Also in the series
1828 -Inspired by acupuncture English physician
Churchill tries needling of points of maximum
tenderness in “rheumatalgia”, published a book with
1882-Sir William Osler, professor of medicine at
Oxford University describes dry needling for lumbago
in his book ‘The Principles and Practice of Medicine’,
He inserted, ‘needles of from three to four inches in
length (ordinary bonnet needles sterilised will do). . .
Into the lumbar muscles at the seat of the pain’.
1938- Kellgren injects procaine (LA) directly into
trigger point and deactivates them
1940’S- Janet Travel uses the term dry needling
1955- Sola & Kuitert injects saline water in trigger
point, they opine: ‘the use of normal saline has none of
the disadvantages often associated with the use of a
local anaesthetic but appears to have the same
1979: Karel Lewit becomes one of the first physicians
to employ Dry Needling for pain relief. The use of
acupuncture needles is a refinement of the earlier
methods which used hypodermic needles. This
significantly reduces the risk of haematoma and
bruising associated with hollow needles
1980- Frost et al finds out saline water fared better
than local anaesthetic
1984: Maryland becomes the first US state to allow
needling by PT’s.
Because dry needling originated in various geographic
locations simultaneously, multiple models of needling
Popular models are Radiculopathy model of Gunn,
trigger point model, spinal segmental sensitization,
Neural needling, twitch obtaining IMS
Canadian physician Chan Gunn is the proponent of
the radiculopathy model.
In Gunn’s view, shortening of the paraspinal muscles,
particularly the multifidi muscles, leads to disc
compression, narrowing of the intervertebral
foramina, or direct pressure on the nerve root, which
subsequently would result in peripheral neuropathy.
Myofascial pain originates from myofascial trigger
point. Deactivating the trigger points by needling is
Peter Baldry started SDN where the needle is inserted
only a few mm.
The spinal segmental sensitization model and neural
acupuncture involves exclusive use of injections, which
are outside the scope of physiotherapy