiveness ► Samvatsari Pratikraman – 3 hour prayer to ask for forgiveness ► Mahavir Nirvan – celebration at Diwali/New Year’s per the lunar calendar Major Jain Religious Events 10. Jainism in India: A Snapshot The idols of the 24 Tirthankaras are the same because they represent the quality and virtues of the Tirthankaras, not the physical body. A unique symbol at the bottom of each idol differentiates them. For example, Lord Mahavir's idol is recognized by the symbol of a lion.
  23. 23. Page 24 10. Jainism in India: A Snapshot ► Jainas leave little or no imprint on the broader ecological system and hold an affinity for the idealsof the environmentalmovement ► The path to reach the Siddha Locka entails great care in regard to how one lives in relationshipto allotherlivingbeings thatsurround one in the earthlyrealm ► Thus, they avoidactivitiesassociated withviolenceand followa vegetariandiet ► Jainismcontainsconceptsthat can leadto the enhancementof core human-earth relations ► MajorTeachingincludes: ► Non-Possessiveness/Aparigraha ► Self-restraintisthesecondmostimportantJainprinciple. ► Minimizingconsumptionprovidesrespectforothers’lifeandenvironment. ► Reuse/RecycleProducts–Donotwastethegiftsofnature. ► Shareresources. ► NatureprovidesenoughforourNEED,butnotenoughforourGREED. Environmentalism Jainism & Ecology
  24. 24. Page 25 11. Organization of Jainism ► The 2 sects of Jainism (Digambar and Svetambar) divided 200 years after Mahavira achieved enlightenment. ► Svetambaras believe the split occurred when the chief monk Acharya Bhadrabahu predicted a 12 year famine, and lead 12,000 Digambar followers to southern India.The followers who remained became the Svetambar sect. Digambara (“sky clad male monks”) ► Givenup allbelongings ► Livealoneor in small groupsin the forests ► TeachJainism ► Spend3 monthsduringrainy seasonin one location(to minimizekilling insectson the ground from excessivewalking) Svetambara (“white clad”) ► Wear whiterobes ► Liveincommunity ► Admitboth men and women ► Some wear face masks to protect minutelife forms from harm
  25. 25. Page 26 11. Organization of Jainism Digambar ► Digmabars believed that women cannot attain enlightenment in the same birth. ► Digambars also believe that Mahavir was unmarried. Svetambar ► Svetambars believe women may attain enlightenment, and that Malinath (a Jina, or Tirthankar) was in fact a woman. ► Svetambars belive that Mahavir married a woman, and had a daughter.
  26. 26. Page 27 12.bibliography : www.wikipedia.com http://encyclopediabrittannica.com/ http://www.linkedinslideshare.com/ Encyclopedia of world history Britannica encyclopedia
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