Chap 9


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Chap 9

  2. 2. THE PROJECT <ul><li>Submit in next class </li></ul>
  3. 3. Course Outline <ul><li>Sr. | Chap|Final Exam Chapter Heading </li></ul><ul><li>No.|No. | Q. No. </li></ul><ul><li>1. 1 1 An Introduction to Motivational Concept (260909) </li></ul><ul><li>2. 2 2 Motivation in the History (101009) </li></ul><ul><li>3. 3 3 Darwinian Theory of Evolution and Motivation (171009) </li></ul><ul><li>4. 4 4 Instinct and Motivation (311009) </li></ul><ul><li>5. 5 5 The Effect of Frustration, Conflict and Stress (051109 & 071109) </li></ul><ul><li>6. 6 6 Need Theories of Motivation (211109) </li></ul><ul><li>7. 7 7 Reinforcement/Incentive Theories (051209) </li></ul><ul><li>8. 8 8 Expectancy Theories of Motivation (171209) </li></ul><ul><li>9. 9 9 Motivation, Satisfaction, and Performance (191209) </li></ul><ul><li>10. 10 10 Motivation and Monetary Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>11. 11 11 Motivation Through MBO and Performance Appraisal </li></ul>Marks Distribution: Number of Quizzes attended + Midterm + Final assignment
  4. 4. MOTIVATION SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE <ul><li>Does motivation leads to high performance </li></ul><ul><li>Is a satisfied worker a productive worker </li></ul><ul><li>What happens if an employee is not satisfied with his job </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT THEORIES HAVE TO OFFER <ul><li>Performance is a function of ability and motivation (Viteles 1953, Vroom 64, Lawler 66) </li></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfied needs cause motivation (Maslow 1954, McGregor 60) </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction causes performance (Herzberg 64) </li></ul><ul><li>Performance causes satisfaction (Porter and Lawler 68, Vroom 64) </li></ul><ul><li>Reward causes satisfaction (Cherringtion 71) </li></ul><ul><li>The satisfaction-performance relationship is moderated by other organizational variables (Schwab & Cummings 70) </li></ul><ul><li>There is no relationship between satisfaction and performance (Kahn 60, Locke 70) </li></ul><ul><li>Job dissatisfaction causes such dysfunctional behaviors as absenteeism, turnover, accident and strike (Herzberg 57, Vroom 64) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Performance can be understood in terms of the individual’s ability to perform the task </li></ul><ul><li>Performance depends solely upon the level of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>According to Mayer (55) & Vroom (64) “Performance is the function of ability (A) and motivation (M)” </li></ul><ul><li>P=f (AxM) </li></ul><ul><li>If A=0, Performance +0, if M=0, Performance =0 </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no role of motivation in performance, and performance is the function of ability, then the relationship of ability and performance becomes directly proportional </li></ul><ul><li>Positive, Negative or weak motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Inverted U relation ship between motivation and performance (Vroom 1964) </li></ul>MOTIVATION & PERFORMANCE
  7. 7. MOTIVATION & PERFORMANCE <ul><li>P=f (AxM) </li></ul><ul><li>If motivation is high and you increase ability, Performance will increase </li></ul><ul><li>If motivation is low or negative, increase in ability will decrease performance </li></ul><ul><li>With moderate motivation, a positive increase is seen in performance with the increase in ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and motivation </li></ul>
  8. 8. THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>1. NEED FULFILLMENT THEORY: </li></ul><ul><li>A satisfied need no longer remains a motivator, but it activates another unfulfilled need to motivate the person </li></ul><ul><li>A revision: </li></ul><ul><li>The satisfaction of lower order needs leads to decrease motivation. But, satisfaction of higher-order needs leads to increased motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Current satisfaction reduces motivational effort while expected future satisfaction increases the same </li></ul>
  9. 9. Maslow's Hierarchy <ul><li>Physiological Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Security and Safety Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Social Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization Needs </li></ul>
  10. 10. THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>2. SATISFIERS AND DISSATISFIERS: </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s two factor theory </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfiers: Growth oriented needs and lead to job satisfaction and then high performance </li></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfiers: Existence and socialization needs and lead to no dissatisfaction and routine performance </li></ul>
  11. 12. Satisfaction vs. Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul>Hygiene Compensation Fringes Supervision Work Conditions
  12. 13. THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>DISCREPANCY THEORY: </li></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction is determined by the difference between the actual reward level and the expected reward level </li></ul><ul><li>Greater the difference, lower is the satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke (1969) “Job satisfaction is the perceived difference between what a person actually receives and what he wants to receive” </li></ul><ul><li>Level of aspiration is not the measure in this theory </li></ul><ul><li>The expectations of an individual are the real measure of his job satisfaction in this theory. </li></ul>
  13. 14. THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>4. EQUITY THEORY: </li></ul><ul><li>Adams states that employees examine how fairly they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others. </li></ul><ul><li>A compatible input-output ratio with others makes him satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>He feels guilty, if he is on the higher side </li></ul><ul><li>He gets dissatisfied, if he finds himself under rewarded </li></ul>
  14. 15. Cognitive distortion of inputs & outputs – the employee may distort facts for example how hard they are really working or the relevance of their experience or qualifications Leaving the field – absenteeism, resignation, request for transfer Changes to inputs – the employee may attempt to change inputs without changing outputs e.g. rates of pay, holidays, status & recognition Changing the Object of Comparison – the employee may begin to compare him/herself with different and inappropriate members of the organisation Changes to inputs – the employee decreases the level of either the amount or quality of their work Acting on others – the employee may attempt to persuade others to lower their productivity or try to force them out
  15. 16. THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>5. VALENCE SATISFACTION THEORY: </li></ul><ul><li>People are attracted to an object or incentive because it is perceived to be able to satisfy their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction is measured by the total amount to outcome valences available to an employee </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation of an employee depends on the amount of anticipated outcome valences and the expectancy that his effort will result in performance that will make him receive his valued outcome </li></ul>
  16. 18. COMPARISON <ul><li>DIFFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfillment theory: Job satisfaction is the amount of satisfied needs which reduces search behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Two-Factor Theory: Job satisfaction is a source of reinforcement which increases search behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Valence Theory: It is an anticipation of receiving valued outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>SIMILARITIES : Unsatisfied needs stimulate behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfied need activates unsatisfied need </li></ul>