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  1. 1. Router CMC Limited
  2. 2. Objectives• Explain what is router and difference between hardware and software router.• Understand different modes of router.• Understand different components of router.• Familiar with different commands used to configure router. CMC Limited
  3. 3. Router Routers are very common today in every network area, this is mainly because every network these days connect to some other network, whether its the Internet or some other remote site. Routers route the data from one network to another. There are two types of router: 1. Hardware Routers: 2. Software Routers. CMC Limited
  4. 4. Router contd..Hardware Routers They are small boxes which run special software created by their vendors to give them the routing capability and the only thing they do is simply route data from one network to another.Software Routers Software routers do the same job with the above hardware routers (route data), but they dont come in small flashy boxes. A software router could be an NT server, NetWare server or Linux server. All network servers have built-in routing capabilities. CMC Limited
  5. 5. Software Routers contd..Work of Router in a LAN CMC Limited
  6. 6. Software Routers contd..You cannot replace the hardware router with a softwarerouter.Hardware router has the necessary hardware built-in toallow it to connect to the special WAN link (frame relay,ISDN, ATM etc), where your software router (e.g a NTserver) would have a few network cards one of whichconnects to the LAN and the other goes to the WAN viathe hardware router. CMC Limited
  7. 7. Components of RouterThe basic components of any Cisco router are asfollows: 1. Interfaces 2. The Processor (CPU) 3. Internetwork Operating System (IOS) 4. RXBoot Image 5. RAM 6. NVRAM 7. ROM 8. Flash memory 9. Configuration Register CMC Limited
  8. 8. Components of Router contd..Interfaces The interfaces are the various serial ports or Ethernet ports which we use to connect the router to our LAN. There are a number of different interfaces. Here are some of the names Cisco has given some of the interfaces: E0 (first Ethernet interface), E1 (second Ethernet interface). CMC Limited
  9. 9. Components of Router contd..The Processor (CPU) The CPU generates interrupts (IRQ) in order to communicate with the other electronic components in the router.Internetwork Operating System (IOS) The IOS is the main operating system on which the router runs. The IOS is loaded upon the routers bootup. CMC Limited
  10. 10. Components of Router contd..RXBoot Image The RXBoot image (also known as Bootloader) is nothing more than a "cut-down" version of the IOS located in the routers ROM (Read Only Memory).RAM The RAM (Random Access Memory), is where the router loads the IOS and the configuration file. It works exactly the same way as your computers memory, where the operating system loads along with all the various programs. CMC Limited
  11. 11. Components of Router contd..NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM) The NVRAM is a special memory place where the router holds its configuration.ROM (Read Only Memory) The ROM is used to start and maintain the router. It contains some code, like the Bootstrap and POST, which helps the router do some basic tests and bootup when its powered on or reloaded. You cannot alter any of the code in this memory as it has been set from the factory and is Read Only. CMC Limited
  12. 12. Components of Router contd..Flash Memory It is an EEPROM (Electrical Eraseable Programmable Read Only Memory) card. It fits into a special slot normally located at the back of the router and contains nothing more than the IOS image(s).Configuration Register The Configuration Register determines if the router is going to boot the IOS image from its Flash, tftp server or just load the RXBoot image. CMC Limited
  13. 13. Router ModesYou have noticed that the lower end routers (600-1400)use different commands than the mid to upper rangerouters (1600 and above).Setup ModeThe setup mode is a step-by-step process which helps youconfigure basic aspects of the router.When using this setup mode, you actually havetwo options: • Basic Management Setup • Extended Setup CMC Limited
  14. 14. Router Modes contd..Configuration ModeCisco routers have different configuration modes(depending on the router model).They are as follows: • User Exec Mode (>) • Privileged Mode (#) CMC Limited
  15. 15. User Exec ModeThe easiest way to keep track of the mode youre in is bylooking at the prompt. CMC Limited
  16. 16. Privileged Mode To get into Privileged Mode we enter the "Enable" command from User Exec Mode.Global Configuration The following figure shows you how to enter Global Configuration Mode: CMC Limited
  17. 17. Privileged Mode contd..Generic Configuration There are a few standard things with which you always need to configure the router. This is also used as a login name for the remote router to which your router needs to authenticate.Configuring Interfaces We have a router with one Ethernet and one basic ISDN interface (max of 128Kbit). In order to configure the interface, we need to be in Global Configuration Mode. CMC Limited